History Test #2 – Collin College

Teapot Dome
Harding’s Scandal
The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills was taken out of the Navy’s control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which illegally leased the land to the oil companies
Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes
Henry L. Mencken
The American Mercury
He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class
News covered the Scope Trial
F. Scott Fitzgerald
The Great Gatsby
Sinclair Lewis
He gained international fame for his novels attacking the weakness in American society
1st American to win the Nobel Prize for literature
“Main Street” and “Babbit”
Ernest Hemingway
American novelist
Considered part of the “Lost Generation”
A 1920s expatriate in Paris
Ku Klux Klan
In the 1920’s
Based on the post-Civil War terrorist organization
Started by William Simmons to oppose the forces changing America and to fight the growing “influence” of blacks, Jews, and Catholics in US society
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Immigration Acts, Quota System
1921 – First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants
Quota – allowed in only 3%
1924 – Based on nationality and limited the number of immigrants to 150,000 per year
Red Scare, Palmer raids
Communist Party was gaining strength in the US
US Attorney General Palmer raided and broke into meetings
4 thousand “communist” were jailed
Scopes Trial
John Scopes violated the Butler Act by teaching evolution in school
William Jennings Bryan prosecuted and Clarence Darrow defended
Shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism (basics of Christianity)
Harlem Renaissance
The Harlem Renaissance was a flowering of African-American social thought and culture based in the African American community forming in Harlem
Langston Hughes
A gifted African-American
One of the foremost interpreters of racial relationships in the US
Associated with the Harlem Renaissance
Depicted realistically the ordinary live of black people
Marcus Garvey
Leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association who advocated black nationalism and financial independence for blacks
Started the “Back to Africa”
Warren Harding
President of the US
Believed in a quasi-laissez-faire economic policy
Teapot Dome Scandel
Bibery for government oil lands
The worst scandal in American history
Calvin Coolidge
President of the US
Acquired the name “Silent Cal”
Believed in the government supporting big business
Herbert Hoover
President of the US
Promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community
Andrew Mellon
Secretary of the Treasury
Government “hands off” approach to the economy
Stock Market Crash
Marked the beginning of the Great Depression
Agricultural Marketing Act
This act provided for a form of relief for farmers by creating a Federal Farm Board which was designed to stabilize farm crop prices
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
It raised duties on agricultural and manufactured imports
May have contributed to the spread of the international depression
Reconstruction Finance Corporation, RFC
to make loans to banks insurance and railroads it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression
Bonus Army
WW1 vets tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early
Not approved
Angry vets march on DC
Hoovervilles
Sneering name given to the shantytowns that sprang up during the depression
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, 1933
Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation which outlawed banks investing in the stock market
National Industry Recovery Act
Set prices, wages, work hours, and production for each industry
Agricultural Adjustment Act
To reduce their output of designated products it paid farmers
Civilian Consercation Corps
Camps for men between ages 18-25 to work on reforestation, soil conservation, and flood control projects
Works Progress Administration
Employed people for 30 hours a week (so it could hire all the unemployed)
Securities and Exchange Commission
Supervise stock exchanges and to punish fraud in securities trading
Tennessee Valley Authority
20 dams, projects for farmers, engaged in reforestation to rehabilitate the area
National Youth Associtation
Provided part-time jobs for high school and college students to enable them to stay in school and to help young adults not in school find jobs
National Labor Relations Act or Wagner Act
Labor’s right to unionize and bargain collectively, prohibited unfair labor practices, and created the National Labor Relations Board
Congress of Industrial Organizations, John L. Lewis
To expand its principles to include all workers in mass production industries
Dust Bowl
Series of dust storms in the central US
Caused an exodus from the Oklahoma Panhandle region and also the surrounding Great Plains
Huey Long, Share the Wealth
He called for the confiscation of all fortunes over $5 million and a 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 million
He was assassinated
Father Charles Coughlin
National Union for Social Justice
Following of millions
Severely criticized FDR’s New Deal claiming it did not go far enough in bringing relief to the American people
Promoted inflationary currency, anti-semitism
Dr. Francis Townsend
Old Age Revolving Pension Plan
Proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month
Social Security Act
Established a retirement for persons over 65 funded by a tax on wages paid equally by employee and emplyer
Court-packing Plan
Proposing a bill to allow the president to name a new federal judge for each who did not retire by age 70 1/2
Congress did not pass the court-packing bill
Washington Disarmament Conference
Met with nine other countries in the nation’s capital to discuss limits on naval armaments
Created quotas for how many ships could be built
Dawes Plan
Formulated a plan to allow Germany to make its payments in annual installments
Kellogg-Briand Pact
It made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war
The treaty was generally believed to be useless
Hoover-Stimson Doctrine
Japan’s seizure of Manchuria brought this pronouncement that the U.S. would not recognize any changes to China’s territory
Neutrality legislation
All American exports would be embargoes for 6 months
Prohibited loans to belligerents
Prohibited arms sales to belligerents
Quarantine Speech
Democracies must unite to quarantine aggressor nations
Destroyer Deal
US agreed to “lend” its older destroyers to GB
England gave US military bases in the Atlantic
End of U.S. neutrality in the war
“Lend Lease”
President could lend defense equipment to any government whose defense was deemed vital to the defense of the US
Pearl Harbor
December 7th 1941 Suprise attack by the Japanese on Pearl Harbor
In response US declared war on Japan and Germany
Japanese Relocation
Moved all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living on the west coast of the US into internment camps in the interior of the US
Office of Price Administration
Government agency that successfully combated inflation by fixing price ceilings on commodities and introducing rationing programs during the war
War Production Board
Government agency that decided which companies would make war materials and how to distribute raw materials
Smith-Connally Anti-Strike ACt
Authorized federal government to seize and operate tied-up industries
Braceros
Mexican workers hired because there weren’t enough workers
Rosie the Riveter
Symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war
Double V
African Americans demanded a “double v” campaign to gain victory over racial discrimination at home as well as over the Axis abroad
Manhattan Project
Code name for secret US project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in WW2
Zoot-suit riots
Between sailors and solders stationed in the city
Yalta Conference
Make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the UN as a successor to the League of Nations
Free elections would be held
Divided Germany into 3 (later 4) post-war zones

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