IMC Chapter 11: Groups and Social Media

aspirational reference group
high-profile athletes and celebrities used in marketing efforts to promote a product
avoidance groups
reference groups that exert a negative influence on individuals because they are motivated to distance themselves from group members
brand community
a set of consumers who share a set of social relationships based on usage or interest in a product
a corporate-sponsored event intended to promote strong brand loyalty among consumers
coercive power
influence over another person due to social or physical intimidation cohesiveness
the degree to which members of a group are attracted to each other and how much each values their membership in this group.
collective value creation
the process whereby brand community members work together to develop better ways to use and customize products
comparative influence
the process whereby a reference group influences decision about specific brands or activities.
a change in beliefs or actions as a reaction to real or imagined group pressure
consumer tribe
group of people who share a lifestyle and who can identify with each other because of a shared allegiance to an activity or product
decision polarization
the process whereby individuals’ choices tend to become more extreme, in either a conservative or risky direction, following group discussion of alternatives
the process whereby individual identities get submerged within a group, reducing inhibitions against socially inappropriate behavior
in a social media context, a term that refers to rule by people; community leaders are appointed or elected based on their demonstrated ability to add value to the group
expert power
influence over others due to specialized knowledge about a subject
a violation of digital etiquette to express when a post is written in all capital letters
exchanges of resources, information, or influence among members of an online social network
an online posting system where users categorize entries themselves rather than relying upon a pre-established set of labels
home shopping party
a selling format where a company representative makes a sales presentation to a group of people who gather at the home of a friend or acquaintance
the degree to which a pair of individuals is similar in terms of education, social status, and beliefs
Influence impressions
brand-specific mentions on social media posts
Influence network
a two-way dialogue between participants in a social network and opinion leaders
information cascades
an online communication process where one piece of information triggers a sequence of interactions
information power
influence over others due to the possession of inside knowledge
in a social media context, behavior-based ties between participants such as talking with each other, attending an event together, or working together
legitimate power
influence over others due to a position conferred by a society or organization
passive members of an online community who don’t contribute to interactions
market maven
a person who often serves as a source of information about marketplace activities
mass connectors
highly influential members of social media networks
media democratization
in a social media context, members of social communities, not traditional media publishers like magazines or newspaper companies, control the creation, delivery, and popularity of content
media multiplexity
in a social media context, when flows of communication go in many directions at any point in time and often on multiple platforms.
members of an online network arrange to meet in a physical location
membership reference group
ordinary people whose consumption activities provide informational social influence
mere exposure phenomenon
the tendency to like persons or things if we see them more often
momentum effect
an accelerating diffusion of a message in social media due to the contributions of influential members
name-letter effect
all things equal we like others who share our names or even initials better than those who don’t
negative word-of-mouth
the passing on of negative experiences involved with products or services by consumers to other potential customers to influence others’ choices
network units
members of a social network
members of a social network connected to others via one or more shared relationships
normative influence
the process in which a reference group helps to set and enforce fundamental standards of conduct
the informal rules that govern what is right or wrong
object sociality
the extent to which an object (text, image, video) is shared among members of online social networks
opinion leader
person who is knowledgeable about products and who frequently is able to influence others’ attitudes or behaviors with regard to a product category
members of a social network share an intense interest in some topic
principle of least interest
the person who is least committed to staying in a relationship has the most power
power users
opinion leaders in online networks
the effect that people experience when they interact with a computer-mediated environment
as physical distance between people decreases and opportunities for interaction increase, they are more likely to form relationships
reference group
an actual or imaginary individual or group that has a significant effect on an individual’s evaluations, aspirations, or behavior
referent power
influence over others because they are motivated to imitate or affiliate with a person or group
reward power
a person or group with the means to provide positive reinforcement
risky shift effect
the tendency for individuals to consider riskier alternatives after conferring with a group than if members made their own decisions with no discussion
social graphs
social networks; relationships among members of online communities
social loafing
the tendency for people not to devote as much to a task when their contribution is part of a larger group effort
social object theory
proposes that social networks will be more powerful communities if there is a way to activate relationships among people and objects within them
social network
a group of people who connect with one another online due to some shared interest or affiliation
social power
the capacity of one person to alter the actions or outcome of another
sociometric methods
the techniques for measuring group dynamics that involve tracing communication patterns in and among groups
surrogate consumer
a professional who is retained to evaluate and/or make purchases on behalf of a consumer
connections between members of a social network
tie strength
the nature and potency of the bond between members of a social network
tribal marketing strategy
linking a product’s identity to an activity-based “tribe” such as basketball players
two step flow model of influence
proposes that a small group of influencers disseminate information since they can modify the opinions of a large number of other people
viral marketing
the strategy of getting customers to sell a product on behalf of the company that creates it
wisdom of crowds
a perspective that argues under the right circumstances, groups are smarter than the smartest people in them; implies that large numbers of consumers can predict successful products
word-of-mouth (WOM)
product information transmitted by individual consumers on an informational basis