What are the differences between the humanism of Italy and Northern Europe?
Northern Europe was more primarily concerned with the study and translation of early Christian manuscripts than the Italian humanists.
What was the landmark result of the Protestant Reformation?
German princes were free to choose the religion to be practiced within their own domains, but this resulted in more religious wars within Germany which devastated its lands for almost a century.
Where did Luther post his Ninety-Five Theses?
On the door of the cathedral of Wittenberg
What was the key to salvation for Luther?
Salvation was achieved only by faith in the validity of Christ's sacrifice: Human beings were saved by the unearned gift of God's grace, not by their good works on earth.
What were the main things that Protestant reformers objected to in the Catholic Church?
Betrayal of apostolic ideals, miserable and wretched Christendom, unwillingness to accept the pope as the ultimate source of religious authority.
In what city did Calvin establish his theocratic state?
What are some characteristics of 16th century Calvinism?
Adheres to the doctrine of predestination in consideration of an omnipotent God.
Who is the 'father' of the literary form known as the essay?
French humanist Michel de Montaigne who believed in the paramount importance of cultivating good judgment. The essay is a vehicle for probing or "trying out" ideas, an expression of reasoned inquiry into human values addressing a variety of universal subjects.
Who is the artist who painted the Arnolfini Wedding? What are some of the unique characteristics of the painting?
Jan van Eyck painted the Arnolfini Wedding.
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. Differences: Japanese theater remains more formally stylized and does not investigate the psychological development of characters.
What literary genre was popular during the 16th century and used by Erasmus, More, and Cervantes?
Satire was popular during this time, accusing European statecraft and society.
What are some characteristics of More's ideal society, which he called "Utopia"?
Charitable and humble: Goods and property are shared, war and personal vanities are held in contempt, learning is available to all (except slaves), and freedom of religion is absolute
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