HR Recruitment and Selectiosn

Steps in the Staffing Process
1. Recruitment Planning – Identify Human Resource Needs
2.Seek Budgetary Approval to Create and /or Fill the Position.
3.Recruitment of Job Applicants
4.Evaluation of Applicants
5.Select the Most Qualified Applicant
Internal recruitment for job application
Advantages
1. Company has better knowledge of strengths and weaknesses of the job candidate.
2. Job candidate has a better knowledge of the organization, policy area…
3. Morale and motivation of the employees are enhanced.
4. The return on investment that an organization has in its present work force is increased.
Disadvantages
1. People might be promoted to the point where they cannot successfully perform the job. (peter principle – mess up; move up)
2. Infighting for promotions can negatively affect morale.
3. Inbreeding can stifle new ideas and innovation.
External recruitment for job applications
Advantages
1. The pool of talent is much larger.
2. New insights and perspectives can be brought to the organization.
3. Frequently it is cheaper and easier to hire technical skills from the outside.
Disadvantages
1. Attracting, contracting and evaluating potential employees is more difficult (adverse selection).
2. Adjustment or orientation time is longer.
3. Morale problems can develop among those employees within the organization who feel qualified for the job.
Conventional external sources for job applications
Walk-ins
Employee Referrals
Advertisements in Newspapers and/or Magazines
College and Placement Offices
Employment Agencies
Search Firms
Job Fairs
Community Agencies
Innovative external sources for job applications
Organizational Outplacement Offices
Internships
Contingent Workers
Alumni Associations
Where Do Job Applicants Come From?
Recent MSPB Survey Indicates:
New Hires learned about jobs from friends and relatives (53%); Internet posting (17%); Newspaper Ads (15%)
56% Applicants have Internet access
Job Announcements should include all pertinent information but not overly lengthy.
Applications should be made as easy as possible.
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Evaluation of Job Applicants
Review of Resumes
Interview
Testing
Check of References
Red Flags on Resumes and Applications
Unanswered questions
Ambiguous statements
Frequent job changes
Unclear titles
Reasons for leaving
Unexplained gaps in time
Describing experience in generalities
Absence of growth
Questions You Should Not Ask During the Interview
Questions Concerning:
Race
Sex
National origin or nationality
Age or date of birth
Marital status, information on spouse
Height or weight
Disability
Birthplace
Religious affiliation or church
Plans for raising a family
Babysitting arrangements
Selection Methods
Application form
Cover letter & resume
Written tests
Performance tests
Reference checks
Background investigations
Oral examinations (interviews)
Assessment Centers
Probationary period
The Legal Environment of Testing: Griggs v. Duke Power Co. (1971)
Willie Griggs filed a class action, on behalf of several fellow African- American employees, against his employer Duke Power Company . Griggs challenged Duke’s “inside” transfer policy, requiring employees who want to work in all but the company’s lowest paying Labor Department to register a minimum score on two separate aptitude tests in addition to having a high school education. Griggs claimed that Duke’s policy discriminated against African-American employees in violation of Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. On appeal from a district court’s dismissal of the claim, the Court of Appeals found no discriminatory practices. The Supreme Court granted certiorari.
-Question Presented -Did Duke Power Company’s intradepartmental transfer policy, requiring a high school education and the achievement of minimum scores on two separate aptitude tests, violate Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act?
-Conclusion-Yes. After noting that Title VII of the Act intended to achieve equality of employment opportunities, the Court held that Duke’s standardized testing requirement prevented a disproportionate number of African-American employees from being hired by, and advancing to higher-paying departments within, the company. Neither the high school graduation requirement nor the two aptitude tests was directed or intended to measure an employee’s ability to learn or perform a particular job or category of jobs within the company. The Court concluded that the subtle, illegal, purpose of these requirements was to safeguard Duke’s long-standing policy of giving job preferences to its white employees.
The Griggs case established the following principles for pre-employment testing:
1. Title VII does not forbid testing, only test that do not measure job performance. The test must measure the person for the job and not the person in abstract.
2. An employer’s intent not to discriminate is irrelevant – only applicable under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1991. Remember Washington v. Davis
3. If a practice is fair in form, but discriminatory in operation, it will not be upheld.
4. The defense for any existence of any program that has adverse impact is business necessity. Business necessity was not defined by the court.
Validation of Tests
If a test has an adverse impact on the selection process, as was the case in Griggs, it must be validated as to whether it is:
-Job Related
-Predictive of performance
-Necessary because no less discriminatory methods are available then business necessity is required.
-Griggs did not specify how test should be validated.
Albemarle Paper Company v. Moody (1975) Summary
Extended and clarified Griggs. In 1963 Albemarle Paper Company adopted the Wonderlic Test A and B series as a screening program for selection of employees. General population norms were used to set cut-off scores until the Griggs decision. After Griggs. Albemarle hired an expert in industrial psychology to validate the test. The expert uses ratings of job performance from three different supervisors, which were correlated with test scores. After the validation 96 percent of white applicants passed the test and 64 percent of African Americans. The test scores were used to select and place employees. The Supreme Court ruled if a test is to be used to screen candidates, then the nature of the job must be carefully analyzed and documented. The performance standards for the job should be clear and unambiguous. The EEOC guidelines concerning acceptable selection procedures were endorsed by the Supreme Court.
Albemarle Paper Company v. Moody (1975)
Validation of legal environment of testing
The validation of the tests used by Albemarle was improper and failed to show business necessity because the validation process used was not related to the job being applied for.
Subjective supervisors’ ratings were compared to test scores.
The study focused on experience employees in upper level jobs; high scores of that group are not predictive of qualifications for new workers to perform lower level jobs.
The supervisors rated older whites and experienced workers, whereas the tests were given to younger, less experienced, and nonwhite applicants.
The EEOC Uniform Guidelines use a “4/5 or 80 percent”
In 1978, all of the relevant bodies came together (the Department of Justice, the Department of Labor, the EEOC, and the Civil Rights Commission) and they produced the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection. The following example should prove illustrative. The 80% Rule holds that if the employer hires 60% of all the white applicants, then 48% (60% x .8) of the minority group members who apply must be hired to show no adverse impact.
3 Types of test validation
Criterion-related validity
Content validity
Construct validity
Criterion related validity
is a collection of data that measure job performance and establish statistical relationships between measures of job performance and test scores. This is the traditional method of validation. Supervisor ratings must be objective or will fail to meet the criteria of Albemarle case.
Content validity
correlates certain aspects of the job performance with test scores to measure job performance. This differs from the criterion validation in that the job performance is measured in the specific job for which the applicant is being tested.
Construct validity
is a psychological method of validation based on research whereby a psychological trait is identified as essential to the successful performance of the job and develops a selection procedure to measure the presence and degree of that trait.

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