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Ifrs Accounting Solution

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Solutions to Problems and Exercises TABLE OF CONTENTS * Chapter 11 Concepts for Analysis 1-51 Concepts for Analysis 1-62 Concepts for Analysis 1-103 Concepts for Analysis 1-113 * Chapter 24 Brief Exercise 2-34 Brief Exercise 2-44 Brief Exercise 2-54 Exercise 2-35 * Chapter 36 Exercise 3-66 Exercise 3-96 Exercise 3-118 Exercise 3-1410 Exercise 3-1510 Exercise 3-1610 * chapter 412 Exercise 4-212 Exercise 4-413 Exercise 4-516 Exercise 4-1217 Exercise 4-1318 Exercise 4-1519 Problem 4-119 Problem 4-721 * Chapter 523 Exercise 5-223 Exercise 5-423 Exercise 5-1325

Exercise 5-1525 Problem 5-227 * Chapter 729 Exercise 7-529 Exercise 7-730 Exercise 7-1330 Exercise 7-1531 Exercise 7-1631 Exercise 7-2432 Problem 7-834 Problem 7-1135 Problem 7-1536 * Chapter 838 Exercise 8-138 Exercise 8-1538 Exercise 8-2539 Exercise 8-2640 * chapter 942 Brief Exercise 9-242 Brief Exercise 9-442 Brief Exercise 9-742 Brief Exercise 9-843 Exercise 9-243 Exercise 9-744 Exercise 9-1245 Exercise 9-1446 Exercise 9-1947 Problem 9-447 * Chapter 1849 Exercise 18-249 Exercise 18-450 Exercise 18-751 Exercise 18-1152 Exercise 18-1553 Exercise 18-1954

Problem 18-755 Problem 18-857 * Chapter 2359 Exercise 23-159 Exercise 23-559 Exercise 23-660 Exercise 23-1160 CHAPTER 1 CA 1-5 (a)One of the committees that the AICPA established prior to the establishment of the FASB was the Committee on Accounting Procedures (CAP). The CAP, during its existence from 1939 to 1959, issued 51 Accounting Research Bulletins (ARB). In 1959, the AICPA created the Accounting Prin-ciples Board (APB) to replace the CAP.

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Before being replaced by the FASB, the APB released 31 official pronouncements, called APB Opinions. b)Although the ARBs issued by the CAP helped to narrow the range of alternative practices to some extent, the CAP’s problem-by-problem approach failed to provide the well-defined, structured body of accounting principles that was both needed and desired. As a result, the CAP was replaced by the APB. The APB had more authority and responsibility than did the CAP. Unfortunately, the APB was beleaguered throughout its 14-year existence. It came under fire early, charged with lack of productivity and failing to act promptly to correct alleged accounting abuses.

The APB also met a lot of industry and CPA firm opposition and occasional governmental interference when tackling numerous thorny accounting issues. In fear of governmental rule making, the accounting profession investigated the ineffectiveness of the APB and replaced it with the FASB. Learning from prior experiences, the FASB has several significant differences from the APB. The FASB has: (1) smaller membership, (2) full-time, compensated membership, (3) greater autonomy, (4) increased independence, and (5) broader representation. In addition, the FASB has its own research taff and relies on the expertise of various task force groups formed for various projects. These features form the bases for the expectations of success and support from the public. In addition, the due process taken by the FASB in establishing financial accounting standards gives interested persons ample opportunity to make their views known. Thus, the FASB is responsive to the needs and viewpoints of the entire economic community, not just the public accounting profession. (c)The AICPA has supplemented the FASB’s efforts in the present standard-setting environment.

The issue papers, which are prepared by the Accounting Standards Executive Committee (AcSEC), identify current financial reporting problems for specific industries and present alternative treat-ments of the issue. These papers provide the FASB with an early warning device to insure timely issuance of FASB standards, Interpretations, and Staff Positions. In situations where the FASB avoids the subject of an issue paper, AcSEC may issue a Statement of Position to provide guidance for the reporting issue. AcSEC also issues Practice Bulletins which indicate how the AICPA believes a given transaction should be reported.

Recently, the role of the AICPA in standard-setting has diminished. The FASB and the AICPA agreed, that after a transition period, the AICPA and AcSEC no longer will issue authoritative accounting guidance for public companies. CA 1-6 (a)The Financial Accounting Foundation (FAF) is the sponsoring organization of the FASB. The FAF selects the members of the FASB and its Advisory Council, funds their activities, and generally oversees the FASB’s activities. The FASB follows a due process in establishing a typical FASB Statement of Financial Accounting Standards.

The following steps are usually taken: (1) A topic or project is identified and placed on the Board’s agenda. (2) A task force of experts from various sectors is assembled to define problems, issues, and alternatives related to the topic. (3) Research and analysis are conducted by the FASB technical staff. (4) A preliminary views document is drafted and released. (5) A public hearing is often held, usually 60 days after the release of the preliminary views. (6) The Board analyzes and evaluates the public response. (7) The Board deliberates on the issues and prepares an exposure draft for release. 8) After a 30-day (minimum) exposure period for public comment, the Board evaluates all of the responses received. (9) A committee studies the exposure draft in relation to the public responses, reevaluates its position, and revises the draft if necessary. (10) The full Board gives the revised draft final consideration and votes on issuance of a Standards Statement. The passage of a new accounting standard in the form of an FASB Statement requires the support of five of the seven Board members. (b)The FASB issues three major types of pronouncements: Standards and Interpretations, Financial Accounting Concepts, and Technical Bulletins.

Financial accounting standards issued by the FASB are considered GAAP. In addition, the FASB also issues interpretations that represent modifications or extensions of existing standards and APB Opinions. These interpretations have the same authority as standards and APB Opinions in guiding current accounting practices. The Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts (SFAC) help the FASB to avoid the “problem-by-problem approach. ” These statements set forth fundamental objectives and concepts that the Board will use in developing future standards of financial accounting and reporting.

They are intended to form a cohesive set of interrelated concepts, a body of theory or a conceptual framework, that will serve as tools for solving existing and emerging problems in a consistent, sound manner. The FASB may issue a technical bulletin when there is a need for guidelines on implementing or applying FASB Standards or Interpretations, APB Opinions, Accounting Research Bulletins, or emerging issues. A technical bulletin is issued only when (1) it is not expected to cause a major change in accounting practice for a number of enterprises, (2) its cost of implementation is low, and (3) the guidance provided by the bulletin does ot conflict with any broad fundamental accounting principle. In addition, the FASB’s Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) issues statements to provide guidance on how to account for new and unusual financial transactions that have the potential for creating diversity in reporting practices. The EITF identifies controversial accounting problems as they arise and determines whether they can be quickly resolved or whether the FASB should become involved in solving them. In essence, it becomes a “problem filter” for the FASB.

Thus, it is hoped that the FASB will be able to work on more pervasive long-term problems, while the EITF deals with short-term emerging issues. CA 1-10 1. (b), (e) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (d) CA 1-11 1. (d) 2. (f) 3. (c) 4. (e) 5. (a) 6. (b) CHAPTER 2 BRIEF EXERCISE 2-3 (a)Equity (b)Revenues (c)Equity (d)Assets (e)Expenses (f)Losses (g)Liabilities (h)Distributions to owners (i)Gains (j)Investments by owners BRIEF EXERCISE 2-4 (a)Periodicity (b)Monetary unit (c)Going concern (d)Economic entity BRIEF EXERCISE 2-5 (a)Revenue recognition (b)Expense recognition (c)Full disclosure (d)Historical cost EXERCISE 2-3 (15–20 minutes) a)Gains, losses. (b)Liabilities. (c)Investments by owners, comprehensive income. (also possible would be revenues and gains). (d)Distributions to owners. (Note to instructor: net effect is to reduce equity and assets). (e)Comprehensive income. (also possible would be revenues and gains). (f)Assets. (g)Comprehensive income. (h)Revenues, expenses. (i)Equity. (j)Revenues. (k)Distributions to owners. (l)Comprehensive income. CHAPTER 3 EXERCISE 3-6 (10–15 minutes) 1. | Accounts Receivable| 750| | | Service Revenue| | 750| | | | | 2. | Utilities Expense| 520| | | Utilities Payable| | 520| | | | | 3. | Depreciation Expense| 400| | Accumulated Depreciation—Dental Equipment| | 400| | | | | | Interest Expense| 500| | | Interest Payable| | 500| | | | | 4. | Insurance Expense ($15,000 X 1/12)| 1,250| | | Prepaid Insurance| | 1,250| | | | | 5. | Supplies Expense ($1,600 – $400)| 1,200| | | Supplies| | 1,200| EXERCISE 3-9 (15–20 minutes) (a)| 10/15| Salaries Expense| 800| | | | Cash| | 800| | | (To record payment of October 15 payroll)| | | | | | | | | 10/17| Accounts Receivable| 2,100| | | | Service Revenue| | 2,100| | | (To record revenue for services performed for which payment has not yet been received)| | | | | | | | | 10/20| Cash| 650| | | Unearned Service Revenue| | 650| | | (To record receipt of cash for services not yet performed)| | | | | | | | (b)| 10/31| Supplies Expense| 470| | | | Supplies| | 470| | | (To record the use of supplies during October)| | | | | | | | | 10/31| Accounts Receivable| 1,650| | | | Service Revenue| | 1,650| | | (To record revenue for services performed for which payment has not yet been received)| | | | | | | | | 10/31| Salaries Expense| 600| | | | Salaries Payable| | 600| | | (To record liability for accrued payroll)| | | | | | | | | 10/31| Unearned Service Revenue| 400| | | | Service Revenue| | 400| | (To reduce the Unearned Service Revenue account for service that has been performed)| | | EXERCISE 3-11 (20–25 Minutes) (a)CAVAMANLIS CO. | Income Statement| For the Year Ended December 31, 2010| Revenues| | | Service revenue| | $12,590| Expenses| | | Salaries expense| $6,840| | Rent expense| 2,760| | Depreciation expense| 145| | Interest expense| 83| 9,828| Net Income| | $ 2,762| (b)CAVAMANLIS CO. | Statement of Retained Earnings| For the Year Ended December 31, 2010| Retained earnings, January 1| $11,310| Add: Net income| 2,762| Less: Dividends| 3,000| Retained earnings, December 31| $11,072| c)CAVAMANLIS CO. | Balance Sheet| December 31, 2010| Assets| | | Current Assets| | | Cash| $18,972| | Accounts receivable| 6,920| | Prepaid rent| 2,280| | Total current assets| | $28,172| Property, plant, and equipment| | | Equipment| 18,050| | Less: Accumulated depreciation| (4,895)| 13,155| Total assets| | $41,327| | | | Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity| | | Current liabilities| | | Notes payable| | $ 5,700| Accounts payable| | 4,472| Interest payable| |       83| Total current liabilities| | 10,255| Stockholders’ equity| | | Common Stock| $20,000| | Retained Earnings| 11,072*| 31,072|

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity| | $41,327| *Beg. Balance + Net Income – Dividends = Ending Balance $11,310 + $2,762 – $3,000 = $11,072 EXERCISE 3-14 (10–15 minutes) Sales| 340,000| | Sales Returns and Allowances| | 13,000| Sales Discounts| | 8,000| Income Summary| | 319,000| | | | Income Summary| 302,000| | Cost of Goods Sold| | 202,000| Freight-out| | 7,000| Insurance Expense| | 12,000| Rent Expense| | 20,000| Salary Expense| | 61,000| | | | Income Summary| 17,000| | Retained Earnings| | 17,000| EXERCISE 3-15 (10–15 minutes) (a) $5,000 ($90,000 – $85,000)(d) $95,000 ($5,000 + $90,000) b) $29,000 ($85,000 – $56,000)(e) $52,000 ($90,000 – $38,000) (c) $14,000 ($29,000 – $15,000) EXERCISE 3-16 (10–15 minutes) Sales| 390,000| | Cost of Goods Sold| | 235,700| Sales Returns and Allowances| | 12,000| Sales Discounts| | 15,000| Selling Expenses| | 16,000| Administrative Expenses| | 38,000| Income Tax Expense| | 30,000| Income Summary| | 43,300| | | | (or)| | | | | | Sales| 390,000| | Income Summary| | 390,000| | | | Income Summary| 346,700| | Cost of Goods Sold| | 235,700| Sales Returns and Allowances| | 12,000| Sales Discounts| | 15,000| Selling Expenses| | 16,000| Administrative Expenses| | 38,000|

Income Tax Expense| | 30,000| | | | Income Summary| 43,300| | Retained Earnings| | 43,300| | | | Retained Earnings| 18,000| | Dividends| | 18,000| CHAPTER 4 EXERCISE 4-2 (25–35 minutes) (a)| Total net revenue:| | | | | Sales| | | $400,000| | Less: Sales discounts| | $ 7,800| | | Sales returns| | 12,400| 20,200| | Net sales| | | 379,800| | Dividend revenue| | | 71,000| | Rental revenue| | | 6,500| | Total net revenue| | | $457,300| | | | | | (b)| Net income:| | | | | Total net revenue (from a)| | | $457,300| | Expenses:| | | | | Cost of goods sold| | $184,400| | | Selling expenses| | 99,400| | Administrative expenses| | 82,500| | | Interest expense| | 12,700| | | Total expenses| | | 379,000| | Income before income tax| | | 78,300| | Income tax| | | 26,600| | Net income| | | $ 51,700| (c)| Dividends declared:| | | | | Ending retained earnings| | | $134,000| | Beginning retained earnings| | | 114,400| | Net increase| | | 19,600| | Less: Net income (from (b))| | | 51,700| | Dividends declared| | | $ 32,100| ALTERNATE SOLUTION (for (c)) | Beginning retained earnings| | | $114,400| | Add: Net income| | | 51,700| | | | | 166,100| Less: Dividends declared| | | ? | | Ending retained earnings| | | $134,000| | | | | | | Dividends declared must be $32,100| | | | ($166,100 – $134,000)| | | | EXERCISE 4-4 (30–35 minutes) (a)Multiple-Step Form| WEBSTER COMPANY| Income Statement| For the Year Ended December 31, 2010| (In thousands, except earnings per share)| Sales| | | $96,500| Cost of goods sold| | | 63,570| Gross profit| | | 32,930| | | | | Operating Expenses| | | | Selling expenses| | | | Sales commissions| $7,980| | | Depr. of sales equipment| 6,480| | | Transportation-out| 2,690| $17,150| | Administrative expenses| | | |

Officers’ salaries| 4,900| | | Depr. of office furn. and equip. | 3,960| 8,860| 26,010| Income from operations| | | 6,920| | | | | Other Revenues and Gains| | | | Rental revenue| | | 17,230| | | | 24,150| Other Expenses and Losses| | | | Interest expense| | | 1,860| | | | | Income before income tax| | | 22,290| Income tax| | | 7,580| Net income| | | $14,710| | | | | Earnings per share ($14,710 ? 40,550)| | | $. 36| (b)Single-Step Form| WEBSTER COMPANY| Income Statement| For the Year Ended December 31, 2010| (In thousands, except earnings per share)| Revenues| | | | Sales| | | $ 96,500|

Rental revenue| | | 17,230| Total revenues| | | 113,730| | | | | Expenses| | | | Cost of goods sold| | | 63,570| Selling expenses| | | 17,150| Administrative expenses| | | 8,860| Interest expense| | | 1,860| Total expenses| | | 91,440| | | | | Income before income tax| | | 22,290| Income tax| | | 7,580| Net income| | | $ 14,710| | | | | Earnings per share| | | $0. 36| Note: An alternative income statement format for the single-step form is to show income tax as part of expenses, and not as a separate item. (c)Single-step: 1. Simplicity and conciseness. 2. Probably better understood by users. . Emphasis on total costs and expenses and net income. 4. Does not imply priority of one revenue or expense over another. Multiple-step: 1. Provides more information through segregation of operating and nonoperating items. 2. Expenses are matched with related revenue. Note to instructor: Students’ answers will vary due to the nature of the question; i. e. , it asks for an opinion. However, the discussion supporting the answer should include the above points. EXERCISE 4-5 (30–35 minutes) PARNEVIK CORP. | Income Statement| For the Year Ended December 31, 2010| Sales Revenue| | | Sales| | $1,280,000|

Less: Sales returns and allowances| $150,000| | Sales discounts| 45,000| 195,000| Net sales revenue| | 1,085,000| Cost of goods sold| | 621,000| Gross profit| | 464,000| | | | Operating Expenses| | | Selling expenses| 194,000| | Admin. and general expenses| 97,000| 291,000| Income from operations| | 173,000| Other Revenues and Gains| | | Interest revenue| | 86,000| | | 259,000| Other Expenses and Losses| | | Interest expense| | 60,000| | | | Income before tax and extraordinary item| | 199,000| Income tax ($199,000 X . 34)| | 67,660| Income before extraordinary item| | 131,340|

Extraordinary item—loss from earthquake damage| 120,000| | Less: Applicable tax reduction ($120,000 X . 34)| 40,800| 79,200| Net income| | $ 52,140| Per share of common stock:| | | Income before extraordinary item ? ($131,340 ? 100,000)| | $1. 31*| Extraordinary item (net of tax)| | (0. 79)| Net income ($52,140 ? 100,000)| | $0. 52| *Rounded EXERCISE 4-12 (15–20 minutes) Net income:| | | Income from continuing operations before income tax| | $21,650,000| Income tax (35% X $21,650,000)| | 7,577,500| Income from continuing operations| | 14,072,500| Discontinued operations| | |

Loss before income tax| $3,225,000| | Less: Applicable income tax (35%)| 1,128,750| 2,096,250| Net income| | $11,976,250| | | | Preferred dividends declared:| | $ 860,000| | | | Weighted average common shares outstanding| | 4,000,000| | | | Earnings per share| | | Income from continuing operations| | $3. 30*| Discontinued operations, net of tax| | (0. 52)**| Net income| | $2. 78***| *($14,072,500 – $860,000) ? 4,000,000. (Rounded) **$2,096,250 ? 4,000,000. (Rounded) ***($11,976,250 – $860,000) ? 4,000,000. EXERCISE 4-13 (15–20 minutes) (a) 2010 Income before income tax$460,000

Income tax (35%) 161,000 Net Income$299,000 (b)Cumulative effect for years prior to 2010: Year| Weighted Average | FIFO| Difference| Tax Rate (35%)  | Net Effect| 2008| $370,000| $395,000| $25,000| | | 2009| 390,000| 420,000| 30,000| | | | | Total| $55,000| $19,250| $35,750| (c)| |     2010    |     2009    |     2008    | | Income before income tax| $460,000| $420,000| $395,000| | Income tax (35%)| 161,000| 147,000| 138,250| | Net income| $299,000| $273,000| $256,750| EXERCISE 4-15 (15–20 minutes) BRYANT CO. | Statement of Stockholders’ Equity| For the Year Ended December 31, 2010| | Total| |

Compre-hensive Income| | Retained Earnings| | Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income| | Common Stock| Beginning balance| $520,000| | | | $ 90,000| | $80,000| | $350,000| Comprehensive income| | | | | | | | | | Net income*| 170,000| | $170,000| | 170,000| | | | | Other comprehensive income| | | | | | | | | | Unrealized holding loss| (50,000)| | (50,000)| | | | (50,000)| | | Comprehensive income| | | $120,000| | | | | | | Dividends| (10,000)| | | | (10,000)| |              | |              | Ending balance| $630,000| | | | $250,000| | $30,000| | $350,000| *($750,000 – $500,000 – $80,000).

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS | PROBLEM 4-1| | DICKINSON COMPANY| Income Statement| For the Year Ended December 31, 2010| Sales| | $25,000,000| Cost of goods sold| | 16,000,000| Gross profit| | 9,000,000| Selling and administrative expenses| | 4,700,000| Income from operations| | 4,300,000| Other revenues and gains| | | Interest revenue| $ 70,000| | Gain on the sale of investments| 110,000| 180,000| Other expenses and losses| | | Write-off of goodwill| | 820,000| Income from continuing operations before income tax| | 3,660,000| Income tax| | 1,244,000| Income from continuing operations| | 2,416,000|

Discontinued operations| | | Loss on operations, net of tax| 90,000| | Loss on disposal, net of tax| 440,000| 530,000| Income before extraordinary item| | 1,886,000| Extraordinary item—loss from flood damage, net of tax| | 390,000| Net income| | $ 1,496,000| Earnings per share:| | | | Income from continuing operations| | $ 4. 67a| Discontinued operations| | | Loss on operations, net of tax| $(0. 18)| | Loss on disposal, net of tax| (0. 88)| (1. 06)| Income before extraordinary item| | 3. 61b| Extraordinary loss, net of tax| | | (0. 78)| Net income| | | $ 2. 83c| DICKINSON COMPANY|

Retained Earnings Statement| For the Year Ended December 31, 2010| Retained earnings, January 1| | $ 980,000| Add: Net income| | 1,496,000| | | 2,476,000| Less: Dividends| | | Preferred stock| $ 80,000| | Common stock| 250,000| 330,000| Retained earnings, December 31| | $ 2,146,000| a$2,416,000 – $80,000| =| $4. 67| 500,000 shares| | | | | | b$1,886,000 – $80,000| =| $3. 61| 500,000 shares| | | | | | c$1,496,000 – $80,000| =| $2. 83| 500,000 shares| | | | PROBLEM 4-7| | WADE CORP. | Income Statement (Partial)| For the Year Ended December 31, 2010| Income from continuing operations before income tax| | $1,200,000*| Income tax| | | 456,000**| Income from continuing operations| | | 744,000| Discontinued operations| | | | Loss from operations of discontinued subsidiary| $ 90,000| | | Less: Applicable income tax reduction| 34,200| $ 55,800| | Loss from disposal of subsidiary| 100,000| | | Less: Applicable income tax reduction| 38,000| 62,000| 117,800| Income before extraordinary item| | | 626,200| Extraordinary item:| | | | Gain on condemnation| | 125,000| | Less: Applicable income tax| | 50,000| 75,000| Net income| | | $ 701,200| | | | | Per share of common stock:| | | |

Income from continuing operations| | | $4. 96| Discontinued operations, net of tax| | | (0. 79)| Income before extraordinary item| | | 4. 17| Extraordinary item, net of tax| | | 0. 50| Net income ($701,200 ? 150,000)| | | $4. 67| *Computation of income from continuing operations before income tax:| | As previously stated| | | $1,210,000| Loss on sale of equipment [$40,000 – ($80,000 – $30,000)]| (10,000)| Restated| | | $1,200,000| | | | | **Computation of income tax expense:| | | $1,200,000 X . 38 = $456,000| | | | Note: The error related to the intangible asset was correctly charged to retained earnings.

CHAPTER 5 EXERCISE 5-2 (15–20 minutes) 1. | h. | 11. | b. | 2. | d. | 12. | f. | 3. | f. | 13. | a. | 4. | f. | 14. | h. | 5| c. | 15. | c. | 6. | a. | 16. | b. | 7. | f. | 17. | a. | 8. | g. | 18. | a. | 9. | a. | 19. | g. | 10. | a. | 20. | f. | EXERCISE 5-4 (30–35 minutes) GULISTAN INC. | Balance Sheet| December 31, 2010| Assets| Current assets| | | | Cash| $XXX| | | Less: Cash restricted for plant expansion| XXX| $XXX| | Accounts receivable| XXX| | | Less: Allowance for doubtful accounts| XXX| XXX| | Notes receivable| | XXX| | Receivables—officers| | XXX| | Inventories| | | | Finished goods| XXX| | |

Work in process| XXX| | | Raw materials| XXX| XXX| | Total current assets| | | $XXX| | | | | Long-term investments| | | | Preferred stock investments| | XXX| | Land held for future plant site| | XXX| | Cash restricted for plant expansion| | XXX| | Total long-term investments| | | XXX| | | | | Property, plant, and equipment| | | | Buildings| | XXX| | Less: Accum. depreciation— buildings| | XXX| XXX| | | | | Intangible assets| | | | Copyrights| | | XXX| Total assets| | | $XXX| Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity| Current liabilities| | | | | Accrued salaries payable| | $XXX| | |

Notes payable, short-term| | XXX| | | Unearned subscriptions revenue| | XXX| | | Unearned rent revenue| | XXX| | | Total current liabilities| | | | $XXX| | | | | | Long-term debt| | | | | Bonds payable, due in four years| | | $XXX| | Less: Discount on bonds payable| | | (XXX)| XXX| Total liabilities| | | | XXX| | | | | | Stockholders’ equity| | | | | Capital stock:| | | | | Common stock| | XXX| | | Additional paid-in capital:| | | | | Paid in capital in excess of par—common stock| | XXX| | | Total paid-in capital| | | XXX| | Retained earnings| | | XXX| |

Total paid-in capital and retained earnings| | | XXX| | Less: Treasury stock, at cost| | | (XXX)| | Total stockholders’ equity| | | | XXX| Total liabilities and stock- holders’ equity| | | | $XXX| Note to instructor: An assumption made here is that cash included the cash restricted for plant expansion. If it did not, then a subtraction from cash would not be necessary or the cash balance would be “grossed up” and then the cash restricted for plant expansion deducted. EXERCISE 5-13 (15–20 minutes) (a)| 4. | (f)| 1. | (k)| 1. | (b)| 3. | (g)| 5. | (l)| 2. | (c)| 4. | (h)| 4. (m)| 2. | (d)| 3. | (i)| 5. | | | (e)| 1. | (j)| 4. | | | EXERCISE 5-15 (25–35 minutes) (a)SONDERGAARD CORPORATION| Statement of Cash Flows| For the Year Ended December 31, 2010| Cash flows from operating activities| | | Net income| | $160,000| Adjustments to reconcile net income| | | to net cash provided by operating | | | activities:| | | Depreciation expense| $17,000| | Loss on sale of investments| 7,000| | Decrease in accounts receivable| 5,000| | Decrease in current liabilities| (17,000)| 12,000| Net cash provided by operating activities| | 172,000| Cash flows from investing activities| | |

Sale of investments| | | [($74,000 – $52,000) – $7,000]| 15,000| | Purchase of equipment| (58,000)| | Net cash used by investing activities| | (43,000)| Cash flows from financing activities| | | Payment of cash dividends| | (50,000)| Net increase in cash| | 79,000| Cash at beginning of year| | 78,000| Cash at end of year| | $157,000| (b)Free Cash Flow Analysis| Net cash provided by operating activities| | $172,000| Less: Purchase of equipment| | (58,000)| Dividends| | (50,000)| Free cash flow| | $ 64,000| | PROBLEM 5-2| | MONTOYA, INC. | Balance Sheet| December 31, 2010|

Assets| Current assets| | | | Cash| | $ 360,000| | Trading securities| | 121,000| | Notes receivable| | 445,700| | Income taxes receivable| | 97,630| | Inventories| | 239,800| | Prepaid expenses| | 87,920| | Total current assets| | | $1,352,050| | | | | Property, plant, and equipment| | | | Land| | $ 480,000| | Building| $1,640,000| | | Less: Accum. depreciation— building| 270,200| 1,369,800| | Equipment| 1,470,000| | | Less: Accum. depreciation— equipment| 292,000| 1,178,000| 3,027,800| | | | | Intangible assets| | | | Goodwill| | | 125,000| Total assets| | | $4,504,850|

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity| Current liabilities| | | | Accounts payable| | $ 490,000| | Notes payable to banks| | 265,000| | Payroll taxes payable| | 177,591| | Taxes payable| | 98,362| | Rent payable| | 45,000| | Total current liabilities| | | $1,075,953| | | | | Long-term liabilities| | | | Unsecured notes payable| | | | (long-term)| | $1,600,000| | Bonds payable| $300,000| | | Less:Discount on bonds payable| 15,000| 285,000| | Long-term rental obligations| | 480,000| 2,365,000| Total liabilities| | | 3,440,953| | | | | Stockholders’ equity| | | | Capital stock| | | |

Preferred stock, $10 par; 20,000 shares authorized, 15,000 shares issued| $150,000| | | Common stock, $1 par; 400,000 shares authorized, 200,000 issued| 200,000| $350,000| | Retained earnings ($1,063,897 – $350,000)| | 713,897| | Total stockholders’ equity ($4,504,850 – $3,440,953)| | | 1,063,897| Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity| | | $4,504,850| CHAPTER 7 EXERCISE 7-5 (15–20 minutes) (a)| 1. | June 3| Accounts Receivable—Arquette| 2,000| | | | | Sales| | 2,000| | | | | | | | | June 12| Cash| 1,960| | | | | Sales Discounts ($2,000 X 2%)| 40| | | | | Accounts Receivable—Arquette| | 2,000| | | | | | | 2. | June 3| Accounts Receivable—Arquette| 1,960| | | | | Sales ($2,000 X 98%)| | 1,960| | | | | | | | | June 12| Cash| 1,960| | | | | Accounts Receivable—Arquette| | 1,960| (b)| July 29| Cash| 2,000| | | | Accounts Receivable—Arquette| | 1,960| | | Sales Discounts Forfeited| | 40| | | | | | | (Note to instructor: Sales discounts forfeited could have been recog-nized at the time the discount period lapsed. The company, however, would probably not record this forfeiture until final cash settlement. )| EXERCISE 7-7 (10–15 minutes) (a)| Bad Debt Expense| 7,500| | | Allowance for Doubtful Accounts| | 7,500*| | | | | . 01 X ($800,000 – $50,000) = $7,500| | | | | | | (b)| Bad Debt Expense| 6,000| | | Allowance for Doubtful Accounts| | 6,000*| | | | | *Step 1:. 05 X $160,000 = $8,000 (desired credit balance in Allowance account) Step 2:$8,000 – $2,000 = $6,000 (required credit entry to bring allowance account to $8,000 credit balance) EXERCISE 7-13 (10–15 minutes) (a)| Cash| 290,000| | | Finance Charge| 10,000*| | | Notes Payable| | 300,000| | | | | *2% X $500,000 = $10,000| | | | | | | (b)| Cash| 350,000| | | Accounts Receivable| | 350,000| EXERCISE 7-13 (Continued) (c)| Notes Payable| 300,000| | | Interest Expense| 7,500*| | Cash| | 307,500| | | | | *10% X $300,000 X 3/12 = $7,500| | | EXERCISE 7-15 (10–15 minutes) Computation of net proceeds:| Cash received| | $190,000| Less: Recourse liability| | 2,000| Net proceeds| | $188,000| Computation of gain or loss:| Carrying value| | $200,000| Net proceeds| | 188,000| Loss on sale of receivables| | $ 12,000| The following journal entry would be made:| Cash| $190,000| | Loss on Sale of Receivables| 12,000| | Recourse Liability| | 2,000| Accounts Receivable| | 200,000| EXERCISE 7-16 (15–20 minutes) (a)| To be recorded as a sale, all of the following conditions would be met:| | | | 1. The transferred asset has been isolated from the transferor (put beyond reach of the transferor and its creditors). | | | | | 2. | The transferees have obtained the right to pledge or to exchange either the transferred assets or beneficial interests in the trans-ferred assets. | | | | | 3. | The transferor does not maintain effective control over the trans-ferred assets through an agreement to repurchase or redeem them before their maturity. | (b)| Computation of net proceeds:| | Cash received ($250,000 X 94%)| $235,000| | | Due from factor ($250,000 X 4%)| 10,000| $245,000| | Less: Recourse obligation| | 3,000| Net proceeds| | $242,000| | Computation of gain or loss:| | Carrying value| | $250,000| | Net proceeds| | 242,000| | Loss on sale of receivables| | $ 8,000| | The following journal entry would be made:| | Cash| $235,000| | | Due from Factor| 10,000| | | Loss on Sale of Receivables| 8,000| | | Recourse Liability| | 3,000| | Accounts Receivable| | 250,000| *EXERCISE 7-24 (15–20 minutes) (a)KIPLING COMPANY| Bank Reconciliation | July 31| Balance per bank statement, July 31| | $ 8,650| Add: Deposits in transit| | 2,850a| Deduct: Outstanding checks| | (1,100)b| Correct cash balance, July 31| | $10,400| | | Balance per books, July 31| | $ 9,250| Add: Collection of note| | 1,500| Less: Bank service charge| $ 15| | NSF check| 335| (350)| Corrected cash balance, July 31| | $10,400| aComputation of deposits in transit| | | Deposits per books| | $5,810| Deposits per bank in July| $ 4,500| | Less deposits in transit (June)|  (1,540)| | Deposits mailed and received in July| | (2,960)| Deposits in transit, July 31| | $2,850| bComputation of outstanding checks| | | Checks written per books| | $3,100| Checks cleared by bank in July| $ 4,000| | Less outstanding checks (June)*| (2,000)| |

Checks written and cleared in July| | (2,000)| Outstanding checks, July 31| | $1,100| *Assumed to clear bank in July (b)| Cash| 1,150| | | Office Expenses—Bank Charges| 15| | | Accounts Receivable| 335| | | Notes Receivable| | 1,500| | PROBLEM 7-8| | 10/1/10| Notes Receivable| 120,000| | | Sales| | 120,000| | | | | 12/31/10| Interest Receivable| 2,400*| | | Interest Revenue| | 2,400| | | | | *$120,000 X . 08 X 3/12 = $2,400| | | | | | 10/1/11| Cash| 9,600*| | | Interest Receivable| | 2,400| | Interest Revenue| | 7,200**| | | | | *$120,000 X . 08 = $9,600**$120,000 X . 08 X 9/12 = $7,200| | | | | | 2/31/11| Interest Receivable| 2,400| | | Interest Revenue| | 2,400| | | | | 10/1/12| Cash| 9,600| | | Interest Receivable| | 2,400| | Interest Revenue| | 7,200| | | | | | Cash| 120,000| | | Notes Receivable| | 120,000| Note: Entries at 10/1/11 and 10/1/12 assumes reversing entries were not made on January 1, 2011 and January 1, 2012. | PROBLEM 7-11| | SANDBURG COMPANY| Income Statement Effects| For the Year Ended December 31, 2010| Expenses resulting from accounts receivable| | | | | assigned (Schedule 1)| | | | $22,320| Loss resulting from accounts receivable| | | | | sold ($300,000 – $270,000)| | | | 30,000|

Total expenses| | | | $52,320| Schedule 1 Computation of Expense| for Accounts Receivable Assigned| Assignment expense:| | | | | Accounts receivable assigned| | $400,000| | | | | X 80%| | | Advance by Keller Finance Company| | 320,000| | | | | X 3%| | $ 9,600| Interest expense| | | | 12,720| Total expenses| | | | $22,320| | *PROBLEM 7-15| | (a)The entries for the issuance of the note on January 1, 2010: The present value of the note is: $1,200,000 X . 68058 = $816,700 (Rounded by $4). | Botosan Company (Debtor):| | | | Cash| 816,700| | | Discount on Notes Payable| 383,300| | | Note Payable| | 1,200,000| | | | | National Organization Bank (Creditor):| | | | Notes Receivable| 1,200,000| | | Discount on Notes Receivable| | 383,300| | Cash| | 816,700| (b)The amortization schedule for this note is: SCHEDULE FOR INTEREST AND DISCOUNT AMORTIZATION— EFFECTIVE-INTEREST METHOD $1,200,000 Note Issued to Yield 8% Date| | Cash Paid| | Interest Expense| | Discount Amortized| | Carrying Amount of Note| 1/1/10| | | | | | | | $ 816,700| 12/31/10| | $0| | $ 65,336*| | $ 65,336| | 882,036**| 12/31/11| | 0| | 70,563| | 70,563| | 952,599| 12/31/12| | 0| | 76,208| | 76,208| | 1,028,807| 12/31/13| | 0| | 82,305| | 82,305| | 1,111,112| 2/31/14| | 0| | 88,888| | 88,888| | 1,200,000| Total| | $0| | $383,300| | $383,300| | | *$816,700 X 8% = $65,336. **$816,700 + $65,336 = $882,036. (c)The note can be considered to be impaired only when it is probable that, based on current information and events, National Organization Bank will be unable to collect all amounts due (both principal and interest) according to the contractual terms of the loan. (d)| The loss is computed as follows:| | | | Carrying amount of loan (12/31/11)| | $952,599a| | Less: Present value of $800,000 due in 3 years at 8%| |  (635,064)b| | Loss due to impairment| | $317,535| | | | | aSee amortization schedule from answer (b) on page 7-66. | | | b$800,000 X . 79383 = $635,064. | | | | December 31, 2011| | National Organization Bank (Creditor):| | | | Bad Debt Expense| 317,535| | | Allowance for Doubtful Accounts| | 317,535| Note: Botosan Company (Debtor) has no entry. CHAPTER 8 EXERCISE 8-1 (15–20 minutes) Items 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 13, 14, 16, and 17 would be reported as inventory in the financial statements. The following items would not be reported as inventory: 1. Cost of goods sold in the income statement. 4. Not reported in the financial statements. 6. Cost of goods sold in the income statement. . Cost of goods sold in the income statement. 9. Interest expense in the income statement. 11. Advertising expense in the income statement. 12. Office supplies in the current assets section of the balance sheet. 15. Not reported in the financial statements. 18. Short-term investments in the current asset section of the balance sheet. EXERCISE 8-15 (15–20 minutes) (a)ESPLANADE COMPANY| Computation of Inventory for Product| BAP Under FIFO Inventory Method| March 31, 2010| | Units| | Unit Cost| | Total Cost| March 26, 2010| 600| | $12. 00| | $ 7,200| February 16, 2010| 800| | 11. 00| | 8,800|

January 25, 2010 (portion)| 100| | 10. 00| | 1,000| March 31, 2010, inventory | 1,500| | | | $17,000| (b)ESPLANADE COMPANY| Computation of Inventory for Product| BAP Under LIFO Inventory Method| March 31, 2010| | Units| | Unit Cost| | Total Cost| Beginning inventory| 600| | $8. 00| | $ 4,800| January 5, 2010 (portion)| 900| | 9. 00| | 8,100| March 31, 2010, inventory| 1,500| | | | $12,900| (c)ESPLANADE COMPANY| Computation of Inventory for Product| BAP Under Weighted Average Inventory Method| March 31, 2010| | Units| | Unit Cost| | Total Cost| Beginning inventory| 600| | $ 8. 0| | $ 4,800| January 5, 2010| 1,100| | 9. 00| | 9,900| January 25, 2010| 1,300| | 10. 00| | 13,000| February 16, 2010| 800| | 11. 00| | 8,800| March 26, 2010| 600| | 12. 00| | 7,200| | 4,400| | | | $43,700| | | | | | | Weighted average cost| | | | | | ($43,700 ? 4,400)| | | $ 9. 93*| | | | | | | | | March 31, 2010, inventory| 1,500| | $ 9. 93| | $14,895| *Rounded off. EXERCISE 8-25 (20–25 minutes) | Current $| | Price Index| | Base Year $| | Change from Prior Year| 2007| $ 80,000| | 1. 00| | $ 80,000| | —| 2008| 111,300| | 1. 05| | 106,000| | +$26,000| 2009| 108,000| | 1. 0| | 90,000| | (16,000)| 2010| 122,200| | 1. 30| | 94,000| | +4,000| 2011| 147,000| | 1. 40| | 105,000| | +11,000| 2012| 176,900| | 1. 45| | 122,000| | +17,000| Ending Inventory—Dollar-value LIFO: 2007| $80,000| | | 2011| $80,000 @ 1. 00 =| $ 80,000| | | | | | 10,000 @ 1. 05 = | 10,500| 2008| $80,000 @ 1. 00 =| $ 80,000| | | 4,000 @ 1. 30 =| 5,200| | 26,000 @ 1. 05 =| 27,300| | | 11,000 @ 1. 40 = | 15,400| | | $107,300| | | | $111,100| | | | | | | | 2009| $80,000 @ 1. 00 =| $ 80,000| | 2012| $80,000 @ 1. 00 =| $ 80,000| | 10,000 @ 1. 05 =| 10,500| | | 10,000 @ 1. 5 =| 10,500| | | $ 90,500| | | 4,000 @ 1. 30 =| 5,200| | | | | | 11,000 @ 1. 40 =| 15,400| 2010| $80,000 @ 1. 00 =| $ 80,000| | | 17,000 @ 1. 45 =| 24,650| | 10,000 @ 1. 05 =| 10,500| | | | $135,750| | 4,000 @ 1. 30 =| 5,200| | | | | | | $ 95,700| | | | | EXERCISE 8-26 (15–20 minutes) Date| | Current $| | Price Index| | Base-Year $| | Change from Prior Year| Dec. 31, 2007| | $ 70,000| | 1. 00| | $70,000| | —| Dec. 31, 2008| | 88,200| | 1. 05| | 84,000| | +$14,000| Dec. 31, 2009| | 95,120| | 1. 16| | 82,000| | (2,000)| Dec. 31, 2010| | 108,000| | 1. 0| | 90,000| | +8,000| Dec. 31, 2011| | 100,000| | 1. 25| | 80,000| | (10,000)| Ending Inventory—Dollar-value LIFO: Dec. 31, 2007| $70,000| | | | | Dec. 31, 2008| $70,000 @ 1. 00 =| $70,000| | 14,000 @ 1. 05 =| 14,700| | | $84,700| | | | Dec. 31, 2009| $70,000 @ 1. 00 =| $70,000| | 12,000 @ 1. 05 =| 12,600| | | $82,600| | | | Dec. 31, 2010| $70,000 @ 1. 00 =| $70,000| | 12,000 @ 1. 05 =| 12,600| | 8,000 @ 1. 20 =| 9,600| | | $92,200| | | | Dec. 31, 2011| $70,000 @ 1. 00 =| $70,000| | 10,000 @ 1. 05 =| 10,500| | | $80,500| CHAPTER 9 BRIEF EXERCISE 9-2 Item| | Cost| | Designated Market| |

LCM| Jokers| | $2,000| | $2,050| | $2,000| Penguins| | 5,000| | 4,950| | 4,950| Riddlers| | 4,400| | 4,550| | 4,400| Scarecrows| | 3,200| | 3,070| | 3,070| BRIEF EXERCISE 9-4 Group| | Number of CDs| | Sales Price per CD| | Total Sales Price| | Relative Sales Price| | Total Cost| | Cost Allocated to CDs| | Cost per CD| 1| | 100| | $ 5| | $ 500| | 5/100*| X| $8,000| =| $ 400| | $ 4**| 2| | 800| | $10| | 8,000| | 80/100| X| $8,000| =| 6,400| | $ 8| 3| | 100| | $15| | 1,500| | 15/100| X| $8,000| =| 1,200| | $12| | | | | | | $10,000| | | | | | $8,000| | | $500/$10,000 = 5/100**$400/100 = $4 BRIEF EXERCISE 9-7 Beginning inventory| | $150,000| Purchases| | 500,000| Cost of goods available| | 650,000| Sales| $700,000| | Less gross profit (35% X 700,000)| 245,000| | Estimated cost of goods sold| | 455,000| Estimated ending inventory destroyed in fire| | $195,000| BRIEF EXERCISE 9-8 | Cost| | Retail| Beginning inventory| $ 12,000| | $ 20,000| Net purchases| 120,000| | 170,000| Net markups|  | | 10,000| Totals| $132,000| | 200,000| Deduct:| | | | Net markdowns| | | 7,000| Sales| | | 147,000| Ending inventory at retail| | | $ 46,000| | | | |

Cost-to-retail ratio: $132,000 ? $200,000 = 66%| | | | Ending inventory at lower-of cost-or-market (66% X $46,000) = $30,360 EXERCISE 9-2 (10–15 minutes) Item| | Net Realizable Value (Ceiling)| | Net Realizable Value Less Normal Profit (Floor)| | Replacement Cost| | Designated Market| | Cost| | LCM| D| | $90*| | $70**| | $120| | $90| | $75| | $75| E| | 80| | 60| | 72| | 72| | 80| | 72| F| | 60| | 40| | 70| | 60| | 80| | 60| G| | 55| | 35| | 30| | 35| | 80| | 35| H| | 80| | 60| | 70| | 70| | 50| | 50| I| | 60| | 40| | 30| | 40| | 36| | 36| | | | | | | | | | | | | | Estimated selling price – Estimated selling expense = $120 – $30 = $90. **Net realizable value – Normal profit margin = $90 – $20 = $70. EXERCISE 9-7 (15–20 minutes) Cost Per Lot (Cost Allocated/ No. of Lots)| $2,040| 2,720| 1,360| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Cost Allocated to Lots| $18,360| 40,800| 25,840| $85,000| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Total Cost| $85,000| 85,000| 85,000| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | X| X| X| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Relative Sales Price| $27,000/$125,000| $60,000/$125,000| $38,000/$125,000| | | $78,000| 53,040| 24,960| 18,200| $ 6,760| | | Gross Profit| $ 3,840| 10,240| 10,880| $24,960| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Total Sales Price| $ 27,000| 60,000| 38,000| $125,000| | Sales (see schedule)| Cost of goods sold (see schedule)| Gross profit| Operating expenses| Net income| | | Sales| $12,000| 32,000| 34,000| $78,000| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Sales

Price Per Lot| $3,000| 4,000| 2,000| | | | | | | | | | Cost Cost of Per Lots Lot Sold| $2,040 $ 8,160| 2,720 21,760| 1,360 23,120| $53,040| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | No. of Lots| 9| 15| 19| | | | | | | | | | Number of Lots Sold*| 4| 8| 17| 29| | * 9 – 5 = 4| 15 – 7 = 8| 19 – 2 = 17| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Group 1| Group 2| Group 3| | | | | | | | | | | Group 1| Group 2| Group 3| Total| | | | | EXERCISE 9-12 (10–15 minutes) a)| Inventory, May 1 (at cost)| | $160,000| | Purchases (at cost)| | 640,000| | Purchase discounts| | (12,000)| | Freight-in| | 30,000| | Goods available (at cost)| | 818,000| | Sales (at selling price)| $1,000,000| | | Sales returns (at selling price)| (70,000)| | | Net sales (at selling price)| 930,000| | | Less: Gross profit (25% of $930,000)| 232,500| | | Sales (at cost)| | 697,500| | Approximate inventory, May 31 (at cost)| | $120,500| (b)Gross profit as a percent of sales must be computed: | 25%| = 20% of sales. | | 100% + 25%| | | Inventory, May 1 (at cost)| | $160,000| Purchases (at cost)| | 640,000| | Purchase discounts| | (12,000)| | Freight-in| | 30,000| | Goods available (at cost)| | 818,000| | Sales (at selling price)| $1,000,000| | | Sales returns (at selling price)| (70,000)| | | Net sales (at selling price)| 930,000| | | Less: Gross profit (20% of $930,000)| 186,000| | | Sales (at cost)| | 744,000| | Approximate inventory, May 31 (at cost)| | $ 74,000| | | | | EXERCISE 9-14 Beginning inventory| | $170,000| Purchases| | 450,000| | | 620,000| Purchase returns| | (30,000)| Goods available (at cost)| | 590,000|

Sales| $650,000| | Sales returns| (24,000)| | Net sales| 626,000| | Less: Gross profit (30% X $626,000)| (187,800)| 438,200| Estimated ending inventory (unadjusted for damage)| | 151,800| Less: Goods on hand—undamaged (at cost) $21,000 X (1 – 30%)| | (14,700)| Less: Goods on hand—damaged (at net realizable value)| | (5,300)| Fire loss on inventory| | $131,800| EXERCISE 9-19 (12–17 minutes) | Cost| | Retail| Beginning inventory| $ 200,000| | $ 280,000| Purchases| 1,425,000| | 2,140,000| Totals| 1,625,000| | 2,420,000| Add: Net markups| | | |

Markups| | $95,000| | Markup cancellations| _________| (15,000)| 80,000| Totals| $1,625,000| | 2,500,000| | | | | Deduct: Net markdowns| | | | Markdowns| | 35,000| | Markdown cancellations| | (5,000)| 30,000| Sales price of goods available| | | 2,470,000| Deduct: Sales| | | 2,250,000| Ending inventory at retail| | | $ 220,000| Cost-to-retail ratio =| $1,625,000| = 65%| | $2,500,000| | Ending inventory at cost = 65% X $220,000 = $143,000 | PROBLEM 9-4| | Beginning inventory| | $ 80,000| Purchases| | 290,000| | | 370,000| Purchase returns| | (28,000)|

Total goods available| | 342,000| Sales| $415,000| | Sales returns| (21,000)| | | 394,000| | Less: Gross profit (35% of $394,000)| 137,900|  (256,100)| Ending inventory (unadjusted for damage)| | 85,900| Less: Goods on hand—undamaged| | | ($30,000 X [1 – 35%])| | 19,500| Inventory damaged| | 66,400| Less: Salvage value of damaged inventory| | 8,150| Fire loss on inventory| | $ 58,250| CHAPTER 18 EXERCISE 18-2 (15–20 minutes) (a)1. 6/3Accounts Receivable—Ann Mount8,000 Sales8,000 6/5Sales Returns and Allowances600 Accounts Receivable—Ann Mount600 6/7Transportation-Out24

Cash24 6/12Cash7,252 Sales Discounts (2% X $7,400)148 Accounts Receivable—Ann Mount7,400 2. 6/3Accounts Receivable—Ann Mount7,840 Sales [$8,000 – (2% X $8,000)]7,840 6/5Sales Returns and Allowances588 Accounts Receivable—Ann Mount [$600 – (2% x $600)]588 6/7Transportation-Out24 Cash24 6/12Cash7,252 Accounts Receivable—Ann Mount7,252 (b)8/5Cash7,400 Accounts Receivable—Ann Mount7,252 Sales Discounts Forfeited (2% X $7,400)148 EXERCISE 18-4 (20–25 minutes) (a)Gross profit recognized in: | 2010| 2011| 2012| Contract price| | $1,600,000| | $1,600,000| | $1,600,000| Costs:| | | | | | |

Costs to date| $400,000| | $825,000| | $1,070,000| | Estimated costs to complete| 600,000| 1,000,000| 275,000| 1,100,000| 0| 1,070,000| Total estimated profit| | 600,000| | 500,000| | 530,000| Percentage completed to date| | 40%*| | 75%**| | 100%| Total gross profit recognized| | 240,000| | 375,000| | 530,000| Less: Gross profit recognized in previous years| | 0| | 240,000| | 375,000| Gross profit recognized in current year| | $ 240,000| | $ 135,000| | $ 155,000| **$400,000 ? $1,000,000**$825,000 ? 1,100,000 (b)Construction in Process ($825,000 – $400,000)425,000Materials, Cash, Payables, etc. 425,000Accounts Receivable ($900,000 – $300,000)600,000 Billings on Construction in Process600,000 Cash ($810,000 – $270,000)540,000 Accounts Receivable540,000 Construction Expenses425,000 Construction in Process135,000 Revenue from Long-Term Contracts560,000* *$1,600,000 X (75% – 40%) (c)Gross profit recognized in: | 2010| 2011| 2012| Gross profit| $–0–| $–0–| $530,000*| *$1,600,000 – $1,070,000 EXERCISE 18-7 (25–30 minutes) (a)1. Gross profit recognized in 2010: Contract price$1,200,000 Costs: Costs to date$280,000

Estimated additional costs 520,000 800,000 Total estimated profit400,000 Percentage completion to date ($280,000/$800,000) 35% Gross profit recognized in 2010$ 140,000 Gross profit recognized in 2011: Contract price$1,200,000 Costs: Costs to date$600,000 Estimated additional costs 200,000 800,000 Total estimated profit400,000 Percentage completion to date ($600,000/$800,000) 75% Total gross profit recognized300,000 Less: Gross profit recognized in 2010 140,000 Gross profit recognized in 2011$ 160,000 2. Construction in Process ($600,000 – $280,000)320,000 Materials, Cash, Payables, etc. 20,000 Accounts Receivable ($500,000 – $150,000)350,000 Billings on Construction in Process350,000 Cash ($320,000 – $120,000)200,000 Accounts Receivable200,000 Construction in Process160,000 Construction Expenses320,000 Revenues from Long-Term Contracts480,000* *$1,200,000 X [($600,000 – $280,000) ? $800,000] (b)Income Statement (2011)— Gross profit on long-term construction contract$160,000 Balance Sheet (12/31/11)— Current assets: Receivables—construction in process$180,000* Inventories—construction in process totaling $900,000** less billings of $500,000$400,000 **$180,000 = $500,000 – $320,000 **Total cost to date$600,000 010 Gross profit140,000 2011 Gross profit 160,000 $900,000 EXERCISE 18-11 (15–20 minutes) (a)Computation of gross profit recognized: | 2010| 2011| $370,000 X 34%*| $125,800| | $350,000 X 34%*| | $119,000| $450,000 X 32%**|     | 144,000| | $125,800| $263,000| *($900,000 – $594,000) ? $900,000 **($1,000,000 – $680,000) ? $1,000,000(b)Installment Accounts Receivable—20111,000,000 Installment Sales1,000,000 Cost of Installment Sales680,000 Inventory680,000 Cash800,000 Installment Accounts Receivable, 2010350,000 Installment Accounts Receivable, 2011450,000 Installment Sales1,000,000 Cost of Installment Sales680,000

Deferred Gross Profit on Installment Sales, 2011320,000 Deferred Gross Profit on Installment Sales, 2010119,000 Deferred Gross Profit on Installment Sales, 2011144,000 Realized Gross Profit on Installment Sales263,000 Realized Gross Profit on Installment Sales263,000 Income Summary263,000 EXERCISE 18-15 (10–15 minutes) (a)Realized gross profit recognized in 2011 under the installment-sales method of accounting is $83,000. When gross profit is expressed as a percentage of cost, it must be converted to percentage of sales to compute the realized gross profit under the installment-sales method of accounting.

Thus, 2010 and 2011 gross profits as a percentage of sales are 20% and 21. 875% respectively. Sale Year|   Gross Profit Percentage  | 2011 Collections| 2011 Realized Profit| 2010| . 25/(1. 00 + . 25) = 20% | $240,000| $48,000| 2011| . 28/(1. 00 + . 28) = 21. 875%| 160,000| 35,000| | | TOTAL| $83,000| (Note to instructor: The problem provides gross profit as a percent of cost. ) (b)The balance of “Deferred Gross Profit” could be reported on the balance sheet for 2011: 1. As a current liability on the theory that it is related to Installment Accounts Receivables that are normally treated as current assets; . As a deferred credit between liabilities and stockholders’ equity. This treatment is criticized because there is no obligation to outsiders; or 3. As an adjustment or offset to the related Installment Accounts Receivable. This is because the deferred gross profit is a part of revenue from installment sales not yet realized. The related receivable will be overstated unless the deferred gross profit is deducted. On the other hand, the amount of deferred gross profit has no direct relationship with the estimated collectibility of the accounts receivable.

It is not a settled matter as to the proper classification of “deferred gross profit” on the balance sheet when the installment-sales method of accounting is used to measure income. As indicated in the text, the FASB in Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 6 indicates that it conceptually is an asset valuation. We support the FASB position. (c)Gross profit as a percent of sales in 2010 is 20% (as computed in (a) above); gross profit therefore is $96,000 ($480,000 X . 20) and the cost of 2010 sales is $384,000 ($480,000 – $96,000). Because the amounts collected in 2010 ($130,000) and 2011 ($240,000) do not exceed the total cost of

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