Interpersonal Communication

perception
process of experiencing your world and then making sense out of what you experience
Interpersonal perception
Selecting, organizing, and interpreting your observations of other people.
selective perception
Directing your attention to specific stimuli and consequently ignoring other stimuli
punctuation
making sense out of stimuli by grouping, dividing, organizing, separating, and categorizing information
superimpose
to place a familiar structure on information you select
closure
the filling in of missing information
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passive perception
perception that occurs because your senses are in operation
active perception
perception that occurs because you seek out specific information through intentional observation and questioning
impression
a collection of perceptions about others that you maintain and use to interpret their behaviors
impression formation theory
explains how you develop peceptions about people and how you maintain and use those peceptions to interpret their behaviors
primacy effect
placing heavy emphasis on the first pieces of information that you observe about another, to form an impression
recency effect
placing heavy emphasis on the most recent information that you observe about another, to form or modify an impression
implicit personality theory
your unique set of beliefs and hypotheses about what people are like.
halo effect
attributing a variety of positive qualities to those you like
horn effect
attributing a variety of negative qualities to those you dislike
construct
a bipolar quality that you associate with people as you conceptualize them
attribution theory
explains how you generate explanations for people’s behaviors
causal attribution theory
attribution that is based on determining whether a person’s actions are caused by circumstance, a stimulus, or the person
standpoint theory
a person’s social position, power, or cultural background, influences how the person perceives the behavior of others; where you stand makes a difference in what you see.
overgeneralizing
people treat small amounts of information as if they were highly representative, leads people to draw inaccurate, prejudicial conclusions.
oversimplifying
people prefer simple explanations to complex ones
stereotype
to attribute a set of qualities to a person because of the person’s membership in some category.
imposing consistency
people overestimate the consistency and constancy of other’s behaviors
focusing on the negative
people give more weight to negative info than to positive info
fundamental attribution error
to believe that others are to blame when things go wrong than to believe that the problem was beyond their control
self-serving bias
the tendency to perceive our own behavior as more positive than othes’ behavior
improving your perception skills
link details with big picture, become aware of others perceptions of you, increase your awareness, become other oriented
indirect perception checking
involves seeking additional information through passive perception, either confirm or refute your intepretations
direct perception checking
involves asking straight out whether your interpretations of a perception are correct
listening
selecting, attending to, creating meaning from, remembering, and responding to verbal and nonverbal messages.
hearing
physiological process of decoding sounds
selecting
sorting through various sounds competing for your attention
attending
focusing on a particular sound or message
understanding
assigning meaning to sounds
remembering
recalling information
responding
confirming your understanding of a message
conversational narcissism
focusing on personal agendas and being self absorbed rather than focusing on the needs and ideas of others
emotional noise
form of communication interference caused by emotional arousal
criticizing the speaker
being critical of teh speaker may distract a listene from focusing on the message
speech rate
125 words a minute
thought rate
600 to 800 words a minute
shifting attention
to be able to multitask, work on several task simultaneously
information overload
constantly bombarded with sights and sounds, and experts suggest that the volume of information competing for our attention is likely to become even greater in the future.
external noise
distractions that take your focus away fom the message
listener apprehension
becoming apprehensive or anxious about listening to others