Last Updated 21 Apr 2020

Organ Systems – Integumentary System

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The Human body is made up of eleven distinctive organ systems. Each organ system play specific roles in the functions of the body. The integumentary system acts as a protective cover for the human body.

The Integumentary system

Integumentary SystemThe integumentary system is composed of hair, skin and nails. The skin is the main component of the Integumentary system, hair and nails are an accessory component. This system consists of three layers: Epidermis (outermost layer) dermis (middle layer) hypodermis (bottom layer). The Epidermis contains melanocytes, melanocytes are cells that produce melanin. Melanin is the dark pigment that gives skin its color. Langerhans, immune cells and nerve cells make up the epidermal layer. The epidermis does not contain blood vessels. Keratinocytes make up of ninety-five percent of the epidermal layer it provides strength and flexibility. Keratinocytes are produced through mitosis and move up the layers to the top which take up to five weeks. The Epidermis has five distinctive layers: the Stratum corneum (the horny layer of the skin), The Stratum luicidum (which is located in the hands and feet), the stratum granulosum (the thin layer of the epidermis), Stratum spinosum (spinney like middle layer) and Stratum Basale (The deepest layer of the epidermis). Connective tissues are found in the dermis as they provide strength and elasticity through collagen and elastin. The Dermis contains blood vessels, nerve receptors, immune cells, glands and hair roots. The glands are multi-cellular structures that are specialized for the secretion storage and structure of chemical substances. The Merocrine (sweat glands) and Apocrine (sebaceous glands) are two variations of the glands. The Merocrine gland is widely distributed through the body. Sweat is filtered into a duct and released onto the skin's surface. The Apocrine gland less common in the armpits, around nipples and in the groin and are connected to hair follicles and interact with bacteria to cause body odor. The final layer of the skin is the dermis which contains connective tissue and fatty tissue, nerves and blood vessels.

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The Hypodermis attaches to the muscles and bones of the body. The skin has six functions such as; Protection (protects from external environment), water resistance (prevent water loss), Sensation (contains many nerve endings), Exertion (excretes wastes) Regulation (regulates body temperature) storage and synthesis (makes Vitamin D when in contact with sunlight and stores fatty tissues for energy). The Integumentary system correlates with the cellular system as the Integumentary system consists of cells. Cells such as Melanocytes dictate a person's skin color as darker skinned individuals have a higher rate of Melanin in their skin. There is a level of organization that makes up the human body from atom to the organism.

The cell to organism hierarchy goes from atom to cell to organ to organ system to organism. The human body is made up of 7.5 trillion cells. Two major variations of the cell are Plant cells and Animal cells Animal cells do not contain a cell wall. Plant cells do contain a cell wall as it acts as a protective barrier for the cell. Plant cells have a rigid rectangular shape. Animal cells differentiate with an irregular round shape. Another way these cells differ is in chloroplast as plant cells create chloroplast in order to provide their own nutrients. A cell Membrane encloses the entire cell. The nucleus is the brain of the cell that tells the rest of the cell what to do. There are five major functions of cell such as: the four types of division, transportation, energy production, synthesis, degradation of principal metabolites and the internal and external control processes. The first stage of cell division is the Interphase .cells grow, chromosomes replicate and protein is synthesized. There are three sub phases, G1 where the cell grows chromosomes replicate and protein is synthesized.in the synthetic phase. DNA replication occur in the S as enzymes and proteins are produced. In the G2 phase enzymes and proteins are produced. The first stage of mitosis is the Prophase. During the prophase the nuclear membrane breaks down as chromatids become visible and spindle fibers appear. This leads to the second stage of mitosis the metaphase as the sister chromatids align along the equator of the cell. The chromatids are separated and pulled to opposite poles by spindle fibers during Anaphase. During the telophase, the sister chromatids reach opposite poles. The small nuclear vesicles in the cell start to recreate around the group of chromosomes at each end. As the nuclear envelope reforms by connecting with the chromosomes, two nuclei are created in the one cell. The cell membrane serves as the boundary of the cell. There are two general ways that substances are transported across the cell membrane, which are Passive transport and Active transport. Passive transport requires no energy to complete. Active transport requires additional energy to complete.

Diffusion is the most common type of Passive transport. Substance of a higher concentration travel to an area of lower concentration. Facilitated Diffusion is another variation of Passive transport by an intermediate protein, glucose is helped by its own special carrier protein. During osmosis, water passes through a semi-permeable membrane until concentrations of a substance are equalized. Pressure is applied to force water and its dissolved materials through a membrane during filtration as the heart forces blood to the capillary where filtration occurs. Active transport uses a protein carrier to move a specific substance across the cell membrane but requires the addition of an energy molecule called ATP. Exocytosis and Endocytosis are two variations of Active Transport. Exocytosis is a process of vesicles blending with the plasma membrane and releasing their contents to the outside of the cell. Endocytosis is the process of attaining a substance or particle from outside the cell by engulfing it with the cell membrane, and bringing it into the cell. The cellular to organism system correlates to the hematopoietic system is composed of major cells such as the red and white blood cells.

The Hematopoietic system

The Hematopoietic system

The Hematopoietic system consists of Bone marrow which a soft fatty tissue is found inside of bones that produces blood cells, immature cells become mature in the bone marrow.

Stem cells differentiate into three variations such as red blood cells, platelets and white cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body. Platelets are small irregularly shaped cells without a nucleus, they aid in blood clotting. There are three variations of the white blood cells: the macrophages act to fight off infections, T lymphocytes are involved in cellular immunity, and B lymphocytes are involved in humoral immunity. The thymus is lymphoid organ positioned in the neck of vertebrates that produces T cells for the immune system, T cells help in the production of antibodies and destroy foreign cells in transplants. The spleen is located in the upper left portion of the abdomen, has a separate storage function from immune function and contains red and white blood cells, antibodies are produced inside of the spleen. Phagocytosis occurs in the spleen as it is the process which cells engulf bacteria to destroy it.

The lymphatic system

The lymphatic system

The lymphatic system is a essential part of the immune system that filters fluid from around cells and follows blood vessels and drains into the heart through the thoracic duct. The Lymph nodes produce antibodies in order to defend against infection. White blood cells are composed of the lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil and Neutrophil. Plasma is a yellow straw colored liquid that makes up for fifty-five percent of circulating blood, it also keeps up with blood consistency. Platelets are the smallest of elements that function in the prevention of blood clots. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin which contain iron as that gives the red blood cell its red coloring, the hemoglobin is also the site of oxygen binding.

There are four variations of blood type: types A, B, AB and O. Type A is compatible to type B and type B is compatible to type B and type 0, type A is compatible to all blood types, type O is only compatible to type O blood. The hematopoietic system relates to the musculoskeletal system as bone marrow is an essential component in both systems as bone marrow produces hematopoietic cells such as red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets and is a part of the musculoskeletal system.

The skeletal system

The skeletal system

The skeletal system contains 206 bones, including the skull, vertebrae, rib cage, bones of arms, legs, hip, and shoulder. The Axial skeleton has 80 bones and the appendicular skeleton contains 126 bones. The Periosteum is a thin, dense membrane that covers the outer surface of the bone, it contains nerves and blood vessels that nourish the bone. Compact Bone is a smooth and hard part of the bone that is visible. The Spongy Bone looks like a sponge and protects the bone marrow. Bone Marrow is a thick jelly-like substance that makes blood cells. There are two distinctive types of bone marrow, red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow. All bone marrow is red at birth it can be found in flat bones such as the hip bone, breast bone, skull, ribs, and shoulder blades.

Red bone marrow helps the body in its everyday functions and produces the red and white blood cells and platelets. There are three types of muscle, the skeletal muscle attaches to the bones and is under voluntary control. The smooth muscle is found in the intestines and uterus and is under involuntary control because conscious thought cannot control contractions. Cardiac muscle is found in the heart, it is also under involuntary control. The two connecting structures are the tendons and ligaments. Tendons attach muscle to bone and ligaments connect bone to bone.

The axial skeleton contains the skull, vertebrae, sacrum, ribs and sternum. The Skull is a bony structure that protects the brain and allows attachments for the facial muscles. The vertebral column is made up of 26 bones that provides support to the trunk. It's divided into three parts cervical, thoracic and lumbar. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord. The intervertebral cartilaginous discs hold together the vertebral bones, which act as shock absorbers.

The cardiovascular system

The cardiovascular system

The rib cage forms a protective covering for the heart and lungs. The ribs connect on the front of the chest with the sternum and on the back with the vertebral column. The musculoskeletal correlates with the cardiovascular system because when muscles are active and healthy, so too is the cardiovascular system. Without exercise, the heart weakens and loses mass; but when we exercise aerobically, the heart increases in size and strength. Heart rate goes down as stroke volume rises, and a lower HR means that the heart relaxes more and beats hundreds of thousands times less.

The cardiovascular system is the system that includes the heart, blood, blood vessels, lymph, lymphatic vessels, and lymph glands, involved in circulating blood and lymph through the body. The number one killer in the United States is Coronary Artery Disease .During C.A.D. the blood flow is blocked, the heart muscle is damaged and the pump does not work well to supply oxygen to the body. Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the tissues and veins return deoxygenated blood back to the heart after arteries carry blood out. Capillaries are the sites of the relocation of oxygen and other nutrients from the bloodstream to other tissues in the body; they also collect carbon dioxide waste materials and fluids for return to the veins. The heart contain three layers: the pericardium (outer layer), the myocardium (contractile muscle) and Endocardium (inner layer). The four chambers of the heart are composed of the right ventricle and atrium at the right side and the left ventricle and atrium at the left side. The four valves are composed of the tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral and aortic. Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The Correlation between cardiovascular system and the pulmonary system is the use of the lungs. The cardiovascular and pulmonary system are connected at the lungs. The cardiovascular needs oxygen form the lungs to pump the blood around the body and the pulmonary system supplies the oxygen and gets the oxygen from the air into the bloodstream.

The Pulmonary system

The Pulmonary system

The Pulmonary system is s a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and ejecting carbon dioxide. The primary organs of the respiratory system are lungs. The system is also composed of nares, trachea, bronchi alveoli and diaphragm. The nares are involved in air
intake. The bronchi are the two air tubes that branch off of from the trachea and carry atmospheric air directly into the lungs. The Alveolus is the tiny sac like structure present in the lungs which the gaseous exchange takes place, there are six-hundred-million alveoli in total. Breathing begins with a dome-shaped muscle located at the bottom of the lungs which is the diaphragm. When we breathe in the diaphragm contracts and flattens out and pulls downward. Due to this movement the space in the lungs rises and pulls air into the lungs. When we breathe out, the diaphragm expands and reduces the amount of space for the lungs and forces air out. The lung has five lobes, two on the left and three on the right. Blood vessels cover the alveoli like a mesh, gas exchange occurs at the level of the capillaries. Oxygen enters the nasal cavity via the nares or mouth to the pharynx then larynx then trachea and lungs. The purpose of the hemoglobin is to carry the oxygen throughout the pulmonary system. The transfer of O2 and Co2 occur in the lungs at the level of the alveoli. Red blood cells carry the oxygen to the body using hemoglobin. This leads to carbon being exchanged for the oxygen and released into the environment through lungs. Too much carbon dioxide in the blood triggers an increase in the breathing rate which equals more oxygen in the lungs. The pulmonary system relates to the neurological system as the brain monitors respiratory volume and blood gas levels, the brain also regulates respiratory rate.

The Neurological system

The Neurological system

The Neurological system is made up of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system is made up of the brain, cranial nerves and spinal nerves. There are three types of protection for the brain and spinal cord. Skull with the brain and vertebral column with the spinal cord. The Dura mater is the stronger two layers of fibrous connective tissue. The Pia matter sticks to the brain and spinal cord, supplies blood vessels. The Cerebrospinal fluid is a cushion that delivers nutrients and carries wastes space between the arachnoid and pia mater. The peripheral is the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia on the outside of the brain and spinal cord. It is divide between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

The somatic nervous system controls skeletal muscle as well as external sensory organs. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary muscles, such as smooth, intestinal and cardiac muscle. There are 100 billion neurons in the brain alone. An axon is a long slender projection of a nerve protected by the myelin sheath, it carries information away from the cell body to other neurons. Dendrites are the structures on the neuron that receive messages. Chemical synapses are specialized connections through which cells of the nervous system signal to one another and to non-neuronal cells such as muscles or glands.

Electrical synapses are a mechanical and electrically conductive link between two bordering neurons that is formed at a narrow gap between the pre- and postsynaptic neurons known as the synaptic gap. A spinal nerve is a varied nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. In the human there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column. The spinal cord is a long bundle of nervous tissue that runs from the brain to the back at the level of the second lumbar vertebrae, it connects the brain and the peripheral nervous system. The cerebrum is the principal part of the brain in vertebrates, located in the front area of the skull and consisting of two hemispheres, left and right, separated by a fissure.

It is responsible for the integration of complex sensory and neural functions and the initiation and coordination of voluntary activity in the body. The frontal lobe of the brain deals with motor strip location, impulsivity, short term memory, emotion, voluntary movement, social functioning, creativity, expressive language. The parietal lobe deals with sensory strip location, perception, touch, ability to draw, reading and writing and calculations. The temporal lobe with hearing, long term memory, verbal and written recognition memory, receptive memory, music, initiation of verbal. The Occipital lobe deals with vision.

The brain stem connects with the spinal cord, reticular activating system, thalamus, hypothalamus, heart rate and blood pressure, smell and taste, eye movement, appetite, vision, and balance. The skull is the protective covering for the brain. The key function of the vertebral column is protection of the spinal cord; it also provides stiffening for the body and attachment for the pectoral and pelvic girdles and many muscles. In humans an additional function is to transmit body weight in walking and standing. There are eight cervical nerves, twelve thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral and one coccygeal.

The parasympathetic nervous system's function is to activate the body's nervous system fight-or-flight response. The parasympathetic system conserves energy as it slows the heart rate, increases intestinal and gland activity, and relaxes sphincter muscles in the gastrointestinal tract. The neurological system relates to the endocrine in how hormones provide feedback to the brain to affect neural processing. Another way is that the hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland and other endocrine glands.

The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System

The endocrine is a collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood. The components of the endocrine gland are thyroid glands, parathyroid glands, pancreas, adrenal
glands and gonads. Two structures located in the brain function as the main regulators of the endocrine system. The Hypothalamus acts on unknown stimuli secrete hormones that stimulate the pituitary gland. Pituitary is the master gland it secrets hormones which stimulate other glands of the endocrine system. The thyroid gland is a butterfly shaped gland in your neck just above the collarbone, it gets instruction from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, produce thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). All cells in the body need thyroid hormones to function properly. Hypothyroid disease is when the thyroid is not active enough and not enough thyroid hormone is being made and released into the bloodstream, it is caused by cretinism-inherited from family, myxedema-diet and medication. Symptoms of this disease is feeling tired, feeling cold, brittle hair, weight gain and constipation. The sickness is treated with medication.

Hyperthyroidism is the overproduction of a hormone by the thyroid, Symptoms include unexpected weight loss, rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, and irritability. Hyperthyroidism is treated with medications. The parathyroid glands are located at the front and base of the neck and around the thyroid gland. Parathyroid glands produces hormones and controls phosphate and calcium metabolism in the body. Hyperparathyroidism is an abnormally high concentration of parathyroid hormone in the blood, resulting in weakening of the bones through loss of calcium, caused due to family genetics, diet and medications. This illness is treated with surgical removal of parathyroid glands. The adrenal glands is a triangular shaped glands located on top of the kidney, they play no part I the functioning of the kidney.

The adrenal gland has two main parts which are the cortex-outer coat which produces steroid hormones called cortisol that regulate body's functioning during stress. And the medulla-the inner coat which produces epinephrine and norepinephrine which are regulated. One disease of the Adrenal Gland is Addison's Syndrome that is when adrenal glands do not produce enough of certain hormones. Cushing's disease is when the pituitary stimulates adrenal to produce excess of hormone resulting in release of excess adrenal hormones. Cushing's syndrome is when adenoma of adrenal gland produces excess adrenal hormones producing symptoms similar to Cushing's disease.

All of the organ systems provide distinctive functions for the human body. All the systems relate as all systems are needed in order for the body to function. The systems will also maintain a good homeostasis.

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Organ Systems – Integumentary System. (2018, May 19). Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/integumentary-system-2/

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