Honors English 2-B: Charlotte Bronte’s novel Jane Eyre, Hope is a Thing with Feathers by Emily Dickinson

If you are asked to describe a character’s emotions, what is the related literary question?
How does the character feel?
What is the definition of a foil?
a character who provides contrast to another character
What is an antagonist?
the character who opposes the main character

In Romeo and Juliet, the character of Juliet has a dilemma. She loves Romeo and has no conflict with him as a person. However, she has fallen in love with the son of her father’s enemy. At first, she does not know how to solve this problem.

What is the nature of Juliet’s conflict?

internal

In the first part of Charlotte Bronte’s novel Jane Eyre, Jane is a plain but brilliant young orphan girl who endures a difficult time living at a school for orphaned children. Finally, she resolves to leave the school by getting a job as a governess.

How does Jane resolve her conflict?

She moves out.
“Hey Pat! Great to see you!” boomed Terrence, catching sight of Pat.
“Yeah,” Pat said without enthusiasm.
“Anything wrong Pat? You seem kind of quiet.”
“No, I’m fine…Well—I’m late to class,” replied Pat.What is this passage an example of?

indirect characterization through dialogue
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Now the Sheriff of Nottingham swore that he himself would bring this knave Robin Hood to justice, and for two reasons: first, because he wanted the two hundred pounds, and next, because the forester that Robin Hood had killed was of kin to him.

What can you conclude about the Sheriff’s personality?

The Sheriff was greedy, and he blamed Robin Hood for a murder.
What is direct characterization?
a statement about a character’s personality, appearance, habits, goals, values, and beliefs
What is an archetype?
characters, situations, images, and symbols that appear in the narratives of many cultures

My soul began to expand, to exult, with the strangest sense of freedom, of triumph, I ever felt.

What is this passage an example of?

indirect characterization through the character’s narration
Which of the following is written from third-person point of view?
Millie and Vanessa live two blocks from one another.
Grace is reading a book that is written in the first-person point of view. Which of the following is not an example of how the point of view of the book might impact her?
She might have a better understanding of the story since she has insight to every character’s thoughts and feelings.
Which is a clue that indicates a passage is written in third-person point of view?
the use of he, she, it, or they
Garrison is reading a book that gives insight into the thoughts and feelings of all characters. Which type of narrator does this describe?
omniscient third person
When narrators tell stories from their own perspective and use the pronouns I, me, and we, which point of view is indicated?
first person
In autobiographies, narrators tell the story of their own lives. From which point of view would you expect an autobiography to be written?
first person
Which type of narrator has full knowledge of only one character, rather than all the characters?
limited third person
What might be the author’s purpose for writing in first-person point of view?
so the character can directly share his or her thoughts with the reader

Things were out of place in the room. I knew immediately that someone had been there. The trash was knocked over, the bathroom light was on, and the window was open. Things definitely weren’t right.

Which sentence indicates that the passage is written from a first-person point of view?

I knew immediately that someone had been there.
When a story is told from the _____, the narrator has full knowledge of all the characters.
third-person omniscient point of view
Which statement about an implied theme is true?
It can be revealed through characters or events.
What helps the reader most to infer a writer’s theme?
the supporting details
What is a theme?
the central message in a literary work
To compare the ways that two authors use theme, what is the best approach?
Contrast how each author’s message about the theme is different.
Which statement about theme is true?
In poetry, the theme is often suggested with symbols.

Read the excerpt from the poem “Hope is a Thing with Feathers,” by Emily Dickinson.

Hope is a thing with feathers
That perches in the soul
And sings the song without the words
And never stops at all,

What is the implied theme of this poem?

the strength of hope
Which of the following themes is culturally specific?
the tragic division of families in the U.S. Civil War

Read the passage from Willa Cather’s novel My Antonia. Pay special attention to the sections in quotation marks.

All those fall afternoons were the same, but I never got used to them. “As far as we could see, the miles of copper-red grass were drenched in sunlight that was stronger and fiercer than at any other time of the day.” The blond cornfields were red gold, the haystacks turned rosy and threw long shadows. The whole prairie was like the bush that burned with fire and was not consumed. “That hour always had the exultation of victory, of triumphant ending, like a hero’s death—heroes who died young and gloriously.” It was a sudden transfiguration, a lifting-up of day.

Which two themes are conveyed by this passage?

the glory of nature and of a young hero’s death
In a work of fiction, where is the best place to look for supporting details that indicate the theme?
in the dialogues and descriptions
What does the writer’s worldview refer to?
the writer’s beliefs
Which option best describes diction?
a writer’s word choice and placement of words

Read the excerpt from Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain.

…there ain’t nothing more to write about, and I am rotten glad of it, because if I’d a knowed what a trouble it was to make a book I wouldn’t a tackled it, and ain’t a-going to no more.

What tone does the writer use?

conversational and confidential

Read the passage from Jane Austen’s novel Pride and Prejudice.

She could think of nothing more to say; but if he wished to converse with her, he might have better success. He stood by her, however, for some minutes, in silence; and, at last, on the young lady’s whispering to Elizabeth again, he walked away.

When the tea-things were removed, and the card-tables placed, the ladies all rose, and Elizabeth was then hoping to be soon joined by him, when all her views were overthrown by seeing him fall a victim to her mother’s rapacity for whist players, and in a few moments after seated with the rest of the party.

How does sentence structure affect this piece of writing?

The complex sentence structure makes the writing formal and refined.
Which of the following is the best description of a writer’s voice?
the way an author “speaks” to an audience on a page

Read the passage from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s novel The Hound of the Baskervilles.

As the old man stood there he saw something coming across the moor, something which terrified him so that he lost his wits… There was the long, gloomy tunnel down which he fled. And from what? A sheep-dog of the moor? Or a spectral hound, black, silent, and monstrous? Was there a human agency in the matter? Did the pale, watchful Barrymore know more than he cared to say? It was all dim and vague, but always there is the dark shadow of crime behind it.

The effect of the questions is to make the tone of the passage _______.

dramatic and tense

I’m tired of waiting for an answer—speak up!

Which adjective best describes the writer’s tone?

impatient
Which statement about voice and style is true?
Diction, tone, and sentence structure are important elements of both voice and style.
What is one way to analyze a writer’s sentence structure?
Look for variations in the length and structure of the sentences.

Whenever we go to see our friend, we take the bus, which is usually an express bus, except on weekends. We have learned after taking the bus so many times that we will have to wait a long while for it because the bus is almost always late. We don’t mind, and because we are used to it, we always ride it.

In the passage, which characteristic of sentence structure is the most evident?

complex sentence structure

Read the passage from the novel Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, by James Joyce.

Eleven! Then he was late for that lecture too. What day of the week was it? He stopped at a newsagent’s to read the headline of a placard. Thursday. Ten to eleven, English; eleven to twelve, French; twelve to one, physics.

What kind of style is suggested by the incomplete sentences?

informal, stream of consciousness

Richard flopped out of the pool and onto the cool deck. He lay there basking in the sun until his skin grew hot, then he splashed back into the blue water.

Which figure of speech does the author use in the passage?

implied metaphor
What is an implied metaphor?
a metaphor that suggests a comparison rather than stating it directly
Maurice is reading a book. He is surprised by the way the author presents new and unexpected comparisons between unlike subjects. Which figure of speech is the author using?
simile

Tina beat me at the trivia game again. She is such a clever fox, she always wins!

Which figure of speech do the words “she is such a clever fox” represent?

metaphor

Once again, Sylvia earned an A on the test. Everyone said she was the Einstein of the class.

Which figure of speech do the words “she was the Einstein of the class” represent?

allusion

Daniela sat awestruck. It was her first time in the stadium. The smell of the freshly cut grass and the crack of the bat gave her goose bumps.

Which literary device does the author use in the passage?

imagery

Gloria is hard to get to know. Whenever she is put in a situation that might reveal her true personality, she withdraws into a shell, where she feels safe and hidden.

Which figure of speech does the author use in the passage?

implied metaphor

Jeremy is a hawk. He saw the last donut in the box and swooped in to grab it before anyone else.

Which figure of speech do the words “Jeremy is a hawk” represent?

metaphor
Monica is reading a passage from her favorite story. She enjoys the descriptive language because it includes so many sensory details. Which literary device is the author using?
imagery
While reading a poem, Maggie came across a reference to Cleopatra, the famous Egyptian queen. Which literary device is the poet using?
allusion

The weather forecaster predicted heavy rain and flooding. However, only a few clouds passed over, causing it to sprinkle. “That was sure a big downpour,” a radio commentator noted.

Which literary device did the author use in the passage?

verbal irony

Harrison thought this day would never end. “I am buried in homework,” he told his friends. “I might suffocate under an avalanche of paper and books.”

Which literary device did the author use in the passage?

hyperbole

Denise came in from shoveling snow in the driveway. Her lips were blue, her nose was red, and there were little icicles on her eyelashes. “I may have to skip a swim in the lake today,” she told her mother.

Which literary device did the author use in the passage?

understatement
Manny realizes that the castle described in the book he is reading stands for a larger idea: paradise. Which literary device is the author using?
symbolism
A writer makes a forceful contrast between expectations and reality, creating a surprise ending for readers. Which literary device is the author using?
irony
Miley had just typed the last sentence of her research report when the computer screeched, whirred, and went black. Miley stared at the screen and said, “I think I might have a small problem here.”
understatement
Thomas is fascinated by the play he is reading. He knows something about what has happened that the main character doesn’t realize yet. Which literary device is the author using?
dramatic irony

an idea that is downplayed or treated casually

Which literary device matches the definition?

understatement
What of the following describes dramatic irony?
The audience or the reader knows something that a character does not know.

Read the following sentence used in a speech by Mark Twain.

In the spring I have counted one hundred and thirty-six different kinds of weather inside of four-and-twenty hours.

What literary device is used in the sentence?

hyperbole

The first epic is the story of a soldier who got lost at sea and sailed for many years before finding his way home. While he was gone, his family struggled financially. Knowing how much their father valued his ancestors’ homeland, his children refused bribes of food and money offered in exchange for the land. They preferred to live humbly and proudly. Upon his return, their father’s joy was boundless, which pleased his sons and daughters.

The second epic is the story of a great leader and prince who was banished from his home by an evil cousin. While traveling and living a simple life in the forest, the prince met and married a princess. Despite their royal backgrounds, neither of them minded living safely hidden in the forest. This humility saved their lives on a number of occasions, and their great happiness did not depend on living in a castle.

When comparing these two myths, what qualities do both myth-tellers seem to value?

humility and humbleness
Which statement is typically true about epic heroes?
They have warrior-like virtues.

How did they get their food—by hunting, farming, raising animals, or something else?

That question asks about which aspect of cultural context?

lifestyle

What characteristics did they most value in people?

That question asks about which aspect of cultural context?

values
Which of the following is not one of the four aspects of cultural context?
appearance—how the storytellers looked

In the first myth, the world was destroyed because the people had become very wicked and had strayed from religious behavior. God warns one righteous couple and tells them how they can be saved. Consequently, they build a great boat that saves them, their family, and the animal kingdom.

In the second myth, the Earth floods because it is thrown into a great ocean by a demon. The Earth and its greatest sages are saved by a saintly king who recognizes the gods’ instructions as they are issued from the mouth of what appears to be a fish.

Ty asked himself the following question before reading the myths:

What characteristics do the myth-tellers believe are important?

What might Ty conclude is important to the tellers of both myths?

obeying the words of gods

In the first myth, the world is destroyed because the people had become very wicked and had strayed from religious behavior. God warns one righteous couple in advance. They build a great boat and save themselves, their family, and two of every animal.

In the second myth, the Earth floods because it is thrown into a great ocean by a demon. The Earth and its greatest sages are saved by a saintly king who recognizes the gods’ instructions as they are issued from the mouth of what appears to be a fish.

Based on the summaries, which statement comparing the cultural contexts of these myths is accurate?

The tellers of both myths seem to believe in a god who protects those who are saintly or righteous.

Young Krishna and his friends played in the fields all day as they watched the calves. One day, as they played, Agasura, an eight-mile long snake, lay down on the path. Agasura opened his mouth widely, determined to swallow Krishna and his friends. The great snake’s enormous mouth looked just like a cave. His tongue looked like a path, and his breath seemed like an eerie warm breeze.

In a footnote, Tony learned that Agasura is a servant of the evil King Kamsa, who is determined to kill the child, Krishna.

What useful background information does the footnote provide?

It tells that in this culture, nobility, or being a king, does not always make one good.
Why is it important to analyze the cultural context of a myth or epic?
Understanding the cultural context helps a reader better understand a myth or epic.
Which of the following is not a way to acquire background knowledge about the cultural context of a text?
skipping every other paragraph while browsing a text

Aida read a novel that focused on everyday life. The novel starts at the beginning of the main character’s life and moves forward in a linear manner from beginning to middle to end. The novel’s theme explores an important social problem: poverty that resulted in homeless families in the nineteenth century.

The novel Aida read has characteristics specific to which literary movement?

realism
Which literary movement is characterized by a celebration of the individual’s imagination and emotion, by a preference for the wild and untamed nature, and by its attempt to bring together opposites?
romanticism

Tamika is reading an essay comparing two poems and has come across a missing word.

A poem by a Romanticist will celebrate the individual and emotions, whereas a poem by a _____ will be objective and nonjudgmental in its detailed and realistic portrayal of war.

Choose the term that best completes the sentence.

naturalist
What is a postmodernist work more likely to have than a modernist work?
a more playful attitude
A poem that develops a theme from classical Greek literature and explores the beauty of order and balance has characteristics of literature representative of which literary movement?
classicism

Corey read a poem about inequality between the rich and the poor. The poem included a description of a child, dressed in rags, who sleeps on the street and goes to sleep hungry each night.

The poem also describes an overweight dog that wears a wool sweater on cold mornings. The child sees the dog each morning when servants walk it to the market to buy fresh bread and vegetables for their employer’s household. When the child begs food from the dog’s owners, she is merely ignored. Corey notices that the poet does not judge the unequal treatment of the dog and the child.

This poem’s objectivity, or lack of critical judgment, represents a value specific to which literary movement?

naturalism

Pavel is reading an essay comparing two poems and has come across a missing word.

A poem by a Postmodernist might not rhyme, and it might employ unconventional grammar and spelling. A poem by a _____, however, will follow an established format and be modeled after ancient Greek and Roman poetry.

Which term best completes the sentence?

classicist

Maria is reading an essay comparing two poems and has come across a missing word.

A love poem by a Classicist will express emotion in a logical and restrained manner, whereas a love poem by a _____ will celebrate the wild, the untamed, and the imaginative. Both poems will likely involve rhyme.

Which term best completes the sentence?

romanticist
What term is used to describe the people and events that influence a writer?
historical context

Saleem read a novel with the following characteristics:

The narrator jumps playfully from the mind of one character to the next.
In some parts, the story reads more like a movie script than a typical novel.
In other parts of the story, the narration sounds like a news report or the commentary of an announcer at a sporting event.
This type of narration reflects values and techniques specific to which literary movement?

postmodernism
Providing background information will _____.
help readers follow your essay
To develop a thesis statement for a literary analysis, review your notes and decide _____.
which critical point you want to make about the piece of literature
What is hedging?
vague language
When you _____, you try to determine the meaning behind events and the characters’ actions.
analyze
Which of the following is an example of “making personal connections”?
This book reminds me of the time we went to Florida for vacation.
Which of the following is not an example of a response to literature?
a movie based on a book
Which of the following describes a literary review?
A reviewer reads a novel and writes an article that says whether he or she liked the work.
Which of the following is an example of “establishing a purpose for reading”?
I am reading this book for an English homework assignment.
What is the primary purpose of a graphic organizer when used as an aid to read a play?
It is used to summarize the play and keep track of details.
Which of the following is an example of “predicting what will happen next”?
I think the boys will escape from the thieves soon.
Using language like “I think” and “in my opinion” can make your writing seem _____.
uncertain

Salma read a play about a judge who mistakenly convicts his son-in-law of a serious crime. By the time the judge realizes his mistake, the son-in-law is dead and the judge’s daughter has fallen into a deep depression.

Although the play ended badly for the judge and his family, there were a few points of humor in the play that broke up some of the tension.

Which term describes those moments of humor?

comic relief
Which statement is true?
Stage directions tell performers and directors how the stage should look and how the performers should act.

Alberto is in a play with several scenes that occur in a busy marketplace. For those scenes, the stage is set with a painted backdrop that shows rows of fruit, buckets of cut flowers, and displays of bakery goods.

When the audience sees that set and watches the actors on stage, they understand where the scene takes place.

What allows the audience to understand where the scene takes place?

dramatic convention

Imani is studying a play. She has just read a monologue in which a ruthless character named Hermione confronts the play’s protagonist. Hermione challenges the protagonist and threatens to ruin the protagonist and the whole town.

Based on this description of what Imani has read, what kind of character is Hermione?

antagonist
In what kind of drama do noble and morally good characters encounter disaster?
tragedy

Levi is reading the script of a play. He notices that on one page a major character speaks alone on the stage to reveal private thoughts.

What is this kind of dramatic speech called?

a soliloquy
Which statement is true about the script of a play?
It may be divided into acts and scenes.
Which is a type of comedy?
satire

Marta is reading the script of a play. In the script, she notices that on one page the main character speaks at length to other characters who are silent on stage.

What is this kind of dramatic speech called?

a monologue

After Aida saw the play Macbeth, she told her friends that the actors, their costumes, their dialogue, and their props all worked together to create an illusion of reality.

What is this illusion called?

dramatic effect
Which statement is true about lyric poetry?
Lyric poetry is written in highly musical language.

These lines from John Donne’s poem “To Mr. T. W.” are an example of what rhyme scheme?

Haste thee harsh verse as fast as thy lame measure
Will give thee leave, to him, my pain and pleasure.
I have given thee, and yet thou art too weak,
Feet, and a reasoning soul and tongue to speak.
Plead for me, and so by thine and my labor,
I am thy Creator, thou my Savior,
Tell him, all questions, which men have defended
Both of the place and pains…are ended;

aabbccdd
Which statement is true?
An elegy may express larger themes of loss, such as the passing of youth.

Which represents the best paraphrase for this line of verse from “To Mr. T. W.” by John Donne?

Haste thee harsh verse as fast as thy lame measure
Will give thee leave, to him, my pain and pleasure

Hurry, cruel verse, as fast as you can. Hurry to him, who is my sorrow and my joy.

Read the following line of verse from a poem by Emily Dickinson.

A Swel/ -ling of/ the Ground—

What is it an example of?

iambic trimeter
What is a quatrain?
four lines of verse
What is rhyme scheme?
the regular pattern of rhyming words in a poem or stanza
Which statement is true?
An ode and an elegy may have different poetic structures.
What is an iamb?
a set of unstressed and stressed syllables

Which represents the best interpretation of this verse from John Donne’s “Song”?

Yesternight the sun went hence,
And yet is here today;
He hath no desire nor sense,
Nor half so short a way:
Then fear not me,
But believe that I shall make
Speedier journeys, since I take
More wings and spurs than he.

The speaker is saying that he will come quickly to be beside the person he loves.

Read the following line of verse from a poem by Emily Dickinson.

I first/ surmised/ the Hor-/ ses’ Heads…

What is it an example of?

iambic tetrameter

Which statement is true about these lines from “Ode to a Nightingale” by John Keats?

Was it a vision, or a waking dream?
Fled is that music:—Do I wake or sleep?

The poet uses punctuation to slow down the reader and call attention to something important.

These verses from Thomas Gray’s “Elegy Written in a Country Church-Yard” are examples of _____.

Excerpt from “Elegy Written in a Country Church-Yard”

By Thomas Gray

1 The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,
2 The lowing herd wind slowly o’er the lea
3 The plowman homeward plods his weary way,
4 And leaves the world to darkness and to me.

5 Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight,
6 And all the air a solemn stillness holds,
7 Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight,
8 And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds;

heroic quatrain
What is a main difference between an ode and an elegy?
An ode has complex rhyming patterns, while an elegy generally does not.
What is a ballad?
a song-like poem that tells a story, often one dealing with adventure and romance
Which of the following is not a step when reading and analyzing a poem?
Ignore any punctuation while reading the poem.

Read these stanzas from “Robin Hood and the Beggar.” In this part of the ballad, Robin Hood meets a beggar and demands his money. The beggar responds.

How do these stanzas fit the characteristics of a ballad?

Excerpt from “Robin Hood and the Beggar”

“Sir, you must lend me some money
Until we two meet again.”
The beggar answered cankeredly,
“I have no money to lend.”

“You are as young a man as I,
And seems to be as swear
If you don’t eat ’til you get from me,
You shall eat none this year.”

The stanzas are song-like and tell a story.
Which statement accurately compares narrative poetry to lyric poetry?
While narrative poetry tells a story, lyric poetry expresses thoughts and feelings.

Read the following lines from The Epic of Gilgamesh.

…then he cut the heavy stones from his feet, and the sea carried him and threw him onto the shore.

What literary device is used to describe what the sea does to Gilgamesh?

personification

Read the passage from The Epic of Gilgamesh.

How does this passage fit the characteristics of an epic?

Excerpt from The Epic of Gilgamesh

When Gilgamesh heard this he opened the sluices so that a sweet-water current might carry him out to the deepest channel; he tied heavy stones to his feet and they dragged him down to the water-bed. There he saw the plant growing; although it pricked him he took it in his hands; then he cut the heavy stones from his feet, and the sea carried him and threw him onto the shore. Gilgamesh said to Urshanabi the ferryman, “Come here, and see this marvelous plant. By its virtue a man may win back all his former strength. I will take it to Uruk of the strong walls; there I will give it to the old men to eat. Its name shall be ‘The Old Men Are Young Again’ and at last I shall eat it myself and have back all my lost youth.”

The hero is performing an extraordinary feat.

Read the passage from The Epic of Gilgamesh.

Which of the following makes Gilgamesh an epic hero?

Excerpt from The Epic of Gilgamesh

I will proclaim to the world the deeds of Gilgamesh. This was the man to whom all things were known; this was the king who knew the countries of the world. He was wise, he saw mysteries and knew secret things, he brought us a tale of the days before the flood. He went on a long journey, was weary, worn-out with labor, returning he rested, he engraved on a stone the whole story.

He was a wise king who went on a long journey.
What statement is not true?
An epic poem almost always features a refrain.

Read the following lines from “Greensleeves.”

Your gown was of the grassie green,
Your sleeves of satten hanging by,

What literary device is used in this line?

alliteration
What is a characteristic of an epic hero?
The epic hero has exceptional characteristics but may be flawed in some way.
Which best describes “exploding the moment?”
describing a momentary event in detail

Read the passage from Touch the Top of the World, Erik Weihenmayer’s autobiographical book about his trek to the summit of Mount Everest.

What does this passage tell about the author’s attitude toward climbing?

Excerpt from Touch the Top of the World

By Erik Weihenmayer

My mind was starting to settle on the possibility of turning back, when Kevin’s voice from Base Camp crackled over my radio. Throughout the expedition, Kevin had been learning to read the satellite weather reports we received every few days over the Internet. From the weather map, it appeared the storm was moving rapidly to the northeast toward Bhutan and where we stood on the Balcony, we were directly northeast of Base Camp. “Hey you guys, don’t quit yet,” his voice sounded urgent. “The storm’s cleared down here. It just might pass over you.”

Making a successful climb requires putting together a superior team upon which you can rely.
Which part of the plot is the high point of interest in the story?
climax
Which item describes the function of reflective writing?
to convey thoughts and feelings
Which of the following best describes writing about one memorable or pivotal event in a writer’s life?
autobiographical incident
Which task is not part of the prewriting stage of writing an autobiography?
shaping the writing
In what stage do you gather details for your autobiographical narrative?
prewriting stage

Read the following passage from “The Sun Parlor,” by Dorothy West.

Why does West’s aunt dislike staying in the sun parlor?

Excerpt from “The Sun Parlor”

by Dorothy West

But at night she slept fitfully. The sleeping house and the separation from the flock were unbearable. She was afraid of the sun parlor, seeing it as an abnormal offshoot from the main part of the house, its seven long windows giving access to so many imagined terrors. She did not know if we would hear her if she called. She did not know if she would ever get well.

She feels separated from the rest of the family.
In which part of the plot are the characters, setting, and conflict introduced?
events
What can adding dialogue accomplish in an autobiographical narrative?
It adds interest by breaking up the narrative and by letting characters express their own emotions.

Read the following passage from “The Sun Parlor,” by Dorothy West.

Which details support the idea that Sis’s reaction to the sun parlor is exceptional?

Excerpt from “The Sun Parlor”

by Dorothy West

She who was always in motion, she who never took time for a second look at anything, or cared whether her bed was smooth or crumpled, or noticed what was on her plate as long as it was something to eat—she, in the awakening that came when she was eight, in her first awareness of something outside herself, stood in the doorway of the sun parlor, her face filled with the joy of her discovery, and said in a voice on the edge of tears, “It’s the most beautiful room I ever saw in my whole life.”

The author describes Sis as someone who never pays much attention to anything.

Read the following passage from “Occupation: Conductorette,” an autobiographical piece by Maya Angelou the describes her experience applying for a position as a conductor on a streetcar.

What is the author trying to convey in the third sentence of the passage?

Excerpt from “Occupation Conductorette”

By Maya Angelou

In the offices of the Market Street Railway company, the receptionist seemed as surprised to see me there as I was surprised to find the interior dingy and the décor drab. Somehow I had expected waxed surfaces and carpeted floors. If I had met no resistance, I might have decided against working for such a poor-mouth-looking concern. As it was, I explained that I had come to see about a job. She asked, was I sent by an agency, and when I replied that I was not, she told me they were only accepting applicants from agencies.

The classified pages of the morning papers had listed advertisements for motorettes and conductorettes and I reminded her of that. She gave me a face full of astonishment that my suspicious nature would not accept.

“I am applying for the job listed in this morning’s Chronicle and I’d like to be presented to your personnel manager.” While I spoke in supercilious accents, and looked at the room as if I had an oil well in my own backyard, my armpits were being pricked by millions of hot pointed needles. She saw her escape and dived into it.

“He’s out. He’s out for the day. You might call tomorrow and if he’s in, I’m sure you can see him.” Then she swiveled her chair around on its rusty screws and with that I was supposed to be dismissed.

The challenge of getting the job made her determined to get it.

Read the passage.

Amal walked into the store and asked the shopkeeper for a book about cars. Amal loved cars. He told the shopkeeper that he wanted to build cars and race them too.

Which statement is true?

This is an example of the writer telling through description rather than showing through dialogue.
Which statement is true about planning to write a short story?
During the prewriting stage, it is important to come up with a theme for the story.
Which of the following is useful during the prewriting stage of short-story writing?
creating a detail and purpose planner
Which statement is true about the differences between short stories and novels?
An effective short story is carefully crafted to achieve its purpose with fewer words than is a novel.
Which statement is true?
A story map can be effectively used during the drafting stage of story writing to help keep the writer on track.

Read the description of a character in a short story.

The main character in the short story “Pluto Racer” is the captain of the Starship Pluto, Marco Valdez. Marco’s parents had been space pioneers, founding colonies on worlds throughout this galaxy and into the next, and as a result, Marco felt at home visiting new planets and meeting new alien races.

What kind of story is “Pluto Racer”?

science fiction
Which statement is true?
A setting may influence a character’s interests and values.
What is it called when a writer uses description to tell what a character is like?
direct characterization

Read the passage.

The room overlooked the ancient forest that Vijay knew so well. The sun had just set and the heat of the day began to lessen. The air was calm, and Vijay heard the chirping of crickets and Ambika’s soft singing in the next room.

What effect does the passage’s setting have?

This setting could be used to communicate a peaceful, comfortable mood.
Which choice is not an element of a story map?
revolution
Which statement about prewriting is true?
Gathering details is part of the prewriting process.

Read this article from a health website.

Do your teenagers get enough rest at night? Research indicates that teenagers need more than nine hours of sleep for optimal brain function.

Teenagers who do not sleep enough may be irritable, perform badly on tests, and find it difficult to get along with friends and family.

Which statement about the article is true?

The writer asks the audience a question.

A teacher gives these instructions for a class assignment:

Write your main topic in the center of the paper, and then circle it. Next, write down ideas related to the main topic and put boxes around them. Finally, draw lines to link these ideas to the main topic.

What strategy is the teacher asking the students to use?

web diagramming

Consider the following situation:

Michael, a student, is writing an editorial for the school newspaper to encourage the school to adopt a proposed plan for recycling plastic bottles.

What is Michael’s purpose?

to persuade people to agree to the plan
Which of the following describes the process of web diagramming?
dividing a broad topic into subtopics using a drawing

Consider the following situation:

Yasmin wants to write about ancient Rome, but she needs to narrow the topic. She draws a map of Rome, labels a few famous places, and finds that she is most interested in the Colosseum.

Which prewriting strategy is Yasmin using?

blueprinting

Consider the following situation:

Percy is using hexagonal writing to plan a response-to-literature essay about a novel. In the hexagon, he notices a prompt to state the message of the work.

What does Percy need to do during prewriting?

determine the theme of the novel

Consider the following situation:

Mark is applying for a cashier and sales job at Landscaping World, a large retail store near his house. He is writing a job application letter.

What should Mark keep in mind regarding the audience?

The audience will be a store manager, who will expect a business letter.
What is one main purpose of a response-to-literature essay?
to analyze the theme in a piece of narrative writing
Which of the following is a description of blueprinting?
drawing a map of a place in order to generate ideas
Which of the following is not a prompt in hexagonal writing?
audience

Read the sample paragraph.

Gardner River Canyon

The north entrance road from Gardiner, Montana, to Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyoming, runs along the Gardner River. It winds into the park and up the canyon, past crumbling walls of sandstone and ancient mudflows. The vegetation is much thicker in the canyon than on the open prairie below. The common trees are Rocky Mountain juniper, cottonwood, and Douglas fir. In the flatter, flood-prone sections of the canyon, low-growing willows crowd the river’s edge.

Which organizational method is used?

spatial
What is true about the thesis statement?
It states the main message of the essay.
Which statement is true about an essay’s conclusion?
It should summarize or reinforce the main points made in the essay.
A thesis statement is a sentence that _____ .
communicates the main idea of the essay
How do you present an essay using chronological organization?
Organize the paragraphs in time order.
What does the body of an essay contain?
one or more paragraphs, each focused on a main point

Read the sample paragraph.

Why the Titanic struck an iceberg has never been made perfectly clear. The ship was moving extremely quickly through waters known to be icy and dangerous at the time, and the crew may have been confused as to the position of the ice fields. News reports suggest that foggy weather may also have been a factor.

What is the implied main point of this paragraph?

There were several possible reasons that the Titanic’s crew failed to navigate around the iceberg.
What makes a paragraph coherent?
All the sentences support the main point.
What is the best organization strategy for examining the differences between two subjects?
comparison and contrast
What does it mean to have a coherent essay?
The essay is clearly focused and organized.

Read the introductory paragraph.

The elegant luxury liner Titanic was “the Queen of the Seas” in its time. Designed with state-of-the-art technology, it was thought to be practically unsinkable. What could have caused the massive steamship to founder off the freezing coast of Newfoundland on its first Atlantic voyage in 1912? Research indicates that there were two main causes for the Titanic disaster: human error and design defects.

Which sentence in this paragraph is the thesis statement that the writer will attempt to prove in the essay?

“Research indicates that there were two main causes for the Titanic disaster: human error and design defects.”

Read the sample paragraph.

You have probably heard the expression “Give until it hurts,” but “Give until it feels good” more accurately describes how an individual should volunteer. Volunteering can provide the volunteer with the satisfaction of knowing that he or she has made a difference in someone’s life. Many opportunities for volunteerism exist in your neighborhood. For example, you could help raise money for a charitable organization, or volunteer at a community improvement event.

Which sentence is an example of a hook?

“You have probably heard the expression ‘Give until it hurts,’ but ‘Give until it feels good’ more accurately describes how an individual should volunteer.”

Read the following supporting details.

Yellowstone was the first national park in the United States.
Yellowstone is dedicated to the preservation of a large variety of wildlife, such as elk and grizzly bears.
Yellowstone features the world’s most extraordinary geysers and hot springs, including Old Faithful.
What is the topic of the essay?

Yellowstone National Park
Which of the following tasks is part of the editing process?
replacing vague words
What does the proofreading acronym CUSP stand for?
capitalization, usage, spelling, and punctuation

Read the paragraph.

The Merchant of Venice is about a poor young man named Bassanio who falls in love with a young woman, Portia, from a rich family. Bassanio asks his wealthy friend Antonio to lend him some money. To win her hand in marriage. However, Antonio’s money is invested in merchant ships at sea. He cannot get his money until the ships return, so he borrows the money to help his friend.

Which of the following is a sentence fragment?

To win her hand in marriage.

Read the paragraph.

General George Washington

The American Revolution did not promise a simple victory, and nobody expected Washington and the Colonists to win. Fortunately, Washington was a great patriot and an effective leader. Although his troops were fewer in number than the British forces, he proved to be a gifted strategist. For these reasons, he succeeded against the odds. Washington married Martha Custis, a wealthy widow.

Which sentence is outside the focus of the paragraph?

Washington married Martha Custis, a wealthy widow.
Which statement about essay format is true?
The introduction includes the thesis.

Read the paragraph and identify the spelling error.

Leonardo da Vinci was a pioneer in many fields. As a painter, he studied human anatomy in great detail. As a sculptor, he mastered metal casting. As an engineer, he applied physics and accurte measurement to his drawings, which were used to construct equipment, buildings, and canals.

accurte

Read the two sentences.

During the American Revolution, George Washington proved to be a gifted military strategist.

The American Revolution was a war fought for political independence from Britain.

Which is the best combination of these two sentences?

During the American Revolution, the war for political independence from Britain, George Washington proved to be a gifted military strategist.

Read the paragraph.

The city of Venice is home to many traditional arts and crafts. Its busy workshops produce lace, textiles, and furniture. One of Venice’s most elegant exports is glassware. Fine Venetian glass products, such as chandeliers, are very nice, but a more common grade of glassware is often sold at tourist shops.

Which phrase could be improved by replacing it with more specific descriptive words?

very nice

When Ephraim’s teacher rated his essay using a rubric, he received a high rating in the Description category.

What can you conclude about the essay?

The vocabulary was rich and interesting.

Read the paragraph.

I looked at the storm. The leafless trees on the front lawn looked like crystal sculptures. The howling wind was beating on the frozen branches and hurling ice everywhere. I enjoyed the sound of the ice clinking.

Which word would you circle if you wanted the writer to improve on a vague word?

looked
Which of the following is true about rubrics?
Rubrics are often organized into grids.
What is the best first step when using a rubric to rate a writing sample?
Read the criteria.

Read the essay paragraph.

In normal years, the trade winsd cause colder, nutirent-rich waters to rise to the surface. This process is called “upwelling.” When the cold water rises, it suports a tiny fish called plankton, which feds all kinds of larger fish species. During El Niño years, however, due to changes in presure and the directiion of trade winds, the sirface layer of warm watter is thicker and prevents thet usual upwelling.

There are many spelling errors in this paragraph. Which scoring category would be most affected?

Usage

Read the following excerpt from a rubric:

Uses appropriately formal tone; clearly addresses writing prompt

What is this type of statement called?

criterion
Which of the following statements about the use of computers and portable media devices in presentations is true?
They provide a way to share information in nonprint media.

Marquel added visual aids to his presentation.

Which is the most complete definition of the term visual aid?

an image, illustration, or map used to enhance text in a written work

Consider the following situation:

Loretta has written a story about what she saw on her trip to Alaska. She wants to prepare it for publication in the school literary magazine.

What would be her best first step?

think about visual images she could include
Which of the following is a true statement about publishing?
You can enhance the publication of written text by adding visual elements.

Consider the following situation:

Tasha has finished the second draft of an essay about Robert Frost’s poetry. She is just about to save the draft.

What is the most useful way for her to name the file?

Frost Essay Draft 2

Consider the following situation:

Charles is making a video journal as he hikes in Yellowstone National Park. He is standing on a mountaintop and wants to film a full 360-degree view.

Which kind of camera shot should Charles use?

panning shot

Which term fits this description?

the use of two or more nonprint media, such as photographs, video images, and audio recordings, to share information with an audience

a multimedia presentation
What is the best reason to add bullet points in a flyer?
to divide the information and make it easier to read

Consider the following situation:

Several students worked together to publish a collection of their best stories.

What is this project called?

an anthology
What is a forum?
a place to share and discuss ideas or published work
Which type of essay would you write if given the assignment to explain how to fly a model airplane?
expository essay
Which type of essay would you write if given the assignment to observe and write about how the giraffes at the zoo look?
descriptive essay
What is the purpose of a hook in an introductory paragraph?
to get the reader’s attention
Which of the following is an example of persuasive writing?
letter to the editor
Which of the following is an example of expository writing?
process analysis essay
Which type of essay would you write if given the assignment to write about your first day of school?
narrative essay
Which of the following defines persuasive writing?
writing that attempts to convince the reader to accept a position or argument
Which of the following defines narrative writing?
writing that tells a story
Which of the following defines descriptive writing?
writing that creates a vivid picture of someone or something

Look at the outline.

I. Types of Pets
II. Cats
III. Dogs
IV. Goldfish
V. Lizards

What type of organization will this essay use?

simple list

The audience for a particular piece of writing is school administrators. The purpose of the text is to persuade them to allow an open campus.

What type of language and what word choice best match this audience and purpose?

formal; words that precisely explain the benefits of an open campus
In writing, an audience refers to the readers an author intends to reach.
true

Read the passage.

When I was in high school, my favorite year was my sophomore year. I had so much fun! I was no longer a freshman, I got my drivers license, I met lots of new friends, and I started working and making money. It was great!

Which of the following is the most likely purpose and audience for this passage?

to entertain friends

The audience for a particular piece of writing is teenagers. The purpose of the text is to inform about the risks of eating unhealthy food.

What form of writing and what kind of supporting details best support this audience and purpose?

school newspaper article; details include facts and figures about the risks

The audience for a particular piece of writing is children. The purpose of the text is to inform.

What form of writing and what kind of supporting details best support this audience and purpose?

short story; colorful details

You are writing an editorial for your school newspaper on the importance of getting good grades.

Which of the following is your most likely audience and purpose?

classmates; to inspire and persuade them to earn good grades

You are writing a formal business letter on the need for a stoplight at a busy intersection.

Which of the following is your most likely audience and purpose?

town council; to persuade

A physician wants to educate another physician about an athlete’s unusual injury.

Which form of communication would be appropriate for this audience and purpose?

a conversation describing the injury in detail

The audience for a particular piece of writing is a professor. The purpose of the text is to show knowledge about a major cause of World War II.

What form of writing and what kind of supporting details best support this audience and purpose?

essay; details support the main idea

Read the passage.

You are going to do beautifully in this marathon! Don’t give up. You will be rewarded for all your hard work by the feeling of accomplishment you will have when you cross that finish line!

Which of the following is the most likely purpose and audience for this passage?

to motivate a friend

Is the following statement true or false?

Purpose can be defined as a form of communication.

false

The audience for a particular piece of writing is children. The purpose of the text is to make them laugh.

What type of language and what word choice best match this audience and purpose?

informal; words that are comical and fun

A student wants to express her excitement to her parents about earning straight A’s.

Which form of communication would not be appropriate for this audience and purpose?

a newspaper article reporting the graduation rates of area high school students

Is the language in the following passage formal or informal?

This is a work of fiction. The characters, incidents, and dialogues in this book are products of the author’s imagination and do not actually exist. Any similarity to actual events, or to persons living or dead, is entirely coincidental.

formal

The main purpose of the following passage is to inform. What is its specific purpose?

To assemble the swing set, you will need

pliers;
a Phillips screwdriver; and
a crescent wrench.

to direct

Is the language in the following passage formal or informal?

Come on, friend! If I can do it, so can you!

informal

Is the language in the following passage formal or informal?

I have not yet determined the location from which the specimen was obtained.

formal

What is the main purpose of the following passage?

One meter equals approximately 3.28 feet.

to inform

The main purpose of the following passage is to entertain. What is its specific purpose?

How do you stop a charging elephant?

You take away its credit card.

to make the reader laugh

What is the main purpose of the following passage?

A star is a gaseous body in outer space that generates energy and emits light through the process of nuclear fusion.

to inform

Is the following passage appropriate for an audience of computer experts?

The ZX-92 comes equipped with a 1.83 Ghz Core Duo computer processor, a 60 GB 5400-rpm Serial ATA hard drive, and a 21-inch flat panel display.

yes

The main purpose of the following passage is to persuade. What is its specific purpose?

Dexter Haas has been a good mayor. He’d make a great governor.

to win an election

The following passage has which purpose?

The distance between galaxies can be measured in light years.

to inform

A teacher needs to create a handout to teach students how to dissect a frog.

Which type of organizational structure would best meet the writer’s needs?

process order
Which organizational structure would be most appropriate for a historical essay about events leading to the American Civil War?
cause and effect

A food critic needs to write a review of two icy desserts. While both were light and refreshing, he thought one was a little too sweet.

Which type of organizational structure would best meet the writer’s needs?

compare and contrast

Read the passage.

My best friend is allergic to dogs but really wants to adopt one. She said she could get weekly allergy shots or a breed with shorter hair that would be less irritating to her allergies. I told her I thought her best option was to buy a fish!

Which organizational structure is used in this passage?

problem and solution
Which statement is true?
Signal words help the reader move more easily from one thought to the next.

Read the sentence.

I had to work through my lunch hour today because I was late for work this morning.

Which organizational structure is used in this sentence?

cause and effect
Which organizational structure would be most appropriate for a persuasive speech to get students involved in community service?
order of importance

Read the passage.

Getting a job is vital for me right now because I have bills to pay. I also want to save money to help with my college expenses. It also would be nice to have a little extra cash to go out to dinner and a movie once in a while.

Which organizational structure is used in this passage?

order of importance

Read the passage.

I began running my errands yesterday at the bank. I went to the gas station next, then to the nail salon, and finally to the grocery store.

Which organizational structure is used in this passage?

chronological order

Read the passage.

I thought both Steven and Isaac presented themselves very well. Both spoke clearly and concisely. They also both had good ideas on how to improve the school. However, I liked Isaac’s ideas for fundraisers better than Steven’s.

Which organizational structure is used in this passage?

compare and contrast
Media reports can be evaluated for _____ and effectiveness.
objectivity
What is a position statement?
a written presentation of someone’s opinion on a topic
What is one way to brainstorm compare-and-contrast topic ideas?
listing
Position statements are usually written _____.
to persuade
You can use _____ to evaluate whether or not your subjects have enough points for comparison and contrast.
a Venn diagram
Topic, restatement, and illustration; problem and solution; and question and answer are types of what?
paragraph organization
What is subject-by-subject organization?
each subject is discussed in turn

Read the passage.

Many would-be runners have trouble getting motivated. They may become bored with the repetitive nature of running, they may not have anyone to share running with, or they may become physically run-down. There are, however, many ways to increase one’s motivation. An old pair of jeans that no longer fits, or a photograph of that person when he or she was slimmer and more fit, may inspire a runner. Also, the more often runners jog, the more motivated they are and the better they feel. As a result, it becomes an activity runners make time for on a regular basis.

What type of paragraph organization is used in the passage?

problem and solution

Read the passage.

America has fostered a culture in which many feel they should not have to work to achieve results. Some employers complain that recent graduates are lazy and unmotivated. The business world, in particular, has lowered its expectations of new college graduates entering the workforce. The same jobs require fewer skills and less education than they did in previous decades. While this phenomenon may trace its origins to the fact that businesses received less-qualified candidates, it has turned into a vicious cycle. The fewer qualifications the business world demands, the less education our youth pursue and the lower educational standards become.

What type of paragraph organization is used in the passage?

topic, restatement, and illustration
All subjects in a compare-and-contrast essay should be treated _____.
equally
Which of the following describes order-of-importance organization?
begin with the most important detail and end with the least important detail; or reverse it, beginning with the least important detail and ending with the most important
Which of the following describes a summative conclusion?
repeats the main points in the essay
What is a process explanation?
a description of a step-by-step process such as a math formula or a scientific technique
Which of the following is a way to gather details?
chart causes and effects
Which of the following would make a good topic for a cause-and-effect essay?
the reasons for college dropout rates
Which of the following defines cause?
an event, an action, or a situation that produces a result
Which of the following describes a method of using chronological order?
either start with the effect and go back through its causes one at a time, or start with the cause and proceed to describe its effects in time order
Which of the following is a way to brainstorm for a cause-and-effect essay topic?
scanning the newspaper

Read the sentence.

I forgot to take my wallet to the store, so I was unable to buy milk.

What is the signal word that indicates the effect, or result, of forgetting the wallet?

so

Read the passage.

Isaac forgot to fill up his car with gas. He had to reschedule his appointment. His wife left work early to take him to a gas station. The car was stalled on a busy road.

Which of the following represents the correct cause-and-effect relationship?

one cause and many effects
Which of the following describes a cause-and-effect essay?
expository writing that describes the relationship between an event or circumstance and its causes
What does SEE stand for?
statement, extension, elaboration
Cubing lets you _____ by helping to identify six perspectives or aspects of your topic.
focus on details

Read the passage.

In the late 1920s, the stock market crash caused panicked customers to rush to their banks and withdraw all of their money. The banks also panicked and closed their doors to prevent more money from being withdrawn. These problems heightened fear about unemployment and the economy, leading to the Great Depression.

Which of the following represents the correct cause-and-effect relationship?

chain of events
Which of the following describes elaboration?
adds information that further explains or defines the main idea

Read the passage.

The new managers of Smalltown Grocery Store have become unpopular. Community disapproval is due to high prices, unprofessional management, ineffective marketing strategies, and a lack of community involvement. The current management team should be replaced or retrained. The store managers and employees should be Smalltown-friendly.

What problem is discussed?

The new managers of Smalltown Grocery Store have become unpopular.
What is one advantage of using an outline during the prewriting stage of the writing process?
It helps you organize your ideas.
You can use _____ to respond to problem-and-solution essay test questions.
the writing process
Having a partner or group read your problem-and-solution essay is known as _____ .
peer review

Read the passage.

Domesticated dogs and cats that are not fenced present many problems for neighborhood communities. These animals run wild, ruin yards, and often frighten children and adults. Barking has also been a problem for people unlucky enough to live near the noise nuisance. All of this happens because leash laws are not enforced.

What is the cause of the loose pets?

Leash laws are not enforced.
What is a good way to organize details when starting your first draft of a problem-and-solution essay?
use an outline
Every paragraph in your problem-and-solution essay should develop _____ .
a single idea or topic

Read the passage.

The old kayaks need to be replaced before the tourist season begins. Although delivery will take several weeks, the best option is to order new kayaks online and sell the old ones to employees.

What type of problem-and-solution organization does this paragraph use?

problem/solution
Which of the following defines tone?
the attitude toward the subject that writers convey to readers
Your problem-and-solution essay should begin with a detailed description of the _____ .
problem

Read the excerpt from a speech by President John F. Kennedy to Congress in 1961.

Excerpt from Speech by President Kennedy

First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish. We propose to accelerate the development of the appropriate lunar space craft. We propose to develop alternate liquid and solid fuel boosters, much larger than any now being developed, until certain which is superior. …. But in a very real sense, it will not be one man going to the moon—if we make this judgment affirmatively, it will be an entire nation. For all of us must work to put him there.

What goal did Kennedy want to accomplish?

put an American on the moon and return him safely to Earth
Some persuasive writing prompts on standardized tests examine your ability to _____ a position.
present, argue, and defend
Which of the following is not a type of elaboration?
connotations

Read the excerpt from a speech by President John F. Kennedy to Congress in 1961.

Excerpt from Speech by President Kennedy

First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish. We propose to accelerate the development of the appropriate lunar space craft. We propose to develop alternate liquid and solid fuel boosters, much larger than any now being developed, until certain which is superior. …. But in a very real sense, it will not be one man going to the moon—if we make this judgment affirmatively, it will be an entire nation. For all of us must work to put him there.

What was Kennedy likely trying to convince Congress to do?

support funding a space program
Which of the following is not a way to brainstorm for a persuasive writing topic?
looping
What is an effective way to analyze the persuasive messages you see on television?
Start a “Media Watch” column for your class or school newspaper.

Read the description.

Former basketball superstar Michael Jordan appears in commercials for a well-known brand of shoes.

What type of advertising persuasion is used?

testimonial
Providing details that explain, restate, or illustrate is called _____.
elaboration

Is the following statement true or false?

A friendly audience is likely to be less sympathetic to your argument.

false
Evidence from biased or unreliable sources will _____ your argument.
weaken
Use a thesaurus to find _____.
a synonym that better fits your meaning
In the dictionary, a word’s etymology can show you _____.
how the word originated and how its meaning has changed over time

Look at the dictionary entry.

mo•bile (mō′bəl for adj; mō′bēl′ for noun) [ME mobyll < L mobilis, to move; 1480-90] 1 adj. easy to move; movable: Several mobile homes were damaged by the strong winds. 2 n. a decoration made from pieces of metal, paper, etc., suspended on threads or wires and balanced to move in a slight breeze

Why are two different parts of speech listed for this entry?

Although both definitions come from the idea of movement, the word has two distinctly different uses.
Your _____ should include a brief restatement of the main ideas and key details of the information from each online article you used in your research.
summary
Which of the following is used to support a main idea using numbers?
statistic

Read this excerpt from a biology textbook.

An organism’s functions are the processes that enable it to stay alive and reproduce. Some functions in organisms include obtaining oxygen, getting rid of wastes, obtaining food, and growing. Cells are involved in all these functions. For example, cells in your digestive system absorb food. The food provides your body with energy and materials needed for growth.

In this excerpt, the phrase “getting rid of wastes” is _____.

a supporting detail
Because no one website has unlimited information on a topic, you should _____.
use multiple sources for your research

Look at the dictionary entry.

be•gin (bi gin′) v. be•gan, be•gun, be•gin•ning [ME beginnen; before 1000] 1 to do the first part: begin your work 2 to bring into being; originate: The brothers began the business while still in their teens.

Which tells you the part of speech?

v.
The online resource name for a major university ends with _____.
.edu
Which online source is most likely to have information that has been copied and revised from other sites?
individual’s site
Your _____ should include, in your own words, each main point of an article and its relation to the ideas or facts that explain or illustrate it.
notes
You would expect to get the most reliable information from a website ending with which of the following extensions?
.gov
What is one way to bore the reader?
using the same words over and over
Which is not a component of an effective paragraph in the body of a research report?
informal language
What is the hook in an introduction paragraph?
the first sentence, and an attention-getter
Which of the following is a type of research report conclusion?
evaluative
What is an advantage of giving a multimedia presentation?
It creates drama and interest for the audience.
Which of the following is not a component of an effective supporting paragraph?
summary of the research paper
No research paper is complete without _____ .
a reference list
Failure to give credit to a source is known as _____ .
plagiarism
What is the organizational strategy to compare and contrast?
This type of organization discusses the similarities and differences between two or more topics.
Which of the following items is not a way to present research findings?
a short story
Which of the following is an example of nonprint media?
videos

Is the following statement true or false?

Thesis statements should be based only on facts.

false

Read the following supporting details.

The greatest contributor to air pollution is private vehicle use.
Each vehicle is estimated to stay on the road for roughly 12 to 15 years.
Hybrid cars combine a gasoline engine with a battery-powered electric motor.
Hybrid cars are proven to reduce emissions by up to 90 percent.
Which thesis statement do these details support?

Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution.

Read the following supporting details.

Research shows that senior volunteers suffer from less depression than non-active seniors.
One elderly volunteer, Alma, said she was “full of energy” on the days she volunteered at the library.
Another volunteer, Manuel, enjoys working with children because interacting with them improves his memory.
Which thesis statement do these details support?

Senior citizens who volunteer are energized physically, emotionally, and mentally by the additional responsibility.
Which of the following items should not be in your own words?`
direct quote
A card catalog is an example of _____.
a library resource

Read the following sentence.

I like apples.

Is this thesis sentence too broad, too narrow, or balanced in scope?

too narrow
If your working thesis statement says “Cigarette smoke has minimal effect on the body,” but your research shows that cigarettes can, in fact, be very damaging to the lungs, how could you revise the thesis statement to reflect the research?
Cigarette smoke has many effects, but none more damaging than those on the lungs.

Is the following statement true or false?

It is important to take good notes when reviewing research sources so that you can stay organized and find a source later, if needed.

true

Read the following sentence.

Air pollution is a serious problem today.

Is this thesis sentence too broad, too narrow, or balanced in scope?

too broad
Which source would be the most credible choice for researching tornadoes in the United States?
a government agency’s weather website
What type of language are you using when you say you are pleased when you are really extremely happy?
understatement

What is the best title for the following list?

background information
explanation of a confusing topic
supporting evidence for a thesis
expert opinion on a topic
opposing evidence for a thesis

Various Purposes of a Source
Which choice indicates that a source may not be credible?
You cannot find information about the author’s credentials.
Which source would be the most credible choice for researching Mozart’s music?
letter from Mozart
Which statement would be most effective in a student newspaper article about a city council decision?
The city council members made this decision without having all of the information they needed.
Which source would be the most credible choice for researching the life of Anne Frank?
The Diary of Anne Frank

Is the statement true or false?

An author’s credentials are not important.

false

Which term is defined in the statement?

The use of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or harming an organization, a cause, or a person

propaganda

Is the statement true or false?

A website that ends in .com is probably a good site to find unbiased information for a research report about vitamins.

false

Which type of persuasive language is used in the sentence?

Teenagers never listen!

stereotyping

Which term is defined in the statement?

The use of deliberately incorrect information

disinformation
Which choice is common knowledge and could be used in a research paper without crediting the source?
the freezing temperature of water
Which style manual is most widely used for language arts research papers?
MLA

Read the sentence. What kinds of information does the in-text citation include?

Space stations offer exercise equipment and recreational areas (Bell 59).

author’s name and page number
What information should you write on a source card to help you prepare the bibliography?
author, title, and publisher
When does the copyright for a creative work become active?
when the work is first recorded or printed
Which choice will help you to avoid inadvertent plagiarism when writing a research paper?
Paraphrase the source and provide an accurate citation.

Read this incomplete Works Cited entry for a book about robots in space.

Everson, Lewis. _____. New York: King

Publications, 1999.

What is the correct way to write the book title to complete the entry?

Robots in Space
(in italics)
In MLA style, what is the correct format for a website in a Works Cited entry?
What is the specific term for a citation that appears at the bottom of a page in a research paper?
footnote

Read the Works Cited entry for a magazine article.

Yakov, Dmitri, “Space Horizons.” Scientific

Life Feb. 2008: 13-19.

What is the proper way to format an in-text citation using MLA style?

(Yakov 13-19)
How do you summarize an idea?
Restate the idea briefly.

In the MLA in-text citation, what does the number 10 refer to?

Erica Redden agrees that some fantastic technology first described in science-fiction stories has later been turned into practical inventions (10).

page 10 of a book by author Erica Redden

Identify the signal phrase in the sentence.

Carradine explains why NASA has not yet been able to send astronauts to other planets (19).

Carradine explains