What are the differences between the humanism of Italy and Northern Europe?
Northern Europe was more primarily concerned with the study and translation of early Christian manuscripts than the Italian humanists.
What was the landmark result of the Protestant Reformation?
German princes were free to choose the religion to be practiced within their own domains, but this resulted in more religious wars within Germany which devastated its lands for almost a century.
Where did Luther post his Ninety-Five Theses?
On the door of the cathedral of Wittenberg
What was the key to salvation for Luther?
Salvation was achieved only by faith in the validity of Christ’s sacrifice: Human beings were saved by the unearned gift of God’s grace, not by their good works on earth.
What were the main things that Protestant reformers objected to in the Catholic Church?
Betrayal of apostolic ideals, miserable and wretched Christendom, unwillingness to accept the pope as the ultimate source of religious authority.
In what city did Calvin establish his theocratic state?
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What are some characteristics of 16th century Calvinism?
Adheres to the doctrine of predestination in consideration of an omnipotent God.
Who is the ‘father’ of the literary form known as the essay?
French humanist Michel de Montaigne who believed in the paramount importance of cultivating good judgment. The essay is a vehicle for probing or “trying out” ideas, an expression of reasoned inquiry into human values addressing a variety of universal subjects.
Who is the artist who painted the Arnolfini Wedding? What are some of the unique characteristics of the painting?
Jan van Eyck painted the Arnolfini Wedding. Unique characteristics: mysterious and unconfirmed subjects, and great attention to details by the use of oil painting.
Who did Shakespeare model his own sonnets on?
Petrarch (and his themes such as blind devotion, the value of friendship, and love’s enslaving power.)
What are the similarities and differences between Japanese and Elizabethan theater?
Similarities: Both addressed an audience whose worldly interests were tied to commercial advantage and urban life; both took place in the pleasure quarters of the city; both were subject to governmental restrictions; both were acted by all-male casts who performed various play types. Differences: Japanese theater remains more formally stylized and does not investigate the psychological development of characters.
What literary genre was popular during the 16th century and used by Erasmus, More, and Cervantes?
Satire was popular during this time, accusing European statecraft and society.
What are some characteristics of More’s ideal society, which he called “Utopia”?
Charitable and humble: Goods and property are shared, war and personal vanities are held in contempt, learning is available to all (except slaves), and freedom of religion is absolute. Work is considered essential to moral and communal well-being and is limited to 6 hours a day.
Erasmus’ Praise of Folly is a landmark example of?
Satire, attacking a wide variety of human foibles, including greed, intellectual pomposity, and pride.
What was the most popular secular song form at the court of Elizabeth?
The English madrigal, generally lighter in mood than its Italian counterpart and technically simple.
Thomas Weelkes and Thomas Morley are names associated with?
being popular Elizabethan composers who made many songs and madrigals that are still enjoyed today.
In the Reformation, the printing press was an effective tool because?
The printing press was essential to the success of the Reformation because it spread copies of the bible and 300,000 copies of Luther’s “protestant” tracts, sermons, and letters in a matter of 2 years.
The comparison of Holbein’s Ambassadors and the Ming dynasty’s Elegant Literary Gathering suggests that?
the tradition of the scholar-gentleman (humanists) spanned across the world at this point and both cultures were proud of aspiring towards humanistic accomplishments.
Which Northern Renaissance painter is notable for his limited interest in religious subject matter and preference for scenes of normal people in ordinary situations?
“Peasant Brueghel” expressed only a passing interest in religious and Classical subject matter, preoccupied with the activities of rustic life.
What are some things Albrecht Durer is known for? (Who was the master print maker of the 16th century?)
Durer: unassailed leader in Northern Renaissance printmaking, fine graphic artist, achieved international fame for his woodcuts and metal engravings; made oil painting in the Renaissance fashion with realistic details and psychological depth without Raphael’s idealization.
Grunewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece was commissioned for the benefit of?
offering solace to the victims of disease and plague at the Hospital of Saint Anthony in Isenheim, France — meant to remind suffering viewers to keep their kinship with the crucified Jesus.
The chorale is primarily associated with?
Worship, musically untrained congregations, and hymns and folk tunes.
The writings of Erasmus and More, like the Protestant Reformation itself, reflect a deep concern with?
the need for reform, discontentedness with current lack of religious freedom.