HLTH 342 Human sexuality 3

Infant capacity for sexual response
male fetuses have erections
many boys are born with them or have erections the first few weeks
vaginal lubrication and genital swelling occur too
both are reflexes
Pelvic thrusting
observed in infants 8-10 months
forms of affection, excitement or both
infancy: orgasm
sexual responses that resemble orgasm are seen at four month in baby girls and five months in boys (but lack ejaculation)
Infancy: masturbation
typical and may start as early as 5 months
masturbation to orgasm is rare until the second year
punishment may result in sex guilt
infancy: sexual curiosity
playing doctor or wanting to be present when parent is bathing
can be seen as early as 12-15 months
infancy: genital play
genital play with others starts about 2 years of age
expression of curiosity- investigate other children’s genitals or may hug, cuddle, kiss, or climb on top of them
no need for concern
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infancy: co sleeping
no developmental or sexual problems found to be associated with bed sharing
not recommended by AAP (american association of pediatrics) for fear of accidental suffocation
infancy: sexual orientation of parents
children raised by homosexual parents do not differ from children raised by heterosexual parents in: emotional stability, sexual orientation, gender-typed behavior, adjustment, gender identity, intellectual functioning
early childhood(3-8) : masturbation
speculative research shows that at least 20% or children touch their genitals
early childhood: male-female sexual behavior
sex games like show and playing doctor are common between the ages of 6-10
early childhood: male-male and female-female sexual behavior
does not indicate adult sexual orientation
may be more common than heterosexual play
difference between normal sex play and abuse?
not always easy to tell
look for emotional signs (depression, listlessness, withdrawing or aggression )
need to be taught good touching vs bad touching
preadolescence (9-13) behaviors
behaviors are sexually related rather than sexual
same sex best friend
sex-segregated groups
girls are dork: “dorks is too nice to call a boy
increasingly preoccupied with self-conscious about their bodies need peer approval
preadolescence (9-13)
sexual urges are experienced but may not emerge until adolescence
many preadolescents are sexually active
5.6% of students had had sexual intercourse prior to age 13
higher among males (8.3%) than females (3.1%)
decrease in trend scine 1991 (10.2%-5.6%)
preadolescence (9-13) masturbation
kinsey et al reported
primary means of achieving orgasm
45% o females and 15% of females masturbated by age 13
appears more acceptable or normal for boys than girls
preadolescence male-female sexual behavior
mutual display of the genitals with or without touching is common
preadolescence male-male and female-female behavior
is explorative behavior that does not reflect one’s sexual orientation – includes mutual touching or mutual masturbation
often with peers and may reflect lack of availability of opposite-sex partners
adolescence puberty
when reproduction first becomes possible
begins with the appearance of secondary sex characteristics – physical characteristics that differentiate males and females but are not involved directly with reproduction (body hair fat and muscle changes deepening of voice)
ends when the long bones in the body stop growing
major changes typically take 3 years for girls and 4 years for boys
adolescence puberty primary sex characteristics
physical characters that are involved directly in reproduction – for example the sex organs
adolescence – puberty changes in female
menarche – the onset of menstruation, early menstrual cycles are typically anovulatory
critical fat hypothesis – the view that girls must reach a certain body weight to trigger pubertal changes such as menarche
ovaries secrete estrogen – promotes growth of breast tissue, uterus, vagina, and fatty tissue
adrenal glands produce small amounts of androgens- stimulate growth of pubic and underarm hair and the development of the clitoris
stages of puberty in females : stage 1 between 8-12
no visible signs of physical development but ovaries are enlarging and hormone production is beginning
stages of puberty in females: stage 2 : may begin any where between 8-14
weight/height increase rapidly, fine hair growth in pubic region/underarms
breast buds appear, nipples raises and tender
sweat, oil glands more active- acne
stages of puberty in females: stage 3: may begin any where between 9-15
breast become rounder/fuller hips widen, vaginal secretes clear whitish fluid pubic hair darker thicker
height/weight increase
some may begin ovulation and menstratuation
stages of puberty in females: stage 4 anywhere from age 10-16
underarm hair becomes thicker
pubic hair forms triangular patch
nipple/areola stuck out from rest of breast
some may begin ovulation and menstruation
stages of puberty in females: stage 5 anywhere from 12-19
adult height reached
breast development complete
pubic hair is curly with triangular patch
ovulation and menstruation become more regular
overall look is young adult woman
adolescence – puberty male
testes increase output of testosterone – promotes growth of male genitals and pubic hair
erections become frequent and first ejaculation occurs by 13-14 – nocturnal emissions begin a year later
body and facial hair develops
voice deepens as the larynx grows and vocal cords lengthen
stages of puberty in males: stage 9-14
no visible signs of physical developments but hormones production begins
stages of puberty in males: stage 2 11-13
height/weight increase rapidly
testicles become larger and scrotum hangs lower
scrotum becomes darker in color
fine hair growth at base of penis
hair growth on legs and underarms
stages of puberty in males: stage 3 12-14
penis, scrotum, and testicles grow
darker thicker pubic hair
muscles become larger, broader shoulders
sweat/oil glands more active – acne may result
sperm production begins
temporary swelling / tenderness around nipples
increase in height/weight
hair growth continues
stages of puberty in males: stage 4 13-16
sperm production has begun
larynx increases voice becomes deeper
increase in height and weight
penis and testicles grow
pubic hair increase becomes dark course and curly
stages of puberty in males: stage 5 14-18
growth of facial hair
chest hair growth
adult height reached
penis and testicles reach adult size
pubic underarm, and leg hair are adult color, texture
overall look is young adult
adolescence: masturbation
major sexual outlet
boys more than girls (not clear if due to greater sex drive or social constraints)
adolescence: petting
male-female behavior
petting : many use to express affection, satisfy curiosity and reach orgasm
many believe it is not sexual because it stops short of intercourse
girls more likely to be pushed into it and feel guilty
adolescence: oral sex
incidence increases with age
some couples use it as a method of birth control and to maintain virginity
adolescence premarital intercourse
some do not want it to happen but simply that it is happening to them
motives: surge in sex hormones, love, desire for pleasure, conformity to peers, peer recognition
attitudes of teens 15-19 towards first sexual intercourse : didn’t want it to happen
females: 10.8%
males: 5%
attitudes of teens 15-19 towards first sexual intercourse : had mixed feelings
females: 48%
males: 32.5%
attitudes of teens 15-19 towards first sexual intercourse: really wanted it to happen
females: 41.2%
males: 62.5%
adolescence premarital intercourse cont
about half of US high school students are sexually active
different concerns about intercourse for first time
girls: concerned if doing the right thing
boys: concerned if doing the things right
adolescence factors against intercourse
religious and moral reasons
family influences
fear of being caught, pregnancy or disease
educational and career goals
in a relationship but waiting
haven’t found right person yet
adolescence male-male and female-female sexual behavior
may reflect exploration or lack of partners rather than sexual orientation
many gay males and lesbians develop sense of being gay during adolescence
teenage pregnancy
one in five sexually active girls between 15 and 19 become pregnancy each year
(1/5 of those will become pregnant again within a year)
800,000 pregnancies a year
500,000 births a year
vast majority are unplanned
9/10 are accidental and without committed partners
related to poverty, joblessness and lack of hope for future
factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy
loosening of taboos on adolescent sexuality
impaired parental relationships
academic problems
misunderstandings about reproduction
lack of contraception
children of teenage mothers
are at a greater risk of physical, emotional and intellectual problems in their preschool years
-results of poor nutrition and healthcare, family instability and inadequate parenting
contraceptive use among sexually active teens
if used, used inconsistently
factors that increase use: more frequent intercourse, relationship satisfaction, peer use, age
factors that decrease use: poor academic performance, and low educational ambitions, poor family relationships and communications, myths regarding reproductive capability
when did Rahn get her aggie ring?
Sept 96
Being single
most common lifestyle among people in their early 20s
decline in marriage rates
pursuing educational and career goals
getting married later
less social stigma for single people today
many are not single by choice
many single people are lonely
most are well adjusted and content
median age at first marriage
is increasing since 1950
now: males 28.7 females 26.5
being single cont
most singles practice serial monogamy – becoming involved in one exclusive relationship after another
a few are swinging single – pursue casual sexual encounters (ie one night stands )
some practice celibacy – complete sexual abstinence
reasons include: religious work or other causes view sex outside of marriage as immoral
being single dating hooking up
dating not a term used by high school or colleg students rather use “seeing:” each other
hooking up: casual sexual relationship – no strings attached
meets sexual not romantic interests
usually temporary
friends with benefits
POSSLQ ( People of Opposite Sex Sharing Living Quarters) introduced by the US Census Bureau to refer to cohabitation – living together as though married but without legal sanction
rates have increased 10 fold since 1960
generally socially accepted today
may even replace marriage as nation’s most popular lifestyle sometime during this century
precedes more than half of marriages
some research has found a positive correlation between cohabiting before marriage and divorce
cohabitation cont
more prevalent among less educated and less affluent people
children as common as in married households
alternative to living alone
not ready for marriage
offers commitment without legal ties
economic benefits
avoid resistance of marriage by adult children
test out compatibility
most common lifestyle in US – rates decreasing
long and varied history
wife considered property
men arranged marriages for gain view as loving companions rather than chattel (child bearer and homemaker only) has grown over time
why do people marry?
meets personal and cultural needs
legitimizes sexual relations
provides legal sanction
offers an institution in which to raise children
restricts sexual relations
orderly transmission of wealth to next generation
to satisfy desire for companionship and intimacy
to be happier
types of marriage
monogamy: marriage to one person
polygamy: simultaneous marriage to more than one person
polygyny: man is married to more than one woman at the same time
polyandry: woman is married to more than one man at the same time
arranged marriage
families of the bride and groom arrange the union
gay marriage
marriage to someone of the same sex
many countries, some states have extended marriage rights to gay couples
others offer civil unions, domestic partnerships, or registered partnerships
younger people more supportive
many other support civil unions but no the use of the term marriage
other wrinkles in marriage
open and group marriages
permit relationships with people outside the marriage men more likely than women to express interest in sexual freedom
are marriages made in heaven or in the neighborhood
in the choice of their marriage partner, most people practice homogamy
the practice of marrying people who are similar
racial ethnic background, education, religion, age, social backgrounds and standing
some marriages also show mating gradient
tendency for women to marry up (in social and economic status) and for men to marry down
spouses are of different races: about 15% of all new marriages in the US
AFrican American males more likely than AFrican American females t
Asian females more likely than asian males
marital sex
western views restrictive prior to sexual revolution of 60s and 70s
foreplay last longer and is more varied
frequency of coitus has not changed significantly since 1950s (frequency declines with years of marriage) older couples engage in coitus less frequently
more varied coitus positions are used today
coitus last longer today
married couples engage in sex 5-6 times a month decreases as age
marital sexual satisfaction
orgasmic consistency is higher today for men and women
women in their 40s are somewhat more likely to reach orgasm consistently
emotional satisfaction is lined to sexual satisfaction
marriage satisfaction depends on
commitment, adequate income, sharing in housework, generosity towards spouse, match between amount of work one wishes to have and the amount one has
support of family and friends, agreement on attitudes towards having and raising kids, sexual satisfaction, belief in religious/spiritual value of marriage
variety, break up the routine, fulfil sexual or nonsexual needs, revenge, curiosity and personal growth, women looking for emotional closeness (women less accepting of sex without emotional involvement)
patterns of infidelity: conventional adultery
extramarital sex kept hidden from one’s spouse
patterns of infidelity: consensual adultery
extramarital sex engaged in openly with the knowledge and consent of one’s spouse
patterns of infidelity: swinging
both spouses share extramarital sexual experiences
attitudes towards infidelity
only a minority of married people admit to affairs
about 90% of people in the US say that affairs are always wrong or almost always wrong
sexual revolution never extended itself to infidelity at least among majority of married people
effects of infidelity
discovering infidelity can cause a variety of emotional responses – jealousy, shame, inadequacy, anger
the harm incurred on the marriage depends on the meaning of the affair to the individual and his or her spouse- gender may affect how it is viewed
discovery of infidelity may motivate the couple to try and improve their relationship
discovery may speed up dissolution of a troubled marriage
between 40-50% of marriages in the US end in divorce
rode steadily form 1960-80 declined then leveled off in 2000s
Reasons include:
relaxation of legal restrictions on divorce, increased economic independence of women, people have higher expectations of marriage compared to previous generations,, problems with communication and a lack of understanding are the most common reasons given for divorce,
important predictors are a husband’s criticism, defensiveness, contempt, and stonewalling
Staying together more likely if
annual income is >50,000
baby 7+ months after marriage rather than prior to marriage
married when over 25 as opposed to being a teen
having intact family or origin
religious affiliation
college education
already belonging to groups more successful than trying to join one to save a troubled marriage
the cost of divorce
woman’s income drops by 24% and a man’s declines by 6%
divorced and separated people have high rates of physical and mental illness and suicide
effect on the child – divorce is hardest for children in the first year following the breakup but rebound after a year or two – boys greater problems earlier, girls – greater problems later
adjustment is easier when both parents maintain their parenting responsibilities and set aside their differences in the children’s presence
staying together for the kids
studies show that parental bickering and fighting is linked to the same kinds of problems children experience when their parents separate or divorce
exposure to marital conflict is stressful and has health consequences
causes stress, anxiety, increased heart rate/blood pressure in children of parental conflicts
weakens immune system
outcome is worse for children when conflicted parents stay together
blended families
stepfamilies increasingly common with the rise in divorce and remarriage
can be a positive situation
many disband due to conflict
higher incidence of sexual abuse by stepparents
sex in the later years
sexual daydreaming, sex drive, and sexual activity decline with age(negative attitudes towards sex increase)
do not necessarily lose their sexuality
sexual activity among older people influenced by: physical structures and changes, psychological well being, feelings of intimacy, cultural expectations
female physical changes in the later years
many changes result fro, a decline in estrogen production
less vaginal lubrication, vaginal walls lose elasticity
orgasm may not feel as physically intense
male physical changes in the later years
changes may result from a decline in testosterone levels
after age 50 men take progressively longer to achieve erection – erections become less firm
men may need more time to reach orgasm
the refractory period tends to become longer with age
orgasm may not feel as physically intense
patterns of sexual activity in the later years
frequency declines with age
broaden sexual repertoire to accommodate physical changes of aging
-oral-genital stimulation
-anal stimulation
-sex toys
availability of an interested and supportive partner is most determinate factor in continued activity
sex and disability
sexual wellness involves five factors
-positive self concept
-knowledge about sexuality
-positive productive relationships
-cope with barriers to sexuality
-maintaining sexual health

this model applies to all of us

physical disabilities- MS
multiple sclerosis – nervous system disease, symptoms vary so sexual enjoyment may continue
physical disabilities: cerebral palsy
muscular disorder that is caused by damage to the central nervous system (usually prior to or during birth) and characterized by spastic paralysis
-does not usually impair sexual interest, capacity for orgasm or fertility
-people with cerebral palsy may be socialized into asexual role which counseling may help to change
physical disabilities: spinal cord injury
many people with spinal cord injuries can become sexually aroused and engaged in coitus
paraplegia – paralysis in located in the legs
quadriplegia – paralysis in all four limbs
effects on sexual response depend on the site and severity of injury
-men’s psychogenic erections originate in the upper spinal cord and reflexive erections originate in lower spinal cord
women may lose ability to experience genital sensations or to lubricate normally but breasts may not be affected – most women can become pregnant and bear healthy children
sensory disabilities
do not directly alter genital responsiveness
sexually may be affected however.
-relevant sex ed and counseling can increase sexual awareness and the development of social skills
other physical disabilities and impairments
arthritis is characterized by inflammation or pain in the joints – may make sexual activity difficult
intellectual disabilities
often stereotyped as asexual, incapable of understanding their sexuality or controlling their sex drive.
most develop normal sexual needs
most can learn about their sexuality and form rewarding and responsible intimate relationships
what is sexual dysfunction
diagnosis that a disturbance in sexual desire or the psychophysiological components of one’s sexual response (IE orgasm) cycle causes significant distress and interpersonal difficulty
people with dysfunctions: often avoid sexual opportunities, feel inadequate or incompetent, find it difficult to talk about
no precise figures on occurrence of sexual dysfunction
DSM has 4 categories of sexual dysfunctions
*sexual desire disorders* – lack of interest or aversion to sexual contact
*sexual arousal disorders* – failure to become adequately sexually aroused to engage in or sustain sexual intercourse
*Orgasmic disorders* – difficulty reaching orgasm or reaching orgasms more rapidly than one would like
*sexual pain disorders* – persistent recurrent experience of pain during sex
Sexual dysfunctions
can be lifelong or acquired (follow a period of normal functioning)

classified as generalized (occur in all situations) or situational (like one partner not the other, or during sex but not masturbation)

ex. man can become aroused during masturbation but not during sex with a partner.
lifelong and situational
hypoactive desire disorder
little or no sexual interest or desire
-absence of sexual fantasies
most commonly diagnosed sexual dysfunction
does not indicate physical inability
more common in women than men
cause unclear
sexual aversion disorder
little or no interest in sex but not repelled by genital contact
some find sex or genital contact disgusting or aversive
may be due to sexual frustration from failure or to sexual trauma (rape, abuse, incest,) more common in women
male erectile disorder or erectile dysfunction
persistent difficulty achieving or maintaing an erection sufficient to complete sexual activity – situational or generalized
may occur due to performance anxiety – anxiety concerning ones ability to perform behaviors especially behaviors that may be evaluated by other people
may have physical causes
female sexual arousal disorder
persistent difficulty becoming sufficiently lubricated in response to sexual stimulation
can be lifelong or situational
may have physical causes
usually have psychological causes such as anger, resentment, or trauma
female orgasmic disorder
anorgasmic: never having reached orgasm
-women who try to force an orgasm, ,ay assume a spectator role – role in which people observe rather than fully participate in their sexual encounters
male orgasmic disorder
this is also termed delayed ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, or ejaculatory incompetence
premature ejacualtion
ejaculation occurs with minimal sexual stimulation and before the man desires it
hard to define what is meant by premature
can have physical or psychological causes
rapid female orgasm
not classified as a sexual dysfunction
may result in sexual relationship issues
can have physical or psychological causes
persistent or recurrent pain during sexual intercourse which is commonly caused by lack of lubrication in women and genital infections in mean
psychological factors such as guilt to anxiety could contribute to pain
involuntary contraction of the muscle surrounding the vaginal barrel
prevents penile penetration or makes it painful
causes by psychological fear of penetration
gynecological condition characterized by vulva pain, burning sensations, irritations and soreness
cause unknown
origins of sexual dysfunctions: biopsychosocial model
considering interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors in sexual dysfunctions
organic causes of sexual dysfunction
fatigue, low testosterone, disease (diabete, hypertension, MS) drug use, injury, complications from surgery, aging, prescription drugs, pregnancy
psychosocial causes of sexual dysfunction : intrapersonal conflicts
religious taboos, social restrictions, sexual identity conflicts, guilt
psychosocial causes of sexual dysfunction : interpersonal conflicts
relationship conflicts, extra marital affairs, current abuse, sexual libido, desire or practices differemt fro, partner, poor sexual communication
psychosocial causes of sexual dysfunction : life stressors
financial, family or job problems, family illness or death, depression
psychosocial causes of sexual dysfunction : historical factors
past or current abuse(sexual, verbal, physical) rape, sexual inexperience
psychosocial causes of sexual dysfunction: sexual orientation
sexual dysfunctions within a heterosexual relationship can reflect on a lack of heteroerotic interests
psychosocial causes of sexual dysfunction: ineffective sexual techniques
include failure to diversity, brevity, and lack of communication
psychosocial causes of sexual dysfunction: emotional factors
include fear of losing control, depression and stress
psychosocial causes of sexual dysfunction: problems in the relationship
communication problems
psychosocial causes of sexual dysfunction: irrational beliefs
when one instance or erectile r orgasmic disorder leads to false catastrophic beliefs
psychosocial causes of sexual dysfunction: performance anxiety
can create vicious cycle of failure and increased anxiety
treatment of sexual dysfunction
change self-defeating beliefs and attitudes
enhance sexual knowledge
improve sexual communication
reduce performance anxiety
enhance stimulation and eliminate routine
encourage noncoital behavior
treatment of sexual dysfunctions: sex therapy
a collective term for short terms behavioral modelsfor treatment of sexual dysfunctions which aim to:
change self-defeating beliefs and attitudes
enhance sexual knowledge
teach sexual skills
improve sexual communication
reduce performance anxiety
biological treatments
PLISSIT Model of sex therapy
Permission – > limited information -> specific suggestion -> intensive therapy
master and johnson approach to sex therapy
cognitive-behavioral therapy:
female-male therapy team uses direct behavioral approaches to treat the couple during a two week residential program which includes: sensitive focus exercises and exercises in which sex partners take turns giving and receiving pleasurable stimulation in nongenital areas
Helen singer Kaplan Approach to sex therapy
psychosexual therapy
combines behavioral and psychoanalytic methods
improve sexual communication
eliminate performance anxiety
increase sexual skills and knowledge
sexual desire disorders treatment
self-stimulation exercises combined with erotic fantasies
sensate focus exercises
enhancing communication
expanding repertoire of couple’s sexual skills
testosterone replacement therapy
use of anti-anxiety medications
couples therapy
sexual arousal disorders treatment: erectile disorder
sensate focus exercises are used to reduce performance anxiety
biological approaches to treatment of erectile disorder
-surgery (vascular surgery or penile implant
-medication (viagra)
-vacuum pumps
sexual arousal disorders treatment: female sexual arousal disorder
sex education
cognitive therapy
create non demanding situations
work on relationship problems
use of artificial lubricants
biological treatments: vacuum pump on clitoris, medications also are being investigated
orgasmic disorders treatment
sensate focus exercises to reduce performance anxiety
use female- superior position
individual therapy (typical for women) involved directed masturbation programs which include
-self exploration and self massage
-giving onseself permission
-use of fantasy
-use of a vibrator
-involvement of the partner
orgasmic disorders treatment: male
increase sexual stimulation
decrease performance anxiety
premature ejacualtion treatment
partner uses the squeeze technique
an alternative method is the stop-start method
biological approaches to treatment of premature ejaculation include the use of psychiatric medications
sexual pain disorders treatment : dyspareunia
treatment includes medical procedures to treat infections
sexual pain disorders treatment: vaginismus
treatment involves the insertion of vaginal dilators or increasing size to help relax the vaginal musculature
-woman controls the pace and depth of penetration
psychological therapy may be needed
sale of sex for money
illegal in the US – a few Nevada counties have legalized prostitution but only the use of state licensed brothels is legal
most prostitutes are female
most clients are male
redefined as sex work
incidence in US has dropped
sex workers found in streets, brothels, adult films, internet, phone boo, and classified ads
female prostitutes
research find a high level of psychological disturbance among prostitutes
82% history of childhood sexual abuse
72% history of childhood physical abuse
90% has been physically assaulted on the job
78% has been raped on the job
72% could be diagnosed with PTSD
prostitutes who solicit on the streets
most common type of prostitution
at risk of abuse by customers and pimps
are the bottom rung of the hierarchy
tend to have history or poverty and being abused
most at risk for arrest
drugs and disease area way of life
brothel prositution
occupy a middle status on the hierarchy
live in the brothel but split their profits with management
some may be there against their will
massage parlor
many serve as fronts for prostitution
often found in malls in middle class suburbs
masturbation and oral sex are the most common services
strip clubs
often limited to dances only
extra services may be bought for tips in the VIP rooms
The Chicken Ranch
Brothel in Texas in 1905-1973
located in Fayette County, 2.4 miles east of LA Grange
students fro, A&M had an unofficial tradition of sending freshmen to visit for initiations
many girls were allegedly UT students
Marvin Zindler investigated the ranch and Governor Briscoe closed it
Basis for the musical and movie the best little whorehouse in Texas
Escort services
found in every major US city
some provide escort services only but most are fronts for prostitution
many prostitutes who are escorts come from middle class backgrounds and are well educated
call girls
have the highest status and make the most money
overlap with escorts
most attractive and well educated prostitutes
usually work on their own
Getting into the Life
poverty, sexual and or physical abuse, family dysfunction are common in the backgrounds of most prostitutes
some enter because they have learned that sex can gain them attention or love from adults
major motive is money
The customers of female prostitutes
men who hire prostitutes represent all socioeconomic and ethnic groups
occasional johns vs habitual john
compulsive johns
to to fulfill psychological or sexual need
enjoy sex only with prostitutes or only ask prostitutes to engage in certain acts
view marital sex as an obligation
motives for using prostitutes
sex without negotiation
sex without commitment
sex for eroticism and variety
prostitution as a social outlet
problematical sex
male prostitutes who service female clients
men who engage in prostitution with male customers
customers of hustlers are called scores
are generally young and have little education
many come from families with a history of alcoholism or physical and sexual abuse
may be gay or heterosexual
kinds of male sex workers
kept boys – have sugar daddy
call boys
punks – prison inmates
drag prostitutes
brothel prostitutes
bar hustlers/street hustlers
money is the main motive for male prostitution
mostly an adolescent enterprise
STIs and prostitution
risk of HIV/ aIDS is most deadly threat – linked to both female and male prostitutes
in countries where HIV is spread mainly by male female sexual intercourse sex with prostitutes is a main method of transmission
prostitutes often do not use condoms
many prostitutes and their clients inject drugs and share contaminated needles
should prostitution be legalized?
countries in which prostitution is legalized and regulated have low rates of STIs
turns sex workers into taxpayers
provides a safer venue for prositution
degrading to women and family values
still may not be a free decision
sex trafficking
sexually explicit material produced to elicit or enhance sexual arousal
is popular and controversial
-some are opposed due to moral reason
-feminists are opposed due to its portrayal of women
-tend ing to excite lust; lewd
determining what constitutes pornography is very subjective
pornography may be hard core or soft core (r rates)
offends people’s feelings or goes beyond prevailing standards of decency or modesty
usually laws are written about obscenity rather than pornography
pornography and the law: Comstock ACt (1873)
anti- obscenity bill that also outlawed the dissemination of birth control information
pornography and the law: Roth v United States ( 1957)
portrayal of sexual activity was protected under the first amendment of the constitution
pornography and the law: stanley v Georgia (1969)
possessing obscene material in one’s home is not a criminal act
-child pornography is a different story
pornography and the law: Miller V California
another obscenity case that acknowledged the definition of obscene varies with community standards
pornography and the law: Pope v illinois (1987)
another obscenity case that attempted to define what is obscene
Hinges on whether a reasonable person would find literary, artistic, political, or scientific value in the material
erotica and pornography
nearly all of us are exposed to sexually explicit materials
-typically by high school
-typically by peers
used to elicit or enhance sexual arousal
both men and women are aroused
repeated exposure to same material lessens response
sex differences in response to pornography
both men and women can become physiologically aroused by pornography
however, they may not share the same subjective response to it
-women prefer romantic scenes to explicit ones
cybersex addiction
1/3 of internet visits are to sexually oriented sites
some men spend hours online viewing and masturbating to pornographic images
-some engages in online sex through chat or webcam
may be as addictive as drugs
-tolerance can be developed
some addicts have opportunities for sex available to them but cannot draw themselves from the online opportunities
The commission on obscenity and pornography
in 1970 concluded that there was no evidence that pornography led to crimes of violence or sexual offenses
the meese commission report
in 1985 claimed to find a casual link between sexual violence and exposure to violent pornography
found no evidence linking exposure to nonviolent non degrading pornography and sexual violence
critics contend that they failed to distinguish between the effects of sexually explicit material and the effects of violent material
pornography and sex offenders
researchers found little or no difference in the level of exposure to pornography between incarcerated sex offenders and other felons
however, pornography, especially violent pornography, may stimulate sexually deviate urges in certain subgroups or sex offenders and increase sexually aggressive behavior
violent pornography
according to research, men exposed to violent pornography are more likely to become aggressive against females and to show less sensitivity towards women who have been sexually assaulted
depictions of women becoming aroused by victimization may legitimize violence against women in the viewers mind
violence rather than the sexual explicitness may cause negative attitudes towards rape victims
nonviolent pornography
males and females who received extended exposure to pornography
-gave more lenient punishments to a rapists
-males attitudes toward women became more callous and negative
-women become sexual play things
evidence exists that repeated exposure to nonviolent pornography:
-can loosen traditional sexual and family values
-can foster dissatisfaction with the physical apperance and sexual performance of one’s intimate partner