(IB History) Everything Paper 1

Date of the Washington Naval Conference
1921-22
What was the aim of the Washington Naval Conference?
To improve Anglo-Japanese relations
Terms of the Washington Naval Conference
Japanese navy would not intimidate British navy
Japan withdraws from China
Western powers stop building naval bases near Japan
Effects of the Washington Naval Conference
Anglo-Japanese relations improved
Date of the Geneva Conference
April 1922
Aim of the Geneva Conference
To improve Franco-German relations
To deal with European war debts to USA
To resume diplomatic relations with Russia
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What happened at the Geneva Conference?
Germany refused to pay reparations
France refused to compromise
Failure
Effect of the Geneva Conference
Failed
Rapallo Agreement
Date of the Rapallo Agreement
1922
Countries in the Rapallo Agreement
1922
Germany and USSR
Terms of the Rapallo Agreement
1922
Germany and USSR wrote off financial aims
Germany would ask the USSR before taking part in international relations
Effect of the Rapallo Agreement
1922
Outcasts of Germany were becoming friends
Reparations of the Treaty of Versailles
132 billion gold marks
50 million pound to be paid immediatly
When was the Ruhr Crisis?
November 1922
Ruhr Crisis
November 1922
German government asked for a postponement in reparations
Britain said yes, France refused
Germany failed to produce enough timber
French and Belgium troops invaded the Ruhr
Who was the Ruhr Crisis led by?
November 1922
Raymond Poincare (French)
Historian on the Ruhr Crisis
France invaded the Ruhr also to see if there was the possibility of an independent Rhineland
Germany’s response to the Ruhr Crisis
November 1922
Workers went into passive resistance
Germany couldn’t make money
When was Germany’s hyperinflation?
1923
How did hyperinflation happen?
1923
Weimar recklessly printed money instead of raising taxation
How much did unemployment rise to after hyperinflation?
2% to 23%
Germany’s reaction to hyperinflation
Hjalmer Schacht introduced new currency and policies
Solution to hyperinflation
Dawes Plan (1924)
When was the Dawes Plan?
1924
How much money did the Dawes Plan give to Germany?
1924
16 billion Reichmarks from US loans
Terms of the Dawes Plan
1924
Reparations rescheduled
France would leave the Ruhr
Short term US loans
Effect of the Dawes Plan
1924
Standard of living increased
Wages increased
Schools/houses/hospitals built
Evidence of the effectiveness of the Dawes Plan
1924
Germany was the second largest industrial nation by 1929
When was the Locarno Treaty?
1925
Aim of the Locarno Treaty
1925
Germany wanted improved relations with Britain and France
Germany wanted less reparations
Who was at the Locarno Conference?
1925
Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Belgium
Terms of the Locarno Conference
1925
Germany enters the League of Nations
Demilitarization of the Rhineland
The Western borders of Germany were to be accepted
Any attacked country could appeal to the LoN
Any breach of the treaty, and Britain and Italy would attack them
What was the problem with the Locarno Conference?
1925
The definition of a “flagrant breach of treaty” was ill defined
Was France happy with the Locarno Conference? Why?
1925
No
France was not able to threaten Germany with another invasion of the Rhineland, caused insecurity
Historian on Locarno Conference
Ruth Henig
The Locarno Conference caused Anglo-French friction. It was the most French security Britain was willing to give and the least France was willing to accept
Effects of the Locarno Treaty
Germany was an equal again
Discouraged relations between Germany and the USSR
Locarno Honeymoon
Historian on the effects of the Locarno Conference
Margaret Lamb
The statesmen had such incompatiblae aims that peace was highly unlikely
Why was Britain upset after the Locarno Conference?
Chamberlain
Wanted to enhance France’s security without committing the British military
Wanted to conciliate Germany at the same time
Why was Germany upset after the Locarno Conference?
Stresemann
Wanted a revision of the ToV but was not successful
Why was France upset after the Locarno Conference?
Briand
Was focused on increased security from Germany, didn’t pay attention to Britain
Long term effect of the Locarno Conference
The Spirit of Locarno had evaporated by the end of the 1920’s
When was the Treaty of Berlin?
1926
What countries signed the Treaty of Berlin?
1926
Germany and USSR
Aims of the Treaty of Berlin
1926
Germany wanted to reassure Russia after the Locarno Treaty
Terms of the Treaty of Berlin
1926
USSR and Germany promised to remain neutral in case either was attacked
When was the Kellogg Briand Pact?
1928
Who was Briand?
The French Foreign Minister
Who was Frank B. Kellogg?
The US Secretary of State
How was the Kellogg Briand Pact made?
1928
Briand wanted a treaty with the USA to stop war between USA and France
This was highly unlikely
Briand really wanted a military alliance between them
Coolidge and Kellogg saw through this and proposed that all countries sign it
How many countries joined the Kellogg Briand Pact?
15 countries (1928)
65 countries (1933)
Terms of the Kellogg Briand Pact
1928
Renounced war as a national policy
Countries were allowed to defend themselves after aggression
Historian on the Kellogg Briand Pact
Only fools think that peace can be maintained without effort or expense
When was the Young Plan?
1929
Terms of the Young Plan
1929
Replaced the Dawes Plan
Reparations reduced from 132-121 billioin
$300 million loan to Germany
All troops withdraw from Rhineland
When was the Hoover Moratorium?
1931
What was the Hoover Moratorium?
1931
Banking crisis
Hoover proposed a moratorium (pause in all political activity)
Response to the Hoover Moratorium
1931
France said no, because reparations wouldn’t start again
When was the Lausanne Conference?
1932
Terms at the Lausanne Conference
1932
Suspension of reparations from 3 years
Reparations reduced to 3 billion gold marks
When was the Wall Street Crash?
29 October 1929
How many Germans were unemployed by the Wall Street Crash?
Richard Overy
8 million by 1932
Effect of the Wall Street Crash historian
The economic crisis soured relations between the countries
Renewed resentments
Created selfishness
Impact of the Great Depression on Germany (cursory)
Nazi Party rose in popularity
Unemployment
Hitler becomes Chancellor (30 January 1933)
Aims of Hitler’s foreign policy
Creation of a German Reich with all German speakers
Lebensraum for the German master race
Grosswirtschaftsraum to give Germans the resources they needed
Size of the German Army (1930’s)
German army was weak (1933)
German army was stronger (1936)
When did Germany withdraw from the League of Nations?
1933
Revision of the Treaty of Versailles
Reunion of the Saar
Conscription and rearmament in Germany
Re-militarization of the Rhineland
When was the Saar reunified?
1935
How was the Saar reunified?
1935
The inhabitants of the Saar voted to join Germany
Did the unification of the Saar break the ToV?
No
When did Hitler implement conscription and rearmament?
1935
Did conscription and rearmament break the ToV?
Yes
When was the Stresa Front?
1935
What was the Stresa Front?
1935
Britain, Italy, France
Weak attempt to cooperate against further violations of the ToV
When was the Anglo-German Naval Convention?
1935
What was the Anglo-German Naval Convention?
1935
Britain allowed Germany to have a navy 35% as big as Britain
Did the Anglo-German Naval Convention break the ToV?
Yes
When was the Rhineland re-militarized?
1936
Did the re-militarization of the Rhineland break the ToV?
Yes
Why did Britain start appeasement?
Britain had always thought the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh. When Germany started acting out, Britain thought that making concessions would satisfy her
Why did Britain follow through with appeasement?
Support from the US was not guaranteed
Britain had other things to worry about (unrest in India and Palestine)
Historian on appeasement
James P Levy
The statesmen were only trying to keep peace. They had no way of knowing what was coming
Japan before the Great Depression
Cooperated with the West
In the League of Nations
Japan after the Great Depression
Growth of military influence in politics
Imperialist aggression to solve their economic difficulties
Japanese imperialism after the Great Depression
Invasion of Manchuria (1931)
Invasion of China (1937)
Occupation of Indo-China (1940)
Pearl Harbor (1941)
Italy before the Great Depression
Peaceful policy
Italy after the Great Depression
Unemployment
Wages dropped
Aggressive policies
Effects of the Great Depression in Italy
Invasion of Abyssinia (1935-36)
Withdrawal from the League of Nations
Closer links with Germany
Less links with Britain and France
When was the Pact of Steel?
1939
What was the Pact of Steel?
1939
Italian and German military alliance
Effect of the Pact of Steel
1939
Gave Hitler the confidence to challenge the Treaty of Versailles
When was the arms race?
Mid 1930’s
When did USSR rearm?
1930
When did Britain rearm?
1934
When did France rearm?
1936
When did Hitler accelerate (start) rearmament?
1936
Historian on rearmament
Richard Overy
Rearmament did not cause WWII, but it created uncertainty so that Europe couldn’t take another crisis
When was the Nazi-Soviet Pact?
1939
What was the Nazi-Soviet Pact?
1939
USSR was looking for security
Military alliance between Germany and USSr
When was the Manchurian Crisis
1931
What was the Mukden Incident?
Japanese Army blew up the South Manchurian Railway and blamed it on the Chinese
Japan occupied Manchuria
Chinese response to the Manchurian Crisis
Chiang Kai-Shek had a passive response, he was more concerned with the CCP
LoN response to the Manchurian Crisis
The League did nothing
Why did the League not respond to the Manchurian Crisis?
Japan had left the League, they were powerless
Britain and France were preoccupied with the Great Depression and Hitler
USA would have been the only state able to fight Japan, but they had an isolationist policy
Historian on Manchurian crisis and the League of Nations
Anthony Adamthwaite
The Manchurian Crisis showed that the League was useless
Aims of Mussolini at the Abyssinian Crisis
Gain revenge for Italian defeat
To claim territories
Proof of the League’s uselessness at the Abyssinian Crisis
The Abyssinian emperor knew that Mussolini wanted to invade. He appealed to the League of Nations FOUR TIMES but they did nothing
Response to the League of Nations to the Abyssinian Crisis
Condemned Italy’s invasion
Economic sanctions (sales of arms/rubber/metals)
Why did economic sanctions after Abyssinia not work?
Sanctions weren’t introduced until 6 weeks after the invasion
Sanctions were not put on products Mussolini actually needed
Countries not in the League (Japan, Germany, USA) kept trading with Italy
Why did the League not do more than economic sanctions after Italy?
The League feared a Italy-German alliance
Britain and France did not want war because they had not properly rearmed
Effects of the Abyssinian Crisis
League was shown to be weak (this encouraged Hitler)
Italy withdrew from the League
Mussolini and Hitler became closer
Stresa Front collapsed
When was the Geneva/World Disarmament Conference?
1932-34
Aim of the Geneva/World Disarmament Conference
1932-34
Balance French and German military forces
Geneva/World Disarmament conference
1932-34
France and Germany could not come to an agreement
US and Britain were sympathetic to German claims
A new conference would be held in 1933
What happened at the Geneva/World Disarmament conference?
1932-34
Hitler withdrew from the Conference
Effect of the Geneva/World Disarmament conference
1932-34
Hitler left free to rearm openly
When was the London Naval Conference?
1930
Aim of the London Naval Conference
1930
To extend the Washington Naval Treaty
To avoid a navl race
London Naval Conference
1930
Restrictions on US/British/Japanese cruisers
When was the second London Naval Conference?
1935-36
Second London Naval Conference
1935-36
Continued the first London Naval Conference
Where was the Geneva Conference held?
Genoa

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