homework 1

excitablity
the ability of nerve and muscle cells to produce changes in membrane voltage
cell
the smallest unit of an organism that can carry out all the functions of life
benefits of a large sample size
controls for chance of events, controls for individual variation, and enables greater confidence in the outcome
structural hierarchy in the body
organism
organ system
organ
tissue
cell
atom
neurophysiology
physiology of the nervous system
endocrinology
physiology of hormones
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comparative physiology
physiology of other animals
pathophysiology
mechanisms of disease
effector
a molecule, cell, or organ that carries out a response to a stimulus
inductive method of study
process of drawing conclusions and making predictions from repeated observation
criteria of a good hypothesis
It is consistent with what is already known
It is testable and falsifiable
atom
smallest particle of matter with unique chemical properties
tissue
an aggregation of cells and extracellular materials, which preform a discrete function
organism
A single complete individual capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth, and development, and maintenence of homeostasis
gross anatomy
field that focuses on bodily structures that can be observed without magnification
scientific method
a process in which an educated guess is capable of being tested and may be proven false by experimentation
physiology
the study of “function” of a biological organism
theory
an explanatory statement, or set of statements, that concisely summarizes the state of knowledge on a phenomenon and provides a direction for further study
hypothesis
an educated guess/speculation that is capable of being tested and potentially falsified by experimentation and data collection
statistical tests
Chi square analysis
T test
organ
any anatomical structure that is composed with at least two different tissue types, has recognizable structural boundaries, and has a discrete function different from the structure around it
cell membrane
the structure that encloses a cell and controls traffic of molecules in and out of the cell
anatomy
study of structures
fact
information that can be independently verified by any trained person in the field
organ system
a group of organs working together for a coordinated function
gradient
a difference in chemical concentration, electrical charge, physical pressure, temperature, or other variables between on point and another
organelle
a microscopic structure in a cell that carries out individual functions
nomina anatomica
purged eponyms from terminology and included only latin terms. divides in late 1800s
terminologica anatomica
included latin and commonly used english terms. devised in 1988
dissection
The process of carefully separating of tissue to reveal anatomical relationships
Homeostasis
The tendency of a living body organism to maintain relatively stable internal conditions in spite of greater changes in its external environments
negative
blood pressure, opposite changes
greek and latin
most medical terms are derived from
placebo
a substance with no significant effect on a subjects physiology but is given to a control group that thinks they are being given the treatment
dynamic equilibrium
occurs when there is a set average point and conditions fluctuate around that point
excretion
the process of eliminating metabolic waste products from the body
molecule
structure made by joining 2 or more different atoms
positive feedback
adds more, childbirth and blood clot
receptor
a cell or organ that is specialized to detect a stimulus, such as a taste cell or a rod or cone of the eye
experimentar bias
the conscious or subconscious influence an experimenter may have on their interpretation of their data
law of nature
a generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave
differentiation
the process of transforming a cell with no specialized function into a cell with a specialized function
experimental group
the group being tested
statistical test
provides a statement of probability that the experimental outcome was due to random variation
integrating
The _____center of a feedback mechanism processes information, relates it to other information, and makes a decision of action
cytology
study of cells
Psychosomatic effects
instances where physiology is affected by the state of mind (placebos prevent this)
eponym
The “duct of Santorini” is an example of a type of terminology called a(n)_______.
aristotle
believed diseases could come from natural and supernatural effects
claudius galen
studied pigs and other animals
inspection
looking
palpation
feeling
auscultation
listening
percussion
feeling and listening
after
In anatomical terminology the adjective comes _________ the noun.
Baroreceptor
detects pressure change
radiology
Branch of medicine that utilized medical imaging technologies to explore the interior of the body
comparative anatomy
structural similarities in animals
exploratory surgery
the practice of diagnosing illness by opening the body
hippocrates
encouraged natural causes and ethics
Macromolecule
any molecule of large size and high molecular weight, such as a protein, nucleic acid, polysaccharide, or triglyceride
holism
theory that there are “emergent properties” of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from properties of its separate parts
peer review
the method of evaluation of results by other experts in that field
histopathology
branch of medicine that studies tissues in diseases
Double blinded method
used to control the experiment bias where neither the subject nor the person giving the treatment and recording data know which subjects are receiving treatment and which are receiving placebo
physiological variation
everyone has a different weight, gender, diet…
anatomical variation
some people lack organs