Industrial Revolution Study Guide

Adam Smith
Adam Smith
He wrote a book called “Wealth of Nations” and believed the government should not interfere with businesses.
Utilitarianism
The idea that society’s goal is bringing the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people.
Enclosure
Enclosure
The process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers.
James Watt
James Watt
The Scottish engineer who helped to improve the steam engine.
Bourgoise
The capitalists that Karl Marx said were greedy and took advantage of the workers.
Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
Invented a technique that allowed products like milk to last longer.
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Seed Drill
Seed Drill
Invented by Jethro Tull, it planted seeds in rows, rather than scattering them wastefully over the land.
Urbanization
Urbanization
The movement of people to cities.
Labor Unions
Labor Unions
Workers’ organizations that sought to start worker reforms such as higher wages.
Spinning Jenny
Spinning Jenny
A machine invented by James Hargreaves that dramatically increased the amount of thread that could be spun.
Laissez Faire
Laissez Faire
Meaning “hands-off,” this was the idea that the government should not interfere with the economy and factory owners’ policies.
Communism
Communism
A government system in which the people as a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the means of production.
Tenements
Tenements
Housing for factory workers in which families were often crowded together in small rooms.
Proletariat
Proletariat
Another name for the working class who Karl Marx believed would rise up against factory workers.
Robert Owen
Robert Owen
This person set up a model community to put the Utopian ideas into practice in which all work was shared and all property was owned by everybody.
Agricultural Revolution
Agricultural Revolution
The revolution in which farming techniques improved. It helped, in part, to make the Industrial Revolution possible.
England
England
The country that was the first to industrialize; this is where the industrial revolution began.
Industrial Revolution
The acceleration of technical and economic development that began in Britain around 1750.
Middle Class
A new social class that emerged during the Industrial Revolution.
Karl Marx
Karl Marx
Wrote a book called “The Communist Manifesto” and argued that society is in a constant struggle between the worker (proletariat) and the factory owner (bourgoise).