Human Growth and Development CLEP study guide

Nature position
Development is more influenced by the genetic endowment of our biological parents. Development is an “unfolding process guided by pre-programmed, genetic info.”
Nurture position
Development is more influenced by the experiences we have.
tabula rasa
“blank slate” referring to the human mind in the nurture perspective of the nature vs. nurture debate. Experience writes upon the “blank slate”
two patterns of development (and how they relate to Nature vs. Nurture)
1) Discontinuity or stage theories (Nurture)
2) Continuity theories (Nature)
Discontinuity (aka stage theories)
Development process through stages. A person changes quantitatively not qualitatively. (Nurture side of the debate) Jean PIAGET. Sigmund FREUD
(vs. Continuity theories)
Continuity theories
Development is a steady growth process. change described in small steps/increments. Skills/behavior improve, but do not change qualitatively (Nature side of debate).
eg: a child remembers more info as they get older (quantity) but not in a qualitatively diff way.
(vs. Discontinuity/stage theories)
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Qualitative Data
(Quality) Data is observed, not measured. descriptions, distinctions, subjective
(vs. Quantitative Data)
Quantitative Data
(Quantity) #s, data measured, facts, objective (vs subjective)
(vs. Qualitative Data)
Theorist who argued development is complete once one reached adolescence
Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget
Child Development theory
theory that development is complete once one reaches adolescence. (endorsed by Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget)
(vs. Life span development theory)
Life span development theory
theory that growth and change continue to occur throughout the entire life span (Erik Erikson)
(vs. Child Development theory)
Universality of cognitive development
Theory that asserts there are similarities in development across cultures and historical time periods. Jean PIAGET argued that all children progress through the same stages of cognitive development in the same order and at the same aprox age.
(vs. Context Specific Development)
Context Specific Development
Theory that the context and culture a child is raised in effects development. Urie BRONFENBRENNER. of note: major differences between people from individualistic cultures vs. collectivist cultures.
(vs. Universality of cognitive development)
collectivist cultures
Culture that places greater value on the common good. Relates to Context Specific Development and Urie BRONFENBRENNER.
(vs. individualistic cultures)
individualistic cultures
Culture that values individual achievement and the pursuit of individual goals. Relates to Context Specific Development and Urie BRONFENBRENNER.
(vs. collectivist cultures)
Jean Piaget
(1896-1980) Predominant figure of cognitive psychology. Large influence on educational practices. Believed that children create schema, organized patterns of thought or action, based on experiences of actively exploring the environment. Theories: Child development theory, cognitive-developmental theory
Cognitive-developmental theory
Jean PIAGET’s theory that cognitive abilities, or one’s ability to think, are developed as individuals mature physiologically and have opportunities to interact with their environment. This interaction and development is through a process of accommodation and assimilation.
*This theory is a STAGE theory
constructivism
The theory that abilities are developed by a process of accommodation and assimilation. For example, a learner encounters a new stimuli, is brought into a state of disequilibrium. After applying the cycle of accommodation and assimilation the behavior is learned and the learner re-enters equilibrium.
*Part of Jean PIAGET’s cognitive-developmental theory. How he believes learners learn.
accommodation
(as it relates to Piaget’s theory of cognitive-development) Process of adjusting prior knowledge gained through former experiences and interactions.
assimilation
(as it relates to Piaget’s theory of cognitive-development) Fitting together the new information with what has previously been known or understood.