Human Sexuality Chapter 18

Sexual activity that takes place without consent.
-Rape is considered the most common crime of violence. (1/2 million American women are raped each year.
-In ancient Babylonian and Hebrew culture, the wife was seen as guilty of adultery. Babylonian women were bound and thrown in the river with the assailant. Virgins who were raped within the protection of the city gates would also be stoned by the Hebrews. It was thought that they could have maintained their purity by crying out.

*The definition of rape varies from state to state.*
Traditionally, a man couldn’t be convicted of raping his wife, even though he might have forced her to submit to sexual activity by physical power or threats. This was derived from the English common law that held that a woman “gives herself over” to her husband when she becomes his wife and can not retract her consent.

Forcible Rape
Sexual activity obtained by the use of force or the threat of force.
*This is a form of sexual assault.*
Statutory Rape
Sexual activity with a person below the age of consent, even when the victim cooperates.
Sexual Assault
Any sexual activity that involves the use of force or the threat of force.
Rape – Incidence
150,000 to 200,000 women are sexually assaulted per year. This means on average a woman in the US is raped every 7 minutes. About 10% of victims are men. About 2/3rds of rapes in the US go unreported and are not prosecuted.
– Many women choose not to report assaults because of concern that they will be humiliated by the criminal justice system.
-Some fear reprisal from their families or the rapist
* Because Mexican American women live in a culture in which women are often expected to “suffer in silence”, they are even more likely to remain quite about rape and sexual abuse than European American women.

The National Crime Victimization Survey underestimates the incidents of rape in the US because:
-Many women mistakenly believe that coercive sex is rape only when the rapist is a stranger.
-Many women mistakenly assume that only forced vaginal penetration is defined as rape.

*1 in 4 women in the US is raped during her lifetime.*
-Young women are at greater risk of being raped
-Women ages 16 to 24 are two to three times more likely to be raped then older women.
– Many offenders rape children, young and older adults.

Is male-female sexual intercourse between an unmarred couple. (pakistan) *The law allows men and women who are found guilty of zina to be subject to Hadd, which is carried out in the form of public stoning to death if the perpetrator is a Muslim. If they are not a Muslim then the perpetrator of zina can be given a public flogging of 100 lashes.*
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Pakistan’s Hudood Ordinances
They do not any distinction between rape and adultery and have created a war of terror against women.
– A report published by the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) stated that of the 6,000 women and children being held in prison in Pakistan, 80% were imprisoned because of the Hudood Ordinances.
* The sin of rape is regarded as zina-bil-jabr and the sentence is the same, except that a non-Muslim can be sentenced to death as well as receiving 100 lashes. If a perpetrator (or victim of) zina-bil-jabr is a minor, the person can be given a sentence of 5 years, along with 30 lashes and a fine.*
-A man can be found guilty of rape only if he makes a confession or if at least 4 Muslim adult males eye-witnesses, held to be in good religious by the court, provide testimony against him. Testimony by women, including the victim, is not admissible. So if she reports a rape, she is confessing to zina, and is liable to stoning.
Rape – Types
* Most women are raped by men they know- often men that they have come to trust. 83% are committed by acquaintances of the victim.*
– Only 4% of the women in a National Health and Social Life Survey were “forced to do something that they didn’t want to do” by strangers.
Rape – Stranger
Rape that is committed by an assailant previously unknown to the victim.
* Stranger Rapist target:
-someone who seems vulnerable – women who live alone
– who are older or retarded
-who are walking down a deserted streets
-who are asleep
-who are intoxicated *
After finding the target, the rapist may search for the right time and place to commit the crime.
Rape – Acquaintance
Rape by an acquaintance of the victim.
*Women are more likely to be raped by men they know:
– A classmate
-Fellow office worker
-Even a brothers friend*

These kind of rapes are less likely to be reported than stranger rape.
-One reason is that rape survivors may not perceive sexual assault by an acquaintance as rapes.
-Acquaintance rapist tend to rationalize their behavior believing in myths such as the traditional view that men are expected to assume a sexually aggressive role in dating and the belief that rapist are strangers.
*Many times when an acquaintance rape is reported the police treat it as a “misunderstanding” or a “lovers quarrel rather than a violent crime.*

Rape – Date
*Is a form of acquaintance rape.*
10 to 20% of college woman report being forced into sexual intercourse by dates.

-Date rapes are more likely to occur when the couple has too much to drink and then park in the man’s car or goes back to his residence. The man tends to perceive his partner’s willingness to return home with him as signal of sexual interest, even if she resists his advances.

-Date rapist may believe that acceptance of a date indicates willingness to have sex.
-They may think that women should reciprocate with sex if they are taken to dinner.
-Date rapist may believe that “no” means “yes” especially when a sexual relationship has already been established.
-The more that a man focuses on his own wants and ignores those of the woman, the more likely he is to commit rape. In these cases, the motive may be largely sexual, but the man remains a violent criminal who refuses to take no for an answer.

*The issue of consent lies at the heart of determining if a sexual act is rape. Date rape occurs within a context in which sexual relations could occur voluntarily. This is why the issue of consent is murky.

*”Take Back The Night” this is a protest march to demonstrate their disgust for the men who might assault them if they were out walking by themselves and toward a society that too often blame the victim for what happens to her. Many colleges have mandated date rape seminars and workshops.*

Rape – Gang
*Exercise of power is a major motive behind gang rapes., although some attackers may also be expressing anger against women.*
-Gang members often believe that once women have sex they are “whores”. This is why each offending gang member may become more aggressive as he takes his turn.

The Koss college survey showed that sexual assaults involving a group of assailants tends to be more vicious than individual assaults.

Rape – Male
The prevalence of male rape is unknown because most assaults are not reported.
-1 in ten rape survivors is a man
-* Men who rape other men are not gay. Most are heterosexual.*

Motives are:
-Revenge and retaliation
-Sadism and degradation
-Status and affiliation (when the rape is carried out by a gang member)
-Most occur in prison settings
-Males are more often attacked by multiple assailants, are held captive longer and are more often reluctant to report the assault.
-Males are expected to be strong and silent. Male survivors may suffer the same traumatic effect as females do.

Rape – Partner
*Partner rape is more common than date rape because a sexual relationship has already been established.*
-It is largely unreported and often unrecognized by survivors as actually being rape.
-Women fail to report this type of rape because they fear that no one will believe them.

-Sex, but some people use sex to dominate their partners
-Others degrade their partner through sex, especially after an argument.
*Sexual coercion often occurs within a context of a pattern of violence and physical intimidation.*
-Some men see sex as the solution to disputes. They think if they can force their partner into sex “everything will be ok”

*The long-term effects of partner rape on survivors are also similar to those experienced by survivors of stranger rape including: fear, depression, and sexual dysfunctions. Moreover, the woman who is raped by her husband usually continues to live with her assailant and may fear repeated attacks.*

Rape – By Women
Rape by women is rare. When it does happen, it often involves aiding or abetting men who are attacking another woman.
-Rape by a women may occur in gang rape in which women follow male leaders to gain their approval. They may help lure the woman to a safe place to perform the rape or help hold her down.

Some men have been raped by women. Sarrel and Masters reported 11 cases.

Rape – Social Attitudes, Myths & Cultural Factors That Encourage Rape
-*Women say no when they mean yes – this myth has the effect of encouraging rape*

-All women like a man who is pushy and forceful
-The way women dress they are just asking to be raped
-Rapist are crazed by sexual desire
-Deep down women want to be overpowered and forced into sex by men

*Rape myths create a social climate that legitimizes rape.*
– College men are more susceptible to rape myths than college women
-Men also cling to the myths about date rape than women do,even after date rape education classes.

Rophies – Date Rape Drug
(roofies,R2, Roofenol, roachies, la rocha,rope)
This drug is easily slipped into an unsuspecting persons drink. The drug lowers inhibitions, lessening their ability to resist sexual assault, and when it is mixed with alcohol, sometimes causing blackouts that prevent the victims from remembering the assault.
*Rohypnol is also called: “the forget pill” “trip-and-fall and “the mind-eraser”*

The drug has no taste or odor, so victim does not know what is happening when they sip their drink.
– about 10 mins later the woman may feel dizzy and disoriented
– simultaneously too hot and too cold
– nauseated
– She may have difficulty speaking and moving
– then pass out
– She may “black out” for 8-24 hours with little of no memory of what happened

*Rohypnol is a prescription drug used as treatment for insomnia and as a sedative hypnotic in other countries. It is in the same class of drugs as the tranquilizer Valium, but about 10 times stronger.*

It is often used with alcohol to create a dramatic “high”.
*Rohypnol intoxication is generally associated with:
-impaired judgement, memory, motor skills and can make a victim unable to resist or recall a sexual attack. Effects begin within 30 mins, peak within 2 hours and last for up to 8 hours or more.*

How to avoid problems with Rohypnol:
-Be wary of accepting drink from people you do not know and trust
-Do not put your drink down or leave it unattended
-If you think you have been a victim notify the police immediately.

Rapist – Psychological
Sexual motivation plays a key role in rape
*Rape can be in part motivated by:
-striving toward power
Anger usually motivates the rapist to use more force than needed to obtain compliance and to force the victim into degrading and humiliating acts.*
-Those who are motivated by power seek to control and dominate the victim.

*Sadistic rapist are most vicious, some torture or murder their victims.*

Rapist vary in:
– Their psychological characteristics
– Family backgrounds
– Mental health
– Criminal histories
They are not mentally ill or less intelligent than other people.

*They have anti-social personalities that enables them to violate their victims without guilt, shame, anxiety, or empathy. Some have long term histories of violent behavior. The use of alcohol may also dampen self-retraint and spur sexual aggressiveness.*

Some rapist are more sexually aroused by:
– verbal descriptions
– films
– or audiotape that portray themes of rape than are other people.

*Sexually coercive men are more likely than other men to:
– Condone rape and violence against women
– Hold traditional gender-role attitudes
– Be sexually experienced
– Be hostile toward women
– Engage in sexual activity in order to express social dominance
– Be sexually aroused by depictions of rape
– Be irresponsible and lack a social conscience
– Have peer groups, such as fraternities, that pressure them into sexual activity.*

Rape Survivors
– Many survivors of stranger rape fear for their lives during the attack
– Many are in crisis in the day and weeks following the rape.
*They have insomnia and cry frequently, they tend to report eating problems, cystitis, headaches, irritability, mood changes, anxiety, depression, menstrual irregularity. They may become withdrawn, sullen and mistrustful.*

Emotional distress tends to peak in severity by about week three following the assault and remains high for about a month or two.

Lasting problems for victims:
– feelings of being powerless to affect their own fate
– change in personality
– Physical injuries
– STIs
– may have problems at work with coworkers and trouble concentrating.
– problems with relationships with spouse
– lack of sexual desire
– fear of sex
– have difficulty becoming aroused

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
A type of stress reaction brought on by a traumatic event and characterized by flashbacks of the experience in the form of disturbing dreams or intrusive recollections, a sense of emotional numbing or restricted range of feelings and heightened body arousal.
– This is an anxiety disorder.
Rap Survivors – Psychological Disorders
Rape survivors are at higher risk of developing anxiety disorders and depression, abusing alcohol and other substances.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one form of anxiety that is common for rape victims. It is brought on by a experiencing a traumatic event and is often seen in soldiers that were in combat.

Women who blame themselves for the rape tend to suffer more severe depression and adjustment problems, including sexual problems.

Rape – If You Are Rapes
* Don’t change anything about your body – don’t wash, don’t even comb your hair. Leave your clothes as the are. Otherwise you could destroy evidence.
* Strongly consider reporting the incident to the police. You could keep this from happening to someone else, this will be taking control which will help with becoming a survivor.
* Ask a relative or friend to take you to the hospital if you can’t get the police or an ambulance. When you call the hospital to have them send out an ambulance let them know that you were raped so they can send out a trained person.
* Seek help in an assertive way. Seek medical help. Injuries you are unaware of may be detected. Insist that a written or photographic record be made to document your condition. If you decide to file charges, the prosecutor may need this evidence to obtain a conviction.
* Question health professionals. Ask about your biological risks. Ask about prophylactic treatment against HIV infection. Ask what treatments are available. Ask for whatever will help make you comfortable. Call the shots. Demand confidentiality if that is what you want. Refuse what you don’t want.

If there is a rape crisis center or rape hotline is available call them for advice. A rape crisis volunteer may accompany you to the hospital and help see you through your medical treatment.

Rape Survivor – Treatment
Treatment of rape survivors involves helping the woman through the crisis following the attack and then helping her foster long term adjustment. Crisis intervention typically provides the survivor with support and information to help her express her feelings and develop strategies for coping with the trauma.

Emotional consequences of rape and how treatment helps:
-avoid self blame
-improve self-esteem
-validate the welter of feelings surrounding the experience
-help establish and maintain loving relationships.

*It is important for the victim to get social support from: family, friends, religious leaders, and health care specialist.*

*A review of the effectiveness of various kinds of therapy for survivors of rape found that the treatment targets are most often post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety.

Rape Kit
When a woman reports a rape, her body is the crime scene. Typically she is asked to undress over a large white sheet of paper to collect hairs or fibers, and then her body is examined with an ultraviolet light, photographed and thoroughly swabbed for the rapist DNA.
– It can last 4 to 6 hours and produces a “rape kit”.
Many times this rape kit will sit around and may never be opened or tested. It is not tested because it is not deemed a priority.

*Each rape kit cost $1,500 to test. This may be the reason for the delay in their testing. New York City has made the testing of these kits a priority resulting in 2,000 cold hits in rape cases and the arrest rate when from 40 to 70% for rape.*

“Cold Hit”
A match in a database of the DNA of previous offenders.
Rapist – Confronting (Fight, Flee or Plead)
Some women have avoided attacks by pleading or crying. Screaming my help ward off some attacks. Running away sometimes works.
-Self defense training may help a woman defend herself against an attacker. Physical resistance may spur some rapist to be more aggressive. This may increase the chances of being injured.
Rape Prevention
The elimination of rape will require massive changes in cultural attitudes and socialization processes. Education intervention on a smaller scale may reduce its incidence. Many colleges offer coeducational programs about date rape that have apparently lowered the number of date rapes.
*These programs aim to develop empathy for the victim by explaining the damage done by rape, exposing traditional cultural myths that endorse rape, and explaining the borders between encouraging a date to have sex and rape.*

*The rapist is always responsible for the assault.*

Precautions to protect yourself:
-Establish a set of signals with other women in building or neighborhood.
-List yourself in the phone directory and on the mailbox by your first initial only.
-Use dead-bolt locks
-Lock windows and install iron grids on first-floor windows.
-Keep doorways and entries well lit.
-Keep your keys handy when approaching the car or the front door.
-Do not walk by yourself after dark.
-Avoid deserted areas.
-Do not allow strange men into your house or apartment without first checking their credentials.
-Keep your car doors locked and the windows up.
-Check out the back seat of your car before entering.
-Don’t live in a risky building.
-Don’t give rides to hitchhikers (both men & women)
-Don’t converse with strange men on the street.
-Shout “fire!” rather than “rape!” People are likely to flock to fires but to avoid scenes of violence.

How to avoid date rape:
-Tell your partner how far you would like to go so that he will know what the limits are.
-Meet new dates in public places, and avoid driving with a stranger or a group of people you’ve just met.
-Be firm in refusing a sexual overture. Look your partner straight in the eye.
-Listen to your “vibes”. Trust your gut-level feelings.
-Be especially cautious if you are in a new environment, such as college or a foreign country.
-If you have broken off a relationship with someone you don’t really like or feel good about, don’t let him into your place. Many acquaintance rapes are committed by ex-boyfriends.

Sexual Abuse of Children
Many view sexual abuse of children as among the most heinous of crimes.
*Children who are sexually assaulted often suffer social and emotional problems that impair their development and persist into adulthood, affecting their self-esteem and their ability to form intimate relationships.*

*Most sexually abused children are girls, 1/3 are boys. 7-8% of boys and 19-20% of girls have been sexually abused.*
(These numbers came from 65 studies in 22 countries.)
-The numbers might be higher because many people do not report incidents due to:
faulty memory

*Sex abuse of children ranges from exhibitionism, kissing, fondling and sexual touching to oral sex and anal intercourse and with girls, vaginal intercourse.*

*Sexual contact between an adult and a child is abusive, even it the child is willing, since children are legally incapable of consenting.*

– Voluntary sexual activity between children of similar ages is not sexual abuse.
-Children often engage in consensual sex play with peers or siblings, as in “playing doctor” or in mutual masturbation.
*When the experience involves coercion, or when the other child is significantly older or in a position of power over the younger child, the sexual contact may be considered sexual abuse.*

Sexual Abuse of Children -Patterns of Abuse
Children from a stable, middle-class family appear to be generally at lower risk of encountering sexual abuse than children from poorer, single parent or step-families.
*Most molesters are people that are close to the victim: relatives, step-relatives, family friends, and neighbors.*

Many times abuse by a family member is not reported to the authorities. The decision to report abuse to the the police depends largely on the relationship between the abuser and the person who discovered the abuse.

*In a Finkelhor survey, none of the parents whose children were abused by a family member notified the authorities. By contrast parents whose children have been abused by strangers did so.*

Most sexually abused children are abused only once, those who are abused by a family member are more likely to suffer repeated abuse.

*Genital fondling is the most common type of abuse. Intercourse is rare.*

*Repeated abuse by a family member commonly follow a patter that begins with fondling during preschool, progresses to oral sex or mutual masturbation during the early school years, and then to penetration (vaginal or anal intercourse) in preadolescence or adolescence.*

Adults may suspect abuse if a child shows sudden personality changes or develops fears, problems in school, or eating or sleeping problems.

*Average age at which most children are first sexually abused ranges from 6 to 12 years for girls and 7-10 years for boys.*

Sexual Abuse of Children – Abuser Types
The majority of people who sexually abuse children (boys or girls) are males. Male adolescent sex offenders have most likely been molested themselves as boys. Adolescent child molesters also tend to feel socially inadequate and to be fearful of social interactions with age-mates of the other gender.

*Female abusers may go undetected because society accords women a much freer range of physical contact with children than it does men.*

A paraphilia that is defined by sexual attraction to children.

*Although pedophiles are sometimes called child molesters, not all child molesters are pedophiles. Pedohilia involves persistent or recurrent sexual attraction to children. Some molesters, however seek sexual contacts only with children when they are under unusual stress or lack other sexual outlets. Thus, they do not meet the clinical definition of pedophilia.*

– Many pedophiles have personality disorders. Research finds them to be: emotionally unstable, disagreeable, angry, impulsive and mistrustful.

Pedophiles often:
-See children as sexual beings who want to have sex with adults.
-Believe that sex does not harm children and may be beneficial.
-Think of themselves as being so important that they are entitled to have sex with whomever they want.
-See others are dangerous and controlling and think that they must fight to gain control of their lives.
-Believe that they cannot control their impulses.

Marriage or sexual relations between people who are so closely related (by “blood” or consanguineous) that sexual relations are prohibited and punishable by law.
Incest – Types
Most of our knowledge of incestuous relationships concerns father-daughter incest. Most identified cases involve fathers who were eventually incarcerated. (1%)

*Brother-Sister incest is the most common type if incest. 21% of the college men in Finkelhor’s sample, and 39% or the college women, reported incestuous relationships with a sibling of the other sex. Only 4% reported incestuous relationships with their fathers. Mother-Daughter is the least common incest.

Incest – Father Daughter
*Father-Daughter incest often begins with affectionate cuddling or embraces and then progresses to teasing sexual play, lengthy caresses, hugs, kisses, and genital contact, even penetration. Force is not typically used to gain compliance.*
Incest – Brother-Sister
In sibling incest, the brother usually initiates sexual activities and assumes the dominant role. One study reported that penetration was more frequent in brother-sister incest (71%) than in stepfather-stepdaughter incest (27%), or father-daughter incest (35%).
Incest – Family Factors
Incest frequently occurs within the context of general family disruption, as in families in which there is spouse abuse, a dysfunctional marriage, or alcoholic or physically abusive parents.

*Fathers who abuse older daughters tend to be authoritarian with their families.
Fathers that abuse younger, preschool daughter are more likely to be passive, dependent, and low in self esteem.*

*Gedhard and his colleges found that many fathers who committed incest with their daughters were religiously devout, fundamentalist, and moralistic.*

– Incestuous abuse is usually repeat from generation to generation.

Sexual Abuse on Children – Effects
Sexual abuse often inflicts great psychological harm on a child, whether perpetrated by a family member, acquaintance, or stranger.

*Children who are sexually abused may suffer from a litany of short- and long-term psychological complaints, including anger, depression, anxiety, eating disorders, inappropriate sexual behavior, aggressive behavior, self-destructive behavior, sexual promiscuity, drug abuse, suicide attempts, posttraumatic stress disorder, low-self esteem, sexual dysfunction, mistrust of others, and feelings of detachment.*

-Sexual abuse may also have physical effects such as genital injuries and cause psychosomatic problems suh as stomach aches and headaches.

-Regressive behaviors , such as thumb sucking, fear of the dark, and fear of strangers, are also common among sexually abused children. These children also show signs of posttraumatic stress disorder.

Sexual Abuse of Children – Prevention
Prevention programs help children understand what sexual abuse is and how they can avoid it. School based programs can help prepare children to handle an actual encounter with a molester.
-Children who receive training are more likely to
use strategies such as running away, yelling, or
saying no when they are threatened by an
abuser. They are also more likely to report
incidents to adults.

-Besides learning to avoid strangers, children need to recognize the difference between acceptable touching, as in an affectionate embrace or pat on the head, and unacceptable or “bad” touching.

*Most preventative programs emphasize teaching children messages such as “It’s not your fault”, “Never keep a bad or scary secret” and “Always tell your parents about this especially if someone says you shouldn’t tell them.”

School based prevention programs focus on protecting the child. In most states teachers and helpers are required to report suspected abuse to authorities.

Treatment of Survivors of Sexual Abuse
Many therapist recommend a comprehensive approach: individual therapy for the child, mother and father; group therapy for the adolescent or even pre-adolescent survivors; art therapy or play therapy for the younger child., using drawings or puppets to express feelings, marital counseling for the parents, and family therapy for the entire family.
Treatment of Rapist & Child Molesters
When we speak of treating a sex offender, the goal is likely, or more likely, to be to help society by eliminating the problem behavior.

*Most convicted rapist and child molesters are incarcerated as a form of punishment, not treatment.*
-The most common form of treatment is group therapy, which based on the belief that although offenders may fool counselors, they do not easily fool each other. Yet most incarcerated sex offenders receive little or no treatment.

Sexual Harassment
Deliberate of repeated unsolicited verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that is considered to be unwelcomed by the recipient.
The surgical removal of the testicles. The Czech Republic is the only European country that uses this procedure.

Castration reduces testosterone levels and, consequently, offenders’ sex drives.

*On study showed that anti-androgen drugs decreased pedophilic fantasies and masturbation to pedophilic fantasies in a group of incarcerated offenders.