Honors US History 1 – Final Exam Review

Louisiana Purchase
Not wanting to fight Napoleon and France in western America, Jefferson sent James Monroe to join Robert Livingston in Paris in 1803 to buy as much land as he could for $10 million.
Napoleon decided to sell all of Louisiana and abandon his dream of a New World Empire for 2 reasons:
He failed in his efforts to re-conquer the island of Santo Domingo, for which Louisiana was to serve as a source of foodstuffs.
Because Britain controlled the seas, Napoleon didn’t want Britain to take over Louisiana. So he wanted the money from the Americans. He also hoped the new land for America would help to thwart the ambitions of the British king in the New World.
Monroe-Pickney Treaty
Sent to end British impressement but failed to address it and thus it was not passed.
Embargo Act
It banned the exportation of any goods to any countries. With the act, Jefferson planned to force France and England, who both depended on American trade, to respect America and its citizens, who had been killed and captured by both countries. The embargo significantly hurt the profits of U.S. merchants and was consequently hated by Americans
Treat of Ghent
The Treaty of Ghent, signed on December 24, 1814 in Ghent, Belgium, was an armistice. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay went to Ghent for the signing. Both sides stopped fighting and conquered territory was restored.
The Hartford Convention
Death of the Federalist party. Demanded, Financial assistance from Washington to compensate for lost trade from embargos. 2/3 vote in congress, Abolish 3/5 clause, pres. gets 1 term, no same pres from same state in a row
American System
Set up by Henry Clay,
1) Protective Tariffs
2) Internal Improvments
3) Strong banking system
Missouri Compromise
No slavery above 36 30
Henry Clay introduced the compromise that decided whether or not Missouri would be admitted as a slave state. Congress decided to admit Missouri as a slave state in 1820. But, Maine, which was apart of Massachusetts, was to be admitted as a separate, free state. Therefore, there were 12 slave states and 12 free states.
The Monroe Doctrine
Its two basic features were non-colonization and nonintervention.
Monroe stated that the era of colonization in the Americas was over.
Monroe also warned against foreign intervention. He warned Britain to stay out of the Western Hemisphere, and stated that the United States would not intervene in foreign wars.
Bank War
Jackson felt the back was monopolistic. Nicholas Biddle had unconstitutional power over nations financial affairs.erupted in 1832 when Daniel Webster and Henry Clay presented Congress with a bill to renew the Bank’s charter. Clay pushed to renew the charter in 1832 to make it an issue for the election of that year. He felt that if Jackson signed off on it, then Jackson would alienate the people of the West who hated the Bank. If Jackson vetoed it, then he would alienate the wealthy class of the East who supported the Bank. Clay did not account for the fact that the wealthy class was now a minority. Jackson vetoed the bill calling the Bank unconstitutional. The veto showed that Jackson felt that the Executive Branch had more power than the Judicial Branch in determining the Constitutionality
Panic of 1837
Crisis after bank is killed. In 1836, the failure of two British banks caused the British investors to call in foreign loans. These loans were the beginnings of the panic. The basic cause of the panic of 1837 was the rampant speculation prompted by a get-rich scheme. Smaller, wildcat banks in the west had begun to issue their own currency. But this “wildcat” currency was extremely unreliable because its value was based upon the value of the bank it was issued from. In 1836, “wildcat” currency had become so unreliable that Jackson told the Treasury to issue a Specie Circular- a decree that required all public lands to be purchased with metallic money. This drastic step contributed greatly to the financial panic of 1837.
Second Great Awakening
1800. Women were a large part of it.
Peter Cartwright- a revivalist, traveling preacher who converted thousands to Christianity.
Charles Grandison Finney- one of the greatest revivalist preachers.
Camp meetings hoped to spread ideas and create new churches.
Reform Movements
Several reform movements began. Most called of insitutional and moral change.
Seneca Falls Convention
Beginning of the feminist movement in 1848. Rewrote the Declaration of Independence to include women.
Transcendentalism
The transcendentalists rejected the theory that all knowledge comes to the mind through the senses. Truth, rather, transcends the senses and can’t be found just by observation. Associated traits included self-reliance, self-culture, and self-discipline.
Manifest Destiny
Coined by O’Sullivan and supported by Polk. God wanted America to spread democracy across North America
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay – Wanted to Avoid succession.
1) Strict Fugitive Slave Act (Only Southern Gain)
2)Split NM into NM and Utah – Popular Sov.
3)Cali is a free state
4) DC Slave trade is outlawed
5) 10 Mil goes to Texas for NM
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Stephen A. Douglas- longed to break the North-South deadlock over westward expansion; proposed the Territory of Nebraska be sliced into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. Their status on slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty. Repealed Missouri Compromise.
Lecompton Constitution
In order to keep the free-soilers from creating a free state. The document stated that the people were not allowed to vote for or against the constitution as a whole, rather, they could vote on whether the constitution would be “with slavery” or “without slavery.”
Bleeding Kansas
Civil War in Kansas.
Dred Scott Decision
1) Slaves not Citizens so they can not sue
2) Slaves are property, cannot be with held
3) Overturns Missouri Compromise
Crittenden Compromise
designed to appease the South. They said that slavery in the territories was to be prohibited north of 360 30′, but south of that line was to be given federal protection in all territories existing or herby acquired. Basically, states north of the line could come into the Union with or without slavery, depending on what they chose, but below that line, there would always be slavery.
Election of 1860
Democratic Party was split in two – North = Stephen Douglas / South = John C. Breckenridge