History Systems Chapter 5

Subjects in Titchener’s laboratory were asked to ____.
-swallow a stomach tube
-record their sensations and feelings during urination and defecation
-make notes of their sensations and feelings during sexual intercourse
-attach measuring devices to their bodies to record their physiological responses during sexual intercourse
***All of the choices are correct***
The school of structuralism includes the work and/or systems of which of the following?
Titchener
Wundt’s focus was on ____, whereas Titchener’s was on ____.
synthesis of elements; analysis of elements
Titchener discarded
apperception
Titchener spent most of his career at ____.
Cornell University
Titchener’s manner with his students during lectures was one of ____.
formality
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Titchener’s relationship with Wundt and his family was one of ____.
closeness
When Titchener returned to Oxford with his doctorate from Wundt, his colleagues ____.
were skeptical of the use of scientific approaches to philosophical questions
As more and more students became drawn to Titchener’s lectures at Cornell, he ____.
became less actively engaged in laboratory research.
One of the main reasons that Titchener’s thought was believed to closely parallel that of Wundt was that Titchener ____.
was Wundt’s cousin
One of Titchener’s most profound influences on the development of experimentation in psychology was his publication ____.
Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice (1901-1905)
For many of his early years at Cornell, Titchener was known as “the professor in charge of ____ .”
music
Provided that students and colleagues were properly respectful, Titchener was ____ to them.
kind and helpful
Titchener excluded women from the meetings of the Titchener Experimentalists because women:
were too pure to smoke.
Who scolded Titchener for still practicing “a very old fashioned standpoint” in excluding women from psychology meetings?
Ladd-Franklin
____ was the first American woman to receive a Ph.D. degree in psychology.
Margaret Floy Washburn
Of the 56 doctoral degrees Titchener conferred, what percentage were given to women?
more than a third
Who was Titchener’s first doctoral student?
Washburn
Who was the first female psychologist elected to the National Academy of Sciences?
Washburn
Titchener’s definition of the appropriate subject matter of psychology is ____.
conscious experience
Titchener argued that psychology is unique among the sciences because ____.
psychology alone is dependent on experiencing persons
Who defined the subject matter of psychology as being a conscious experience as that experience is dependent on the person who is actually experiencing it?
Tichener
In the Original Source Material from A Textbook of Psychology, Titchener described the difference between ____.
independent and dependent experience
Titchener vigorously cautioned experimental psychologists about the stimulus error, that is, about ____.
describing the observed object rather than the experience of it
To confuse the mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed was to commit ____.
stimulus error
If you described the test you are now taking as being on paper, you would not be giving a true introspective report of your conscious experience according to Titchener. In introspection, to use everyday words such as “paper” is to ____.
commit the stimulus error
Titchener opposed the development of areas such as child psychology and animal psychology because ____.
these areas did not focus on discovering the structures of mind
The sum of our experiences as they exist at a particular moment is Titchener’s definition of ____.
consciousness
The sum of our experiences accumulated over a lifetime is Titchener’s definition of ____.
mind
Who said psychology was NOT in the business of curing sick minds?
Titchener
Titchener’s introspection method was most like ____ method.
Külpe’s
While Wundt emphasized ____ and ____ reports during introspection, Titchener used ____ and ____ introspective reports.
objective, quantitative; subjective, qualitative
Titchener’s opinion about how introspection should be used probably became formed ____.
before he went to Leipzig
The influence of mechanism on Titchener is exemplified in his ____.
use of the chemistry term reagents instead of observers
In his introspection experiments, Titchener wanted his subjects (observers) to ____.
be passive recorders of the experiences registering on the conscious mind
Which of the following is NOT one of the three essential problems for psychology, according to Titchener?
to study how these components were synthesized into higher-level processes
Which of the following was a topic to be explored by Titchener’s psychology?
-the reduction of conscious processes
-the determination of the laws of association of elements of consciousness
-to identify the physiological correlates of the elements
***All the choices are correct.***
Titchener’s research identified three elements of consciousness: sensations, affective states, and ____.
images
By 1896, Titchener had identified approximately how many elements of sensation?
more than 44,000
For Titchener, distinct sensations combined with others to form ____.
perceptions and ideas
Titchener’s descriptors of sensations did NOT include which of the following?
propensity
Which of Titchener’s basic elements of consciousness does not possess clearness?
affective states
Feelings or emotions lack clearness because ____.
if we focus on them to determine clearness, the feeling or emotion disappears.
Titchener’s research led him to conclude that affective states had only ____ dimension(s); namely ____.
one; pleasure/displeasure
Toward the end of Titchener’s career, he came to favor the ____ method instead of the ____ method.
phenomenological; introspective