History of Psychology Final

Psychology is unique among the sciences in its requirement that its students
study the history of psychology
Psychology is marked by diversity and divisiveness. The one aspect of the discipline that provides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its
History
According to Schultz & Schultz, a course in the history of psychology is useful because
a. it helps us to understand why modern psychology has so many different movements.
b. it helps to integrate the areas and issues that constitute modern psychology.
c. it provides a fascinating story on its own.
d. ALL OF THE CHOICES ARE CORRECT
As a scientific discipline psychology is
one of the newest and one of the oldest
The feature of modern psychology that distinguishes it from its antecedents is its
Methodology
Modern psychology differs from philosophy in which of the following ways?
Modern psychology uses objective methods to study questions. Philosophy depends upon speculation and intuition in order to answer questions.
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The data of history are most accurately depicted or described as
data fragments
Skinner’s self-discipline as a student and Freud’s being ignored and rejected early in his career indicated that
participants may themselves produce biased accounts.
A surge in the practice of applied psychology occurred in response to the lack of jobs in academic settings for PhDs. Thus, the development of applied psychology was a direct consequence of the
economic context of the United States.
According to the textbook, psychology as a discipline has
engaged in the discriminatory practices that mark American culture as a whole.
What invention was considered the perfect metaphor for the “spirit of mechanism”?
clock
The doctrine that acts are determined by past events is
determinism
Contemporary cognitive psychologists’ computer model of artificial intelligence is a direct descendant of
Babbage’s calculating machine
Empiricism attributes all knowledge to
experience
Descartes was significant to psychology as a science because he helped liberate
science from the stranglehold of theology.
The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities refers to
the mind-body problem.
Descartes changed the focus from the study of ____ to the study of ____.
the soul; the mind
Descartes’ notion that we are born with certain perceptual processes is also a principle of which modern school of psychology?
Gestalt
The idea that science should be based totally on objectively observable facts is called
Positivism
Materialism is the belief that
a. speculation and inference are acceptable.
b. consciousness exists beyond physics and chemistry.
c. the mental world exists on a plane of its own.
d. ALL THINGS CAN BE DESCRIBED IN PHYSICAL TERMS.
David Kinnebrook was fired because
his observations differed from the observations of his boss.
The practice of psychosurgery such as prefrontal lobotomies, has its roots in the
extirpation method.
____’s phrenology proposed that the topography of a person’s skull revealed his of her intellectual and emotional characteristics.
Gall
The researcher credited with the finding or conclusion that nerve impulses are electrical within the neuron is
Galvani
German universities were especially fertile ground for scientific advances because
there was academic freedom for students and faculty alike.
Why did Helmholtz abandon his research into human reaction times?
He found differences from one individual to the next and he found differences in the same individual.
Weber’s Law, the formulation of how much change in a stimulus is required for a subject to detect it, rests on the measurement of the
just noticeable difference
Fechner’s most important contribution to psychology was the
quantification of the mind-body relationship
The point of sensitivity at which the least amount of change in a stimulus gives rise to a change in a sensation is a definition of
the differential threshold
How did the British empiricists (BritE) and the German physiologists (GerP) differ in their approach to the study of the senses?
The BritE studied the senses from the viewpoint of philosophy. The GerP used scientific methods to study the senses.
In his early work when he was his own experimental subject, the 29-year-old Wilhelm Wundt found that he could
not pay attention to two things at once.
For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was
Consciousness
Introspection as used by Wundt is also called
Internal perception
According to Wundt, there were two elementary forms of experience, namely
Sensation and feelings
The Gestalt psychologists’ best-known tenet is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This same tenet was alleged in Wundt’s principle of
Apperception
Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because
it was not seen as having practical value
Ebbinghaus is important for the history of psychology because he
successfully challenged Wundt’s claim that higher mental processes, such as learning and memory, could not be studied in the laboratory.
Ebbinghaus’s focus of study was on the
initial formation of associations.
Ebbinghaus measured learning by
counting the number of repetitions needed for one perfect reproduction of the material.
Ebbinghaus’ curve of forgetting shows that
material is forgotten rapidly in the first hours after learning and then the forgetting slows down
Subjects in Titchener’s laboratory were asked to
a. swallow a stomach tube.
b. record their sensations and feelings during urination and defecation.
c. make notes of their sensations and feelings during sexual intercourse.
d. attach measuring devices to their bodies to record their physiological responses during sexual intercourse.
e. ALL OF THESE ANSWERS ARE CORRECT
Titchener’s manner with his students during lectures was one of
Formality
One of the main reasons that Titchener’s thought was believed to closely parallel that of Wundt was that Titchener
translated Wundt’s books from German into English
This person was the first American woman to receive a Ph.D. degree in psychology.
Margaret Floy Washburn
Titchener’s definition of the appropriate subject matter of psychology is
conscious experience
To confuse the mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed was to commit
stimulus error
The sum of our experiences accumulated over a lifetime is Titchener’s definition of
Mind
In his introspection experiments, Titchener wanted his subjects (observers) to
be passive recorders of the experiences registering on the conscious mind.
Toward the end of Titchener’s career, he came to favor the ____ method
phenomenological
When Titchener died, the era of structuralism
Collapsed
The most important consequence of functionalism was
applied psychology
The most significant immediate antecedents of functionalism were
the work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research.
____ was an early evolutionary theorist who argued that acquired characteristics could be inherited.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
A theory of evolution based on natural selection was developed independently by
Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
The most fundamental point of Darwin’s theses was the
fact of variation among members of the species.
A consequence of Darwin’s work for psychology was
a focus on individual differences.
Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution?
Galton
The term mental tests was coined by ____, but ____ originated this concept.
Cattell; Galton
When Galton’s measures are compared to the same measures taken today, the data reveal
the developmental rate was slower in Galton’s time.
The work of Romanes was especially flawed because of his
use of the anecdotal method.
Perhaps the most important factor that enabled functionalist psychology to flourish in the United States was the
American temperament as a whole.
Who should social Darwinism bring to mind?
Spencer
Who pioneered an innovative method of information processing?
Hollerith
William James
established an environment favorable for functionalism with his Principles of Psychology.
For James, one’s stream of consciousness
is distorted when analyzed into distinct elements.
Woolley’s research on sex differences and alleged male superiority was
the first experimental test of the variability hypothesis of male superiority.
The notion of a “motherhood instinct” was
refuted by Hollingworth’s research.
The first American PhD in psychology was earned by
Hall
The first African American to earn a PhD in psychology was
Sumner
The notion that children’s development reflects the history of the human race is the
recapitulation theory.
Why did the FDA take Coca Cola to court in 1911?
because one of Coke’s ingredients was caffeine
According to Cattell, by 1895 psychology was
a required subject for an undergraduate degree.
Galton’s influence on Cattell led to
the study of large groups rather than single subjects.
The original purpose for the founding of The Psychological Corporation was to
deliver applied psychological services
Binet and Simon’s test differed from those of Galton and Cattell in its
emphasis on the relationship of higher cognitive processes to intelligence.
The construct called “IQ” was developed by
Stern
The fundamental difference between the Binet tests and the army Alpha and Beta tests was that
Binet’s tests were individually administered; the army tests were for groups.
One consequence of the adoption of the Stanford-Binet test in the United States is that
public education has revolved around the IQ construct ever since.
Witmer’s “clinical psychology” is today known as
school psychology
The two most profound influences on the growth of clinical psychology as a specialty were
World War II and the VA hospital system.
By the second decade of the 20th century, psychologists agreed on the
a. value of introspection.
b. existence of mental elements.
c. need for psychology to be a pure science.
d. replacement of structuralism by functionalism.
e. NONE OF THESE CHOICES ARE CORRECT
The early 20th-century Zeitgeist in science was marked by
Positivism
For Loeb, a tropism is a/an
involuntary forced movement.
The case of Clever Hans served to
illustrate the importance of objective, experimental study of animal behavior with proper control conditions.
Habit strength is a function of repetition. This is an instance of
Thorndike’s law of exercise.
Thorndike’s revision of his law of effect stated that
punishing a response weakened a connection but not to the same degree that rewards strengthened a connection.
Pavlov’s conditioned reflexes require ____ for learning to occur.
reinforcements and S-R connections.
For Pavlov this is necessary for learning to take place.
Reinforcement
While Pavlov was exploring conditioning in Russia, an American named ____ also discovered the existence of conditioned reflexes
Edwin Burket Twitmyer
Bekhterev
applied Pavlovian principles to the muscles.
In his 1914 book, Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, Watson argued
for the acceptance of animal psychology.
After his dismissal from Johns Hopkins, Watson
published for the American public through popular media.
For Watson, the goal of psychology is
the prediction and control of behavior.
The most important research method of the behaviorists was
the conditioned reflex method.
Watson predicted that the laws of behavior would be identified when
behaviors were reduced to their basic S-R units.
The Little Albert study
has never been replicated.
Mary Cover Jones’s study of Peter
was a forerunner of behavior therapy.
A major criticism of Watson’s system is that it discounts
sensation and perception
The efficiency of learning is a function of the total amount of brain tissue; this is ____ law of ____.
Lashley’s; mass action
McDougall believed that human behavior
derives from innate tendencies.
Skinner’s former students, ____ and ____, demonstrated that operant conditioning can be taken out of the animal lab and applied to the real word.
Breland; Breland
Operationism means that a concept
is synonymous with its methods of measurement.
Tolman’s concept of cognitive maps, i.e., that the animal learns the “whole,” might be traced to his work
with Koffka during graduate school.
Which of the following did Tolman not consider to be a cause of behavior?
motivation
The term intervening variable refers to
internal processes that “connect” the stimulus with a response.
In Tolman’s system, the repetition of an act leads to
sign Gestalts.
The classic test of Tolman’s learning theory concerned whether a rat in a maze
learns by using a cognitive map or learns by using a set of motor responses.
From the 1940s to the 1960s, who dominated American psychology?
Hullians
Hull’s system sought to describe and explain
all behavior.
The technique that Hull added to the then-accepted battery of experimental methods was
the hypothetico-deductive method.
The Gestalt school’s major difference with behaviorists was over the
utility of the concept of consciousness.
The unbiased description of immediate experience as it occurs is
phenomenology
“Apparent movement” is another term for
the phi phenomenon.
One of the major reasons that Gestalt psychology failed to become popular in the United States apparently was
American scholars’ belief that Gestalt theory had only to do with perception.
____ was the spokesman for the Gestalt movement who studied the thinking processes of chimpanzees, left Germany because of his anti-Nazi activities, came to the United States, and eventually became president of the American Psychological Association.
Wolfgang Köhler
A(n) ____ is a quality of wholeness or completeness in perceptual experiences that does not vary even when the actual sensory elements change.
perceptual constancy
The basic premise of the Gestalt principles of perception is that perceptual organization is
Innate
Köhler argued that solving a problem requires
a restructuring of the perceptual field.
Köhler argued that trial-and-error learning
was a consequence of not allowing the subject to see the whole situation.
The Gestalt psychologists maintained that a correspondence called ____ exists between perceptual activity and brain activity.
Isomorphism
A basic difference between psychoanalysis and the other systems of psychology was that
the other systems had an academic background and a focus on pure science.
A topic addressed by psychoanalysis and essentially ignored by the other schools of psychology was
the unconscious.
The analogy that the mind is like an iceberg, with its bulk hidden from view (unconscious), is attributed to
Fechner
The person who most strongly influenced humane reforms for the mentally ill in the United States was
Dix
The techniques of Mesmer
were investigated and he was discredited and often involved convulsions.
Freud’s interest in a scientific strategy to acquiring knowledge has been attributed to his reading of
Darwin
Freud’s use of hypnosis was a direct consequence of
his association with Breuer and a research grant to study with Charcot.
The goal of Freud’s therapies was to
make the unconscious conscious.
Freud argued that whether an event happened in childhood
is less important than the patient’s belief that it occurred.
According to Freud, the biological, need-related part of everyone’s personality is the
id
The essential difference between those who are classified as dissenters and those who are classified as carrying on in the Freudian tradition is that the dissenters
developed their own theories during Freud’s lifetime.
The primary form of psychoanalysis practiced in the United States for some 30 years after Sigmund Freud left Vienna was
ego psychology
Jung’s theoretical system is known as
analytical psychology.
For Jung, dream analysis was
a lifelong practice for resolving personal crises.
Jung’s concept of the personal unconscious
contains individual experiences that have been suppressed or forgotten.
According to Jung, in our ____, we retain experiences of our ancestors, animal and human.
collective unconscious
A component of the Zeitgeist at the beginning of the 20th century that influenced some dissenters within psychoanalysis was the
recognition of the influence of social forces.
As he himself acknowledged, Adler’s childhood experiences are a direct reflection of his concept of
inferiority feelings.
Which aspect of Adler’s system has led to the most research?
birth order
In general, the designation “third force” applies to
humanistic psychology.
There are no structural psychologists left in the United States. However, structural psychology was a success because it
helped to establish psychology as an independent science.
Cognitive psychology is concerned with
the study of all mental processes such as perception, learning, memory, and problem solving.
The founder of cognitive psychology was
There was no single founder.
Neisser’s definition of “cognitive” basically involves terms from the metaphor of
information processing.
The very first “thinking” machines, used for calculations, were developed by
Babbage and Hollerith.
Cognitive psychology differs from behaviorism because cognitive psychologists
a. believe that people actively and creatively arrange environmental stimuli.
b. are interested in how the mind organizes experience.
c. focus on the process of knowing, not just on responses to stimuli.
d. ALL OF THESE CHOICES ARE CORRECT
The cognitive psychologists’ focus on cognitive processes has meant that using animals as subjects is
fruitful in cognitive psychology.
This is the most recently developed approach to psychology.
evolutionary psychology
The behaviorist premise that all behavior is learned was challenged by
a. the Brelands’ work on instinctual drift.
b. Harlow’s work with monkey-mothers.
c. Seligman’s work on biological preparedness.
d. ALL OF THESE CHOICES ARE CORRECT
According to Schultz and Schultz, when a movement within psychology becomes a formalized school, the only way its momentum can be stopped is by its
Success