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Humanities Chapters 31, 32, 33

Category Humanities
Essay type Process
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Chapter 31 1. No. He stated, “ ‘Progress’ is merely a modern idea, that is, a false ideal. The European of today is vastly inferior in value to the European of the Renaissance: further development is altogether not according to any necessity in the direction of elevation, enhancement, or strength. 2. A. ) Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud, Charles Baudelaire, Stephane Mallarme, & Maurice Maeterlinck. B. ) To find a language that embraced the mystical, the erotic, and the ineffable world of the senses. 3. A faun is part man, part beast. A nymph is a beautiful forest maiden.

They have an erotic encounter. 4. They preserved the romantic fascination with nature and the Realist preoccupation with daily life. They idealized nature. They were interested in sensation and the sensory experience. They tried to record an instantaneous vision of their world, sacrificing the details of perceived objects in order to capture the effects of light and atmosphere. Some painted canvases that offered a glimpse into the pleasures of 19th century urban life. 5. Bergson viewed life as a vital impulse that evolved creatively, much like a work of art.

True to Bergson’s theory of duration, experience becomes a stream of sensations in which past and present merge. 6. Reliquaries, masks, and freestanding sculptures were among the power objects used to channel the spirits of ancestors, celebrate rites of passage, and ensure the well-being of the community. Beadwork using seed beads and wood carving with hammered brass were unique features. 7. Post-Impressionist paintings were a broad reaction against Impressionism. The works continued to use the bright Impressionist palette, but rejected the Impressionism’s emphasis on the spontaneous recording of light and color.

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Post-Impressionists sought to create art with a greater degree of formal order and structure. The new styles they created, Georges Seurat’s divisionist technique and Vincent van Gogh’s brushwork, led to more abstract styles that would prove highly influential for the development of modernist painting in the early twentieth century. Post-Impressionist compositions focused on the personal experience of the painter, versus fidelity to the object like in Impressionism; the style of the work, developing a new method of paint application or viewing the piece from multiple angles, was more important than subject matter. . The art of Paul Gauguin developed out of similar Impressionist foundations, but he too dispensed with Impressionistic handling of pigment and imagery in exchange for an approach characterized by solid patches of color and clearly defined forms, which he used to depict exotic themes and images of private and religious symbolism. Gauguin looked toward remote destinations where he could live easily and paint the purity of the country and its inhabitants. Chapter 32 1. A. ) Imagists were a group of poets who were leaders in the search for a more concentrated style of expression. B. Verbal compression, formal precision and economy of expression were the goals of the imagists. 2. A. ) The work portrays five nude female prostitutes from a brothel on Avinyo Street in Barcelona. Each figure is depicted in a disconcerting confrontational manner and none are conventionally feminine. The women appear as slightly menacing and rendered with angular and disjointed body shapes. Picasso “Africanizes” the two pink (white European) bodies of the two prostitutes who are seen on the right hand side of the picture and the other three faces he evokes an Iberian style of Picasso's native Spain, giving them a savage aura.

This creates an effect of cultural confrontation; difference is explicitly present and causes uncomfortableness. B. ) French imperialism in Africa and the Pacific was at its peak, with boats and trading steamers bringing back ritual carvings and masks as curiosities. While the African carvings had a kind of quirky otherness, becoming very collectible in France, the general view of Africa was the symbol of savagery. Unlike most Europeans, however, Picasso saw this savagery as a source of vitality and renewal that he wanted to incorporate for himself and for European painting.

His interpretation of African art, in the mask-like faces of the figures on the right hand side, was based on this idea of African savagery; the brush-strokes which create them have a stabbing violent quality to them. 3. A. ) Analytic Cubanism is a multiplicity of viewpoints that replaced 1-point perspective. B. ) Synthetic Cubanism is the late phase of cubism, characterized chiefly by an increased use of color and the imitation or introduction of a wide range of textures and material into painting. 4.

Machine technology of speed, electric lighting, and the new phenomenon of moving pictures. 5. A. ) Nonobjective art is art that lacks recognizable subject matter. B. ) Kandinsky was deeply influenced by the Fauves, the Symbolists, and by Russian folk art. Malevich arrived at nonrepresentational art not by way of Fauvism but through the influence of Analytic Cubanism, which asserted the value of line over color. Mondrian was inclined to discover geometric order in the landscape of his native country. 6. Thomas Edison was the first American to project moving images on a screen.

In France the brothers Auguste and Louis Lumiere perfected the process by which cellulose film ran smoothly in a commercial projector. 7. Frank Lloyd Wright invested the techniques of glass and steel technology and the functional principle of the cantilever with the aesthetics of Japanese art to create a modern style of domestic architecture. Le Corbusier introduced some of the classic elements of modern urban architecture, including the open floor plan, the flat roof, and the use of glass “curtain walls. ” 8.

Atonality, polytonality, and polyrhythm as formal alternatives to the time-honored Western traditions of pleasing harmonies and uniform meter. Chapter 33 1. The id is the seat of human instincts and the source of all human desires, including nourishment and sexual satisfaction. It is the compelling force of the unconscious realm. The ego is the administrator or manager that attempts to adapt the needs of the id to the real world. The superego is the moral monitor commonly called the conscience. It monitors human behavior according to the principles inculcated by parents, teachers, and other authority figures. . Freud states that when any situation that is desired by the pleasure principle is prolonged, then it creates a feeling of mild contentment. Thus or possibilities of happiness is restricted by the law. Many of humankind's primitive instincts (for example, the desire to kill and the insatiable craving for sexual gratification) are clearly harmful to the well-being of a human community. As a result, civilization creates laws that prohibit killing, rape, and adultery, and it implements severe punishments if such rules are broken.

This process, argues Freud, is an inherent quality of civilization that instills perpetual feelings of discontent in its citizens. Freud's theory is based on the notion that humans have certain characteristic instincts that are immutable. Most notable are the desires for sex, and the predisposition to violent aggression towards authority figures and towards sexual competitors, which both obstruct the gratification of a person's instincts. 3. A piece of cake soaked in tea. 4. The themes of insecurity and vulnerability reflect the mood that prevailed during the early decades of the century.

The main character wakes up one morning and realizes that he has been turned into a large insect. 5. A brand new car. 6. Dresdan, Munich 7. World War I; they dedicated themselves to spreading the gospel of irrationality because they believed WWI was evidence that the world had gone mad. 8. The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its personal, cultural, social, and political aspects. They wanted to free people from false rationality, and restrictive customs and structures. Breton proclaimed that the true aim of Surrealism was "long live the social revolution and it alone! To this goal, at various times Surrealists aligned with communism and anarchism. There are two composers who were greatly influenced by Surrealism like Erik Satie. He wrote the score for a ballade parade which had a great influence on other composers like Guillaume Apollinaire. He coined the term and made compositions based on it. 9. There are two composers who were greatly influenced by Surrealism like Erik Satie. He wrote the score for a ballade parade which had a great influence on other composers like Guillaume Apollinaire. He coined the term and made compositions based on it.

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