1. Describe the path a molecule of water might follow through the hydrologic cycle from the ocean to land and then back again. The water evaporates from all over the world but let’s say it is evaporates from the oceans to form clouds that are moved over land by many of winds. The rainfall then brings it to earth where it will return to oceans by creeks to river, and some lakes then back to the ocean. 5. Describe at least one example of the environmental costs of water diversion from rivers to farms or cities.
There can be so many different consequences from river diversion, downstream river discharge is reduced, the evaporation in the overall irrigation region is increased, and the level of water table rises these are just a few. The effects of reduced downstream river discharge could be reduced flooding, disappearance of wetlands and flood forest, reduced availability of potable water, and reduced shipping routes. 6. Explain the difference between point and nonpoint pollution. Which is harder to control? Why? Point pollution is a pollution that comes form one specific site.
Nonpoint pollution is a pollution that comes from many different sources rather that one. I would have to say that nonpoint would be harder to control because of it coming from many different sites instead of from one place. Discussion Questions 1. What changes might occur in the hydrologic cycle if our climate were to warm or cool significantly? I think that if the climate get warmer the ground will the harder and harder as time goes, then on the same day or another could be really bad storms with warmer air it is causing stronger winds and storms, with lots of flashfloods.
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The cooler the climate there will be more run off less infiltration and soil will be very hard. 6. Under what conditions might sediment in water or cultural eutrophication be beneficial? How should we balance positive and negative effects? Sediment is important in depositing new soil in delta areas for better crops. Eutrophication is the addition of phosphates and other plant nutrients to the water causing excessive plant growth, then the lower areas die without sun, and the decomposition of the dead material uses to much oxygen and fish die.
With the cultural eutrophication indicates that man is involved. We have removed phosphates from detergents, but farming and golf courses and other things still contribute to pollution. I can not and will not find any positive or beneficial effects out of this. Chapter 11 Text Practice Quiz Questions 1. How does tectonic plate movement create ocean basins, midocean ridges, and volcanoes? Tectonic plate’s movement creates ocean basins, mid-ocean ridges, through collision. Colliding plates push sedimentary materials into an uplifted mass of rock that contains numerous folds and faults.
The Earth has undergone a number of mountain building periods. The process of creation is first by the accumulation of sediments then the tectonic collision causes rock deformation and crystal uplift and finally the isocratic rebound continues to cause uplift despite erosion and causes the development of new mountain peaks through block faulting. 7. Describe some of the mining, processing, and drilling methods that can degrade water or air quality. This can be done by water mining they use extraction of water from non-replenishing groundwater or glacial reserves.
What resources, aside from minerals themselves, can be saved by recycling? There are so many helpful things by recycling; by recycling you will save space in the landfill for something else that can not be recycled. You can use your food scraps for compost, along with your yard clippings. Clothing and furniture give to goodwill; this is a must in my home. With some effort people could cut their garbage going into landfills by half. Discussion Questions 2. Geologists are responsible for identifying and mapping mineral resources.
But mineral resources are buried below the soil and covered with vegetation. How do you suppose geologists in the field find clues about the distribution of rock types? Mineral exploration is the process undertaken by companies, partnerships or corporations in the endeavor of finding ore to mine. They use many different methods to find the materials. The Geophysical Method is where they use an instrument to check for variation in gravity, magnetism, electromagnetism and a number of different variables in a certain area.
They could use remote sensing it gives the explorer orientation information about the location of tracks, roads and fences, as well as the habitation. 5. The idea of tectonic plates shifting across the earth’s surface is central to explanation of geologic processes. Why this idea is still called the “theory” of plate tectonic movement? Continental Drift was first proposed by Wegener, there were many geologists who opposed his ideas & they put forward reasons for their objections that were justifiable at the time.
As geological science has developed since 1915, Continental Drift changed to the Theory of Plate Tectonics which also, originally had its critics. Answers to these criticisms have gradually been found though, but because these solutions have been developed slowly over many years, the theory of plate tectonics has yet to be officially changed to the principles of plate tectonics. Chapter 12 Text Practice Questions 3. What are the major sources of global commercial energy? I think that most of our commercial energy would come from gases, oils, and coal. 6. What are proven-in-place reserves?
The quantity of energy sources estimated with reasonable certainty, from the analysis of geologic and engineering data, to be recoverable from well established or known reservoirs with the existing equipment and under the existing operating conditions. 16. What are biofuels, and how could they contribute to sustainability? Biofuels are made from the starch or oil portion of plant materials. Some are even made from the fats of animals. In general, ethanol is the fermented starch fuel and biodiesel is the refined oil and fats. Biofuels are important PART of the solution to declining and ever more expensive petroleum supplies.
Biofuels can be used together with technologies such as hybrid vehicles and plug-in vehicles. The Chevy Volt is announced to be a plug-in vehicle with a small Flex Fuel Vehicle engine to charge the batteries. Even the new Cadillac Escalade hybrid has been announced as a Flex Fuel Vehicle. Discussion Questions 3. If your local utility company were going to build a new power plant in your community, what kind would you prefer? Why? I think that I would want it to be a wind power plant because wind is natural no harmful things would be burning or have a chance for some kind of spill out.
I would mostly have to say wind. 4. The nuclear industry is placing ads in popular magazines and newspapers, claiming that nuclear power are environmentally friendly, since it doesn’t contribute to the greenhouse effect. How do you respond to that claim? I would have to say that it might be some what environmentally friendly but I would have to ague that fact of it rising the temperatures of ocean waters. They say it is local but does that water just stay right there? NO it moves about everywhere mixing with all the other water changing the temperature.
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