Human Growth, Ex. Credit Chp. 13

Changes in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong are termed:

moral development.

conscience development.

religious devotion.

spiritual awakening

moral development.
What main method did Kohlberg use to evaluate moral reasoning?

interviews about personal moral behavior

interviews about moral dilemma stories

multisetting observation

standardized testing

interviews about moral dilemma stories
Which theory of morality emphasizes the distinction between individuals’ ability to perform moral behavior and actual moral behavior in specific situations?

justice perspective

psychoanalytic

social convention

social cognitive

social cognitive
Control over one’s body, privacy, and choice of friends are examples of __________ issues.

moral

social conventional

personal

autonomous

personalpersonal
Recent studies show which of the following about the religiousness of college students?

upward trend in religious interest

downtrend in religious interest

upward trend in ultraconservative religions

downtrend in “alternative” community-based religions

downtrend in religious interest
In the contemporary perspective on moral development, what contributes to children’s moral development?

parents’ modeled standards and behaviors

biological predisposition

rewarding positive feelings and punishing negative feelings

extrinsic rewards and punishments

rewarding positive feelings and punishing negative feelings
At which stage of Kohlberg’s theory does a person understand that values and laws are relative, and that standards may vary person to person?

heteronomous morality

mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity

social systems morality

social contract or utility and individual rights

social contract or utility and individual rights
According to Kochanska and her colleagues (2002), young children:

do not feel guilt.

are aware of right and wrong.

indicate pleasure following doing something wrong.

do not have the capacity to show empathy toward others.

are aware of right and wrong.
Research shows that over the last several years, college-aged students are placing more value on:

family relationships.

environmental issues.

self-fulfillment and material gain.

global aide and travel.

self-fulfillment and material gain.
What is the moral branch of the personality in psychoanalytic theory?

superego

ego

id

conscience

superego
The care perspective on moral behavior emphasizes:

connectedness, interpersonal communication, and relationships.

the rights of the individual.

that individuals stand alone and independently make moral decisions.

social customs and conventions.

connectedness, interpersonal communication, and relationships.
Proponents of __________ believe that certain behaviors are wrong, and that every school should have an explicit moral code that teaches students what is right and wrong.

a values clarification program

a hidden curriculum

character education

the social cognitive theory of morality

character education
Which of the following is true of adolescents’ religious involvement?

Low religious involvement is correlated with stronger family relationships.

Lack of religious involvement triples the chance of an adolescent engaging in delinquent behaviors.

Religious adolescents have lower grades due to over-involvement with church activities.

Religious adolescents are almost three times as likely to engage in community service.

Religious adolescents are almost three times as likely to engage in community service.
The justice perspective on moral behavior focuses on:

universal ethics.

laws and punishment.

interpersonal communication, relationships, and connectedness.

the rights of the individual.

the rights of the individual
During what age period do children transition between Piaget’s heteronomous and autonomous morality?

4 to 7 years

7 to 10 years

10 to 14 years

14 to 17 years

7 to 10 years
When children become aware that rules and laws are created by people, and can judge action, by considering the actor’s intentions as well as the consequences, they are displaying:

immanent justice.

homonomous morality.

heteronomous morality.

autonomous morality.

autonomous morality.
According to Victor Frankl, the three MOST distinct human qualities are freedom, responsibility, and:

meaning.

spirituality.

religion.

faith.

spirituality.
Approximately what percentage of Americans said that they pray everyday (Pew Research Center, 2008)?

45%

58%

75%

90%

58%
Walter Mischel purports that self-control is strongly influenced by:

religious participation.

biological underpinnings.

cognitive factors.

temperament.

cognitive factors.
Which dimension of moral development regulates social interactions and arbitrates conflict?

intrapersonal

interpersonal

community

cultural

interpersonal
Most people adopt the religious teachings of their upbringing. If a religious change or awakening does occur, it is MOST likely to happen during:

a mid-life crisis.

early adulthood.

adolescence.

late adulthood.

adolescence.
Beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be according to what is important to an individual are:

values.

schemas.

scripts.

priority concepts.

values.
Age-inappropriate actions and attitudes that violate family expectations, societal norms, and personal or property rights of others describe:

a conduct disorder.

juvenile delinquency.

power assertion.

ego-destruction.

a conduct disorder.
What percentage of juvenile delinquency cases involves males?

90%

65%

80%

40%

not: 65%
Compared to middle adulthood, religious interests __________ in late adulthood.

increase for men and decrease for women

increase for women and decrease for men

decrease for both men and women

increase for both men and women

increase for both men and women
According to Piaget, parent-child relations are less likely to foster moral development than peer relations, because:

parents are inconsistent in delivering consequences for broken rules.

peers are less likely to allow negotiation and reasoning about broken rules.

parents hand down rules and punishment in an authoritarian way.

peers settle disagreements by instituting clear and immediate social sanctions.

parents hand down rules and punishment in an authoritarian way.
According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, what is the foundation of moral behavior?

guilt and the desire to avoid feeling guilty

cognitive factors

self-regulation and self-worth

rewards and punishment

guilt and the desire to avoid feeling guilty
Carol Gilligan’s work on moral development has been criticized because:

the theory is not testable.

her predictions are only valid for females.

the “distinctive voice” concept is true only of females in middle age.

girls use both moral orientations, caring and justice, as needed.

not: the theory is not testable.
Situation-specific ethical behavior is known as:

autonomous reasoning.

moral competence.

moral performance.

heteronomous reasoning.

moral performance.
When children think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties of the world that are out of the control of people, they are displaying:

relativistic justice.

autonomous morality.

heteronomous morality.

homonomous morality

heteronomous morality.
An approach to moral instruction that encourages students to define their own principles and recognize the standards of others is called:

the hidden curriculum.

social convention identification.

moral education.

values clarification.

values clarification.
What are the two main components of the superego?

ego and id

ego ideal and conscience

guilt and motivation to avoid feeling guilty

sexual attraction and sexual repression

ego ideal and conscience
In the contemporary perspective on moral development, what contributes to children’s moral development?

parents’ modeled standards and behaviors

biological predisposition

rewarding positive feelings and punishing negative feelings

extrinsic rewards and punishments

rewarding positive feelings and punishing negative feelings

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