History of American Women Final Exam

New Woman
the 1890s integrated Victorial values with activism; larger life public figure, sense of self and gender, middle class, town or city dweller, better educated than average, more likely o be single than any other group of women
woman question
should a woman attend a college and risk losing her mind and feminine identity issue
voluntary motherhood
women had more control over their sexual lves therefore having children
Jane Addams
reformer during progressive era; single wome; agot a Nobel peace prize; founded Hulll House
Hull House
settlement house for educate women who could make a tangible social contribution by brining the urban poor and foreign-born in contact with the best in American life
Boston marriages
two women who set up house keeping together
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first college of higher education to allow females and blacks; followed the ladies course, received special degrees, and entered men’s classes with speciial permission
first well-endowed strongly academic women’s college capable of undertaking an acdemic education as stringent as for elite men without ruining their health
Sex in Education
written by Dr. Edward Clarke; higher education caused health problems
Dr. Edward Clarke
wrote Sex in Education about how higher education caused health probelms
Mary Baker Eddy
founder of Christian science; well-off women folwwers acepted female virtues
Christian science
founded by mary Baker Eddy and based on the teaching and healings of Jesus
Frances Willard
temperance leader and founder of WCTU
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
leader Frances Willard; single goal a plan for reforming the human race and male half of it; strove to end the production sale and consumption of alcohol and to attain state temperance laws
first professional women’s clu established by journalists and other career women in New York for female sex to be helpful to each other acively beneveloent; Jane Crooly
Women’s Club Movement
allowed middle class women to enter public life without abandoning domestic values and without adopting hte aggressive stance associated with either the temperance crusade or the politicized women suffrage movement
Ida B. Wells
anti-lynching campaign leader
Home economics
classes to teach housekeeping and child care that gave woman at home insight into scope of her obligations
Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862
act that allowed for the creation of land grant colleges; allowed women because it was cheaper
Smith-Lever Act of 1914
act that funded educational extension programs in rural areas; supported agricultural programs for men and home economic programs for women including technology, demonstration agents, and etc.
Ellen Key
Wrote the Century of the Child; idea of motherhood has changed; not a calling but something learned, the educated mother
The Century of the Child
written by Ellen Key the idea of motherhood has changed; not a calling but something learned; the educated mother
Mother’s Clubs
National Congress of MOthers aka PTA a outlet for the educated mother
Settlement houses
a place where educated women could make society contribution by helping immigrants; helped women out of hte sphere
those who wanted the right to vote
fourteenth amendment
gave equal rights under the law
fifteenth amendment
gave African american men the right to ovte
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
fought for suffrage; Seneca Falls and the Declaration of Sentiments
National Woman Suffrage Association
radical faction under Stanton and anthony who did’t allow the lower orders of men
American Woman Suffrage Association
wanted the word male removed from teh state consitution
Victoria Woodhull
speaker for suffrage who fell out due to free love message/scandal
National American Woman Suffrage Association
unification of NWSA and AWSA
Carrie Chapman Catt
head of the NAWSA said their vote was needed to purify politics
Julia Ward Howe
abolitionist and women’s rights activisi
believed woman suffrage was an attack on tradiation beliefs about sex roles and social organizations
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Wrote Women and Ecomonic which argued for women’s public econimic independence; first substantive contribution made by a woman to the science of economicss
Women and Economics
written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Emma Goldman
radical anarchist known for her writing and speeches from Russia
Alice Paul
suffragist and women’s rights; founded NWP
National Women’s Party
founded by Alice Paul; fought to vote on teh same terms as men; turned their attention to the ERAafter amdnement passed
Charlotte Woodward
sole survivor of Seneca Falls who was able to be alive for women’s right to vote
19th amendment
gave women the right to vote law
new woman of the 20s with short skiers ad bobbed hair
League of Women Voters
spawned from NAWSA, watdog agency made up of women’s group represntatives formed durin gwWO sought to educate the electorate, democratize political parties by female infilatration and support laws to protect women and children; represented the reform-minded mainstream of the suffage movement
National Woman’s Party
third party that wanted to support women candidates and causes
Equal Rights Amendment
proposed by NWP, women were still subordinate to men and this would erase sex as a legal classification
Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921
act that reduced infant and maternal mortaliaty by providing prenatal and health care centers
Zora Neale Hurston
anthropoligist during the Harmel REnaiissance; more involved in black culture than in women’s black folklorist, author
Signmund Freud
stressed the hazards of sexual repression; supported sexual expression of women
dating and petting
these two increased because of premarital sex; acceptance with female sexuality; decreased the sense of sisterhood though to competition
Clara Bow
actress during the 1920s who starred in the silent film, It
sexual-romantic changes
this union allowed expectation change and responsibility of wife though was keeping romance and friendship alive; equal but had to proivde more ‘fun’
Comstock Laws
contraceptive information was obscenity and made it illegal to send it through the mail
Margaret Sanger
wrote Woman REbel, Birth Control REview wich was a birth control advocate
Woman Rebel, Birth Control Review
birth control advocate written by Margaret Sanger
Pessary or diaphragm
types of contraception mechanisms that bould be obtained from private physicians but purpose was for cure or prevent disease
pin money
women’s salary to buy he rown litle things
Frances Perkins
secretary of labor; denounced women working; deprived another family of income
Eleanor roosevelt
pushed for women’s rights while first lady
Mary McLeod Bethune
civil rights leader; started an Frican American School in Florida; advisor to FDR; head of the ‘black cabinet’
soap operas
mode of escape during the depression for women
escapism in movies
distraction from private problems
woman power in WWII
women put into the labor force with men gone; greatest need was in war industry; name of propaganda by government to get women to work
Office of War Information
men advertising for the war; the pitch was making sure women knew their work was temporary
Rosie the Riveter
propaganda to get women to engage in wartime jobs
children born to Japanese people in a new country
Mitsuye Endo
challeneged the legality of detaining loyal citizens without due process as a violation of the fifth mendment in the supreme court
Ex parte endo
said govt could not detain a citizen that they once conceded was loyal to the United States
Modern Woman: The Lost Sex
written by Ferdinand Lundberg and Marynia Granham, feminism was a neurotic rection to natural male dominance; true woman accepted depedence on men, passive fulfillment in sex and motherhood
Ferdinand Lundberg and Marynia Franham
two authors of Modern Woman: The Lost sex
domestic ideal of 1950s
idea that people just wanted life to get back to normal therefore women accepted returning to the home
Helene Deutsch
said the feminine woman leaves the initiave and manly work to men
Dr. Spock
cautioned moms who wanted to leave their chilren at home while they went to work
The feminine mystique
the book written saying the problem that has no name urging women to desire a destiny beyond being a mother or house wife; written by Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
wrote the FEminine Mystique, first president of NOW
President’s Commission on the Status of Women
1961, established to advise Kennedy on the issues conscerning the status of women
Equal Pay Act of 1963
this act tried to abolish wage disparity between men and women
Peace Corps
accepted women and men volunteers on an equal basis
fear of success
fear that success and intelligence made a woman unattractive and masculine
Helen Gurly Brown
celebrated felmale sexuality in her publictions
Sex and the Single Girl
written by Helen Gurly Brown; saw housewife as boring and brought attention that the single girl did want to get married
women’s magazine edited by Helen Gurly Brown
Daniel P. Moynihan
wrote the NEgro Family
The Negro Family
written by Daniel P. Moynihan; glack poverty is due to the ack of stability and lack of fathers
Rosa Parks
refused to give up her seat to a whte person on the bus
Fannie Lou Hamer
lost her job trying to vote and became an acivist
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII
act that prohibited discrimination in employment on the basis of race
Representative Howard W. Smith
proposed an amenemnt to title VII that prohibited discmination on the basis of sex; no one is sure why though
Equal Employment Opportunities Commission
a place where owmen could send their complaints about dscrmination but they never took them really seriously
National Organization for Women
organization that politicized political leaders; denied the idea that men and women had different roles in society
Casey Hayden
compared sexism to racism
Consciousness raising
the idea that talking about each other ‘s expereinces would raise awareness
discrmination against half of te human species by the other half
women’s liberation
second wave feminism; elimination of sexism and racism
equal rights amendment
supproted by women feminists and lesbian’s rights
first wave
wave of feminism that foughtfor more official inequalities such as voting
second wave
wave of feminism that fought against unofficial inequalities such as social justices
Ms. Magazine
provided a form for ongoing feminist issues; publication extending to a wider audience; edited byGloria Steinem
Gloria Steinem
editor of Ms magazine
Roe v. Wade, 1973
invalidated state anti abortion laws
Comprehensive Child Development Bill
a bill that would have provided nationwide network of day care centers vetoed by Nixon
Stop ERA
campaign by phyillis schlafly to establish women having traditional roles
Phyllis Schlafly
leader of Stop ERA movement
Right to life movement
movement aimed to reverse federal abortion policy; abotion should not be allowed under ay circumstance
Sandra Day O’Connor
first woman to sit on the court
Webster v. Reproductive services
missouri law was upheld that allowed it to put restrictions on abortions; allowed states to legislate what they originally thoguth was forbidden under Roe v. Wade
Planned parenthood v. Casey
allowed certain limits on abortion such as needing a guardian
Steinberg v. Carhart
said states could not ban partial birth abortions
Hill v. Colorado
caused creation of ‘no approach’ zones out side of medical clinics
emergency day after contraceptive pill
Catherine MacKinnon
Women’s rights and anti-pornography activist
Andrea Dworkin
against ponrography and beliefved it was linked to violence against women
Anita hill
brought attention to sexual harrassment when she accused Clarence Thomas
Clarence Thomas
judge accused by Anital hill of sexual harassment
In a Different Voice/You just Don’t Understand
books that addressed gender differences
postfeminist generation
young, educated, professional women took the achivements of the women’s movement for granted, voiced disinterest
The Second State
written by Friedan, urged women’s moveemtn to pay more attion to the family
written by Susan Faludi, state dhow the movies, media, and industry and govt all sabotaged fminist gains
Susan Faludi
wrote Backlsh
cultural feminism
proteted the existence of gender roles, but the negative connotations of those roles and their devaluation in a male dominated culture
glass ceiling
unseen, unbreakable barrier that keeps women and minorities down
Mommy track
work track that dimished opportunities for women who chose to have children
The Divorce Revolution
divorce improverished ex-wives, especially odler wives and their children, Leonore Weitzman
Leonore Weitzman
wrote The Divorce Revolution
Alice Walker
coined womanism term
the black woman’s feminism
Geraldine Ferraro
first woman vice president candiddate
Thomas-Hill hearings
Hills charged Thomas with sexual harassment
Janet Reno
first woman to serve as the attorney general
Madeline Albright
first woman to become the US Secretary of STate
Sojourner Truth
African-American speaker at Ohio Women’s Rights convention on gender inequalities and racial issues
Stanley Elkins
wrote Slavery, A Problem in American Institutional and Intellecutal LIfe, illustrating that American slave master had absolute power and authority over the bondsman that hte slave was reduced to childlike dependy
slave stereotype of childlike dependency, lazy, docile, infantile, irresponsibility
belief that black women were governed almost enetirely by their libido
stereotype of black women providing domestic sills in household and love white children
fancy trade
prostitution of female slaves
middle passage
journey of slaves to America; women weree on the top of the boat; often molested and for sexual desires of seamen
trash gang
child labor of slavery involving sweeping, choppin cotton, etc.
doctor women
midwives who administered various herb tea to ease the pains of many ailing slaves
middle-aged or elderly with children past childbearing age
abroad marriage
marriage to person on a different plantation
a domineering female who consumes men and usurps their roles; not sexual but is as indomitabl and emasculating; tough like Mammy