human development exam 1 hunter college

development
the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span
traditional approach
emphasis on change from birth to adolescence
life expectancy
average number of years a person is expected to live when born in a particular year
life span
maximum years a human can live
life expectancy has increased but
life span remains the same
life-span approach
-development occurs throughout the life-span
-development is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together
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life span perspective
-lifelong: no age period dominates development
-multidimensional: biological, cognitive, and socioemotional demensions
multidirectional
some directions expand, others shrink/ ex: language- 6 month olds become more able to understand their language, and less able to understand sounds that are no longer in their language
normative age-graded influences
shared by a particular age group
normative history-graded influences
shared by a specific generation
non-normative life events
unique to individual
periods of development: prenatal: conception to birth
tremendous growth, approx 9 months
infancy: birth to 18-24 months
extreme dependence on adults, many psychological activities are beginning
early childhood/preschool years 2-5 years
children become more self-sufficient, develop school readiness skills, spend time playing with peers
middle and late childhood: 6-11 years
fundamental skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic mastered, exposure to the larger world and culture, achievement as a central theme, increase in self control
periods of development: adolescence 10-12 to 18-21
rapid physical changes, pursuit of independence and identity; abstract, idealistic, and logical thought; more time spent outside the family
periods of development: early adulthood 20s to 30s
establishing personal and economic independence, career development, mate selection, starting a family, rearing children
middle adulthood: 40s to 50s
expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility, assisting the next generation to become competent, reaching and maintaining career satisfaction
late adulthood: 60s-70s to death
life review, retirement, and adjustment to new social roles
stability and change
the degree to which traits and characteristics persist through life or change (plasticity)
continuity and discontinuity
gradual cumulative change vs. distinct stages
psychoanalytic theories
-development is primarily unconscious, colored by emotions
-behavior is a surface characteristic of development
Freud
primary motivation for behavior is sexual, emphasis on early experiences, personality shaped in the first five years, five stages of psychosexual development
erikson’s psychosocial theory
primary motive for human behavior is social, developmental changes throughout life span, experience at all ages are important, eight distinct universal stages of development
information processing theory
the brain is compared to a computer’s hardware
ethological theory
behavior is strongly influenced by biology, critical periods- lasting effects
microsystem
environment in which the child directly interacts (school)
mesosystem
interaction between two microsystems (school + home)
exosystem
does not directly interact, but indirectly interacts (parent’s work)
chronosystem
changes in person or environment over time
criticism of evolutionary perspective
can’t be tested scientifically
bidirectional view
environment and biological conditions influence each other
chromosomal abnormalities
down syndrome, fragile x
cephalocaudal pattern
physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually works from top to bottom
proximodistal pattern
center of body outward to extremities, use of whole hand before fingers
infant growth pattern
gain 5-6 ounces per week in the first month, triple weight and 1.5x length in the first year
growth slows considerably by second year
centenarians
number increasing, more women than men, influenced by biology, heredity, family history, coping ability
biological theory
natural selection has not eliminated many harmful conditions and nonadaptive characteristics in older adults
cellular clock
maximum time that human cells can divide is about 75-80
telomeres (the tips of chromosomes) get shorter with each division
children’s health: poverty
malnourishment, less access to health care
prevention in children
avoid accidents (leading cause of death in children), close monitoring, caregivers’ roles in important in taking preventative measures
immunization
emerging and young adults’ health
twice the mortality rate of adolescents, engage in more health compromising behaviors,mental health disorders, poor lifestyle = poor health
osteoporosis
extensive bone tissue loss, 80% of cases are women
dementia
neurological disorders involving deterioration of mental function
causes of alzheimer’s disease
acetylcholine deficiency, genes, age, shrinkage in brain tissue
parkinsons
degeneration dopamine-producing neurons, deep brain stimulation is treatment
malnutrition in infancy
as many as 50% of deaths under age 5 in developing countries are caused by marasmus and kwashiorkor
eating disorders
correlated to family discord and media