History Matric Notes. The Cuban Missile Crisis. This was the most serious crisis between the USA and USSR in the history of the Cold War. Cuba was a communist country only 90 miles off the coast of USA. In October 1962 US spy planes identified nuclear missile sites being built in Cuba. Background: Cuba traditionally had a passive relationship with the USA. Batista who was president/dictator at the time was viewed as safeguard against communism by the USA, but when revolutionary Fidel Castro overthrew him in 1959 they became suspicious. Castro introduced socialist reforms and started trade negotiations with the Soviet Union. At the height of the Cold War, the existence of a communist country so close to the United States was viewed with great alarm. They secretly started to plan to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro. ’ --> Bay of Pigs: In April 1961, with backing from the CIA, an armed force of Cuban exiles, with supplies from Kennedy, invaded Cuba. This was a huge failure as Castro’s forces easily defeated the invaders, killing them or taking them as prisoners. This affair was deeply embarrassing for the US as their involvement in the incident had been publicly exposed, and also because it was so badly planned and executed.
After this Castro officially declared he communist and turned increasingly towards the USSR for economic and diplomatic support. ’ --> What happened after this? To avoid another US-backed invasion of Cuba and to co-operate with Krushev (USSR president), Castro agreed to the construction of Soviet missiles in Cuba. The Americans watched this happen with great alarm and when the U2 spy plane flew over Cuba in 1962 showing that nuclear missiles were being built shit went down. What Kennedy Did. * Broadcast the American people, informing them of the potential threat and what he intended to do about it. The Americans blocked Cuba and stopped any ship suspected of carrying any arms. * The Soviets and Castro complained to the UN, saying the US was threatening world peace. * Kennedy threatened to invade Cuba and remove the missiles by force. *
The next 10 days were extremely tense as the world was only the brink of nuclear war. ‘It was Krushev who broke the standoff and agreed to remove the missiles as long as the US agreed never to invade Cuba again. The Cuban Missile Crisis then ended and Kennedy became an instant hero to the West for his apparent ‘tough’ approach’ The Outcome. ) Kennedy became a ‘hero’ and gained a great reputation in the USA for standing up to the Soviet Union. Khrushev also became known in Soviet circles for being the peacemaker as he was willing to make the first compromise. 2) The relationship between the USA and USSR improved and a permanent ‘hotline’ directly liked from the White house to the Kremlin was set up to avoid this ever happening again. A year later they both signed the Nuclear Test Ban which limited tests on nuclear weapons. 3) Cuba stayed Communist and highly armed. However the missiles were removed.
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Stuff to think about. --> Why did the Soviets place nuclear missiles in Cuba? * They genuinely wanted to defend Cuba. * Khrushev was concerned about the missile gap between the USSR and USA and seized any opportunity to get missiles in closer range of the USA. * Khrushev wanted to test how strong the Americans really were. (Back off or Face up) * Khrushev wanted to use the missiles as a bargaining centre. Agree to remove them in return for some American concessions. --> Did the ‘Bay of Pigs’ incident contribute to /spark the start of the Cuban Missile Crisis? Key Terms.
Cold War – Started in 1945, after WW2, the Cold War was an ideological battle between capitalist democratic USA (West) and the communist authoritarian USSR (East). There were never any direct battles between each other’s soil; arms race, space race. Both these countries influenced other countries. Containment – This was the policy that was outlined the Truman Doctrine, in order to prevent the spread of communism throughout the world based on the Domino Theory (when one country fell to communism, others countries will follow) Statesmanship – Usually a political leader of a country who is espected for their actions or ‘doing the right thing’ for his county. Brinkmanship – The practice of pushing a dangerous situation or confrontation to the limit of safety especially to force a desired outcome. Civil Rights Movement The 1960’s was a decade of popular protest. The CRM in the US was a great e. g. of how effective popular mass protests could be. As a result there was less discrimination against African Americans. Some activists felt that the CRM did not go far enough and the Black Power Movement then arose.
At the same time women began to demand equal rights and their was a widespread opposition to the American war in Vietnam which led to protests by students for international peace. The Civil Rights Movement and Black Power Movement in the USA. In the 1960’s, African American made up 10% of the population. Many of them did not have the same political rights as white Americans as there was prejudice and discrimination against them. This lead to the emergence of the CRM which used non-violent tactics to demand quality and end segregation. Others however adopted the more violent and radical approaches of the BPM.
The position of African Americans in the 1960’s Even though there was progress in the 1950’s African Americans were still subjected to segregation and discrimination, especially in the southern states. For example in 1954 the US Supreme court ruled that segregation in schools were illegal but most southern schools remained segregated. Although it was the policy of the US federal government to end segregation, it was not properly enforced. *However the was some success in the 50’s: Rosa Parks Montgomery Bus Boycott --> This boycott resulted in the Supreme Court outlawing the segregation of buses in ’56.
As a result of this the minister Martin Luther King emerged as the leader of the CRM. How did the CRM gain momentum in the 1960’s? In 1960 black students at a North Carolina university staged a sit-in at a lunch counter who refused to serve black customers. Their example was followed by 70 000 other students who held similar protests in other segregated facilities. Soon thousands more black and white students joined in a massive campaign of non-violence protest to demand for desegregated facilities. At the Lincoln Memorial in 1963, 250 000 people from all religious ;amp; ethnic backgrounds came together to demand full racial equality.
This crowd remained peaceful the entire time and listened to one of the most memorable speeches in history, the ‘I have a dream’ speech by MLK. A year later was known as ‘Freedom Summer’ where black and white civil campaigners from the more liberal states went to Mississippi to open ‘Freedom Schools’. These schools taught basic literacy, black history and stressed black pride. But there was a violent reaction to all of this; Freedom workers beaten and arrested. As a result of this the US Congress passed the Civil Rights Act ’64 barring segregation ;amp; discrimination in employment in all public facilities.
What was the Black Power Movement? The CRM was focused on ending segregation in the south, however their was a lot of segregation in the north. Many black Americans living in the north rejected the non –violent approaches of the CRM and Southern Christian Leadership Conference and turned to Black Power instead. Malcolm X argued that violence was necessary to tackle white racism and self-defence against groups like the KKK. He was critical of King’s non-violent approach and said that he held black people back. Malcolm promoted black separation believing blacks needed to be self-reliant.
As a result of the BPM black mayors were elected in 7 cities and programmes to improve housing facilities were put in place. *Black Panthers were a militant group within BPM who very willing to use violence. The Women’s Movement During the 1950’s women were expected to stay at home and raise families. There were a limited number of careers women could choose from and their skills were often undermined by sexist attitudes and sexual harassment. Women’s Movement in USA. * In the 60’s women’s attitude began to change. They were no longer willing to accept their inferior position in the work place. This new attitude was partially influenced by The Feminine Mystique – Betty Friedan ’63. Friedan argues that the American middle class home had become a comfortable ‘concentration camp’ for women. * Friedan and others set up the National Organisation for women (NOW) who aimed to raise the status of women and end discrimination. * Feminists used petitions, strikes and legal action to force employers into given women equal rights in the work force. --> The Women’s Movement in the US influenced many other women in other countries to take action such as Britain, Italy, Mexico and France.
The Disarmament, Peace and Student Movements. A major concern in the 60’s was that the Cold War would become ‘hot’ and that a nuclear war would break out. Protest movements then emerged to ban nuclear weapons as well as Peace Movements who were against the drafting of young USA students into the Vietnam War. Disarmament Movement. After the USA had dropped atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during WW2 there was an extremely tense atmosphere as other countries started to develop nuclear weapons and the possibility of a nuclear war was becoming an actual possibility.
Also the environmental damage caused by the nuclear tests was becoming a concern. In 1958 Britain formed the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND). The CND held a four day march in London and each other year this march attracted more and more people. Branches of the CND spread all over Britain and by the 1960’s, anti-nuclear protests (‘Ban the Bomb’) all over the world were supported by hundreds of thousands of people. After the Cuban Missile Crisis US, USSR and Britain agreed to a ban on nuclear testing in the atmosphere, though not underground.
After this DM got smaller as the threat of nuclear war was less immediate. When the US passed the nuclear non-proliferation Treaty in ’68 the Disarmament movement was considered a victory and ended. Peace Movement. Was against the Vietnam War and emerged in American Universities and then spread to other sections of American society. People had started to question why America was spending so much money they were unable to win and it reminded when Europe colonised Asia. The Vietnam War was the first televised war - people saw the devastation and suffering the war was causing Vietnam.
The US introduced conscription to raise troops to fight in Vietnam. Some men refused to go (‘draft dodgers’) and many of them moved abroad. There were strikes and demonstration across all universities in America. The most serious protests occurred when President Nixon announced the US was extending the war to Cambodia in 1970. At Kent University in Ohio soldiers fired at student protestors killing four students. People were horrified, 400 universities closed and 2 million students went on strike. Student Movements. [Students questioned authority; parents, education system, government and values of society. The young people who grew up in the ‘60’s were known as the ‘baby boomers’ and by the mid 60’s most of them had begun enrolling in colleges and universities. Universities did not have the facilities to cope with so many students and many campuses became overcrowded. Many students were dissatisfied with the education system and how the universities were run. The CRM triggered student awareness of the problems in their society. Many of them joined the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). Some students protested by ‘dropping out’ of society and becoming hippies. They rejected conformity and the materialism of society. Don’t trust anyone over 30’ ‘Make Love, not War. ’ These protests were taking place all over the world and reached a peak in 1968. Key demands in these protests were greater participation by students in the decisions of the universities administration and a transformation of the curriculum. They also included wider political and social demands such as less violence by government and protests against the communist bloc in Eastern Europe. Key Terms Civil Society Protest – Forms of protest usually against laws or government policies thought to be unjust taken by ordinary citizens of a country.
Civil Rights Movement –Protest movement started by MLK devoted to peaceful and non-violent protest of civil disobedience against discrimination and segregation of black people in the USA and to gain full constitutional rights for all black citizens. Passive resistance – A deliberate policy adopted to oppose policies or laws whereby opposition is conveyed in a deliberate non-violent fashion. SCLC – Southern Christian Leadership Conference founded in 1957 by MLK which co-ordinated the fight for civil rights in the South for the black people of the USA.
CORE – The Congress for Racial Equality , founded in 1942 , campaigned for civil rights 50’s - 60’s and is partially associated with the ‘Freedom Riders’ , sit-ins and registering black voters in the South. Black Power – This became the slogan of the more militant black movements in ’66. It advocated black identity based on black culture and black values. It argued for racial separation; blacks should run their own society without white interference. Black Power rejected passive resistance and urged black people to fight back if attacked.
Nation of Islam – Black Muslims; argued for the establishment of a separate black identity and rejected black/white integration. Disarmament – Movement advocating that countries reduce their weapons spend less on the military and the removal or deactivation of nuclear weapons. Feminism – Rejected age-old patterns of discrimination against women and advocated that women have the same rights and privileges as men. ESSAY. PARTY. Civil Rights Movement vs. Black Power Movement During the 1950’s and 1960’s oppression in the black community of the United States of America was at its ultimate high.
This severe oppression led to activists in the black community to finally speak out and demand change. The two main political activists during this fight and struggle for black equality were Martin Luther King Jnr. and Malcolm X. Although essentially fighting for the same outcomes, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jnr. had very different ideals and strategies in their fight for civil rights. Martin Luther King who is known for his peaceful protesting during the Civil Rights Movement was born in a middle class, comfortable home. He graduated school at 15 were he then went on to college to graduate with a Bachelor Degree in Divinity.
After his education he moved to Montgomery, Alabama where he became a Pastor. In 1955 King started the Civil Rights Movement to fight for the rights of oppressed Black Americans. The movement aimed to outlaw racial discrimination against African Americans and to grant them civil rights. King believed that through hard work, leadership and non -violent protest black Americans could achieve equality. In King’s address in March 1963 to the people of Washington he said ‘In the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds.
Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. ’ This shows us that King strongly believed in passive resistance and believed that black Americans must fight peacefully and without bitterness in order to gain equality. His ideals were shaped by his Christian faith and the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi, an ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement. Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little – he changed his surname in rejection of slavery in America. Malcolm was born in a poor, deprived family with his seven brothers and sisters.
Three of Malcolm’s brothers were killed by white men, as well as his uncle and father who were killed by the Ku Klux Klan. Malcolm spent most of his childhood in foster care after his mother was admitted into a mental institution after her husband and sons deaths. After being told ‘there was no such thing as a black lawyer’ Malcolm dropped out of school and became involved in stealing and drugs. He was eventually arrested and sent to prison. During his seven year incarceration he converted to Islam and joined the Nation of Islam.
After he was released from prison he became the spokesperson for the Nation of Islam and became one of its most powerful speakers attracting thousands of African-Americans. Malcolm X unlike Martin Luther King believed in fighting violence with violence, he was against all white people and was even considered by critics as a racist. Malcolm X was no doubt an extremist; this can be shown from an extract of one his speeches to students in Mississippi in 1964: ‘Don’t try to be friends with somebody who is depriving you of your rights. They are not your friends. They are your enemies. Treat them like that.
Fight and you’ll get your freedom. ’ Malcolm believed in the saying ‘separate but equal. ’ This is known as Black Nationalism which was what Malcolm X strived for. He believed that the black man should be able to control the politics and politicians in his community. It is clear that Malcolm X and Martin Luther king had very different ideas and strategies in their fight for Civil Rights. Malcolm was an extremist, whilst King was a passive leader. King believed in a joint fight with white supporters of the Civil Rights Movement, whilst Malcolm believed in complete independence from any white people in the fight for Civil Rights.
The key difference between these two political activists is that unlike Martin Luther King, Malcolm X believed that rather then integrate with white society, black Americans should control every aspect of the black community. These extreme differences undoubtedly stem from the two political activists child-hoods and pasts. However, as different as these two were in terms of their styles of speaking and definition of equality, they both promoted black pride, power and unity and fought for the civil rights of all black Americans. Both
Malcolm and King gave hope to their people during times of struggle and main aims were to instil power and dignity to Black American in order to overcome the great prejudices they faced and to bring equality and justice to the black community of America We can conclude that Martin Luther King Jnr. and Malcolm X were contrasting political activists fighting for the same causes. The oppression these two extremely different individuals faced in their lives led them to become the two main political activists in the same fight for black equality and civil rights in America in the 1960’s.
They shall always be remembered and praised for their contribution to equality of black people all over the world. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission The TRC was a court-like restorative justice body assembled in South Africa after the end of apartheid. Witnesses who were identified as victims of gross human rights violations were invited to give statements about their experiences; some were selected for public hearings. Perpetrators of violence could also give testimony and request amnesty from both civil and criminal prosecution. -;gt; Why was the TRC put in place? After 1994 when South Africa became a democratic country, it was decided that a process of healing and reconciliation should be embarked upon. There were two viewpoints, one from the ANC, which called for hearings to be held that would reveal the truth about the past, while on the other hand the National Party wanted a general amnesty for all apartheid crimes. In light of this it was finally agreed that a Truth and Reconciliation Commission be established. They came to a compromise; reveal and acknowledge the past and promote reconciliation and amnesty. * Consisted of Desmond Tutu and Dr Alex Boraine as well as 17 truth commissioners. * Was broadcast on TV, radio and newspapers (media and public had access) – biggest different between TRC in SA and TRC in other countries before hand. -->The aims of the TRC were: • To investigate the causes of human violations during apartheid • To recommend some form of compensation for victims of apartheid • To grant amnesty to those found guilty of human rights violations – TRC argued this ould bring out more of the truth. (Not everyone was granted amnesty). --> Purpose of the TRC: ‘Having looked the beast of the past in the eye, having asked and received forgiveness and having made amends, let us shut the door on the past – not in order to forget it, but in order not to allow it to imprison us. Let us move into the glorious future of a new kind of society where people count, not because of biological irrelevancies ... but because they are persons of infinite worth created in the image of God. – Desmond Tutu. [Finding the truth about the past to rectify and move on towards a better future] -->Three committees were set up to deal with the work of the TRC: • Committee on Human Rights Violations • Committee on Reparation and Rehabilitation was charged with restoring victims' dignity and formulating proposals to assist with rehabilitation. (Monetary Compensation). • Committee on Amnesty considered applications from individuals who applied for amnesty in accordance with the provisions of the Act. Had to be politically motivated, proportionate and tell the whole truth. ) – DID NOT NEED TO SAY SORRY. --> Truth and Reconciliation? The TRC was viewed as much less effective in bringing about reconciliation. Some said that the proceedings only helped to remind them of the horrors that had taken place in the past when they had been working to forget such things. Thus, the TRC's effectiveness in terms of achieving those very things within its title is still debatable --> The TRC’s conclusion The TRC completed its report in 1998.
It concluded that PW Botha’s government had moved from a policy of repression to one of killing of its opponents, as well as being responsible for torture, abduction and sabotage. The report also criticised De Klerk for the activities of the ‘third force’ which had tried to disrupt the negotiations. It also criticised the ANC for civilian causalities in MK operations, for the torture and executions that had happened in ANC camps in exile and the use of violence against its opponents. --> Was Tutu realistic in his expectations of the TRC? Yes: * He had faith as he believed in forgiveness and redemption. He acknowledged that the TRC which was a process which made a contribution to harmony and nation building but was only part of a process * He didn’t expect everyone to agree with him about the value of the TRC * The apartheid era forces could not all be punished, and a way must be found to integrate them willingly into ‘The New South Africa. ’ No: * No real incentive for security forces to come forward * Expecting to much of the black population who suffered so much during apartheid * Reparations were not substantial as you cannot put a price on a mans life Examples of important TRC cases: Amy Biehl was an American graduate of Stanford University and an Anti-Apartheid activist in South Africa. She studied at UCT as a scholar in the Fulbright Program. When 26-year-old Biehl drove a friend home to the township of Guguletu on August 25, 1993, a black mob pelted her car with stones and smashed its windows. Biehl was struck in the head with a brick, then dragged from her car and surrounded by a mob that stoned and stabbed her to death while she begged for her life. Four of Biehl's murderers were convicted for her killing; however, in 1998, all were pardoned by the TRC.
Biehl's family supported release of the killers, and her father shook the murderers' hands, stating that the most important vehicle of reconciliation is open and honest dialogue -we are here to reconcile a human life which was taken without an opportunity for dialogue. When we are finished with this process we must move forward with linked arms. In 1994, Biehl's parents, Linda and Peter, founded the Amy Biehl Foundation Trust to develop and empower youth in the townships, in order to discourage further violence. * http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=tKfKuiyqaiE – Siphiwo Mtimkulu. http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=tef2AwcIZsw – Father Michael Lapsley --> How successful was the TRC? ‘Is the question most often asked. Successful in terms of what? Nuremberg? Chile? Southern Africa? In terms of South African expectations? International expectations? Justice? Truth? Reconciliation? ’ -> Many people were against the concept of amnesty; they wanted justice rather than the truth. Many people found it difficult to accept that men who were guilty of appalling crimes should be allowed to walk free, simply because of a public confession.
Others were angered by the fact that many perpetrators who applied for amnesty did not express any remorse. -> Many South Africans were irritated that the TRC process was not bringing about change, justice or reparation. The key components of the legislation were concerned with (i) creating a forum for victims, (ii) establishing the truth, (iii) reparations, (iv) amnesty and (v) reconciliation. In its efforts to create a forum for victims the TRC succeeded most remarkably.
The experiences of which the victims spoke have truly become part of the national psyche and are now imbedded in this country’s acknowledged history for the very first time . This alone justifies the existence of the TRC and nobody can ever undo that. It is difficult to judge how this outpouring [of testimonies] affected the South African public. ->‘For some black people it seems to have been cathartic to be able to tell their stories and to hear the confessions. For others, it has been infuriating to see the guilty get amnesty and walk free – although I would argue that the same of exposure had been a punishment in itself.
Many whites accused the TRC of being a witch-hunt and of stirring up hatreds that they said would make reconciliation impossible. But a few, mainly white Afrikaners, there is a deep sense of guilt and soul searching, for theirs was the ruling group and these confessing monsters are their own people. ’ -> ‘They were not seeking forgiveness from us but from the government. ’ --> What did the people of South Africa feel? * Perpetrators left off to lightly. * Indifferent to victims needs – only received a 30% reparation package after waiting 5 years. Not even-handed – Too victim friendly , set out to ostracise and humiliate the so called perpetrators * Too even-handed * Not enough reconciliation – Disappointed not more victims and perpetrators actually reconciled --> Link between TRC and nation building? The new constitution supported the idea of national unity based on reconciliation and reconstruction of society. Many people therefore believe that there was a strong link between the TRC and nation building. Retributive Justice| Restorative Justice|
Crime is an act against the state, a violation of a law, an abstract idea| Crime is an act against another person and the community| The criminal justice system controls crime| Crime control lies primarily in the community| Offender accountability defined as taking punishment| Accountability defined as assuming responsibility and taking action to repair harm| Crime is an individual act with individual responsibility| Crime has both individual and social dimensions of responsibility| Punishment is effective: * Threats of punishment deter crime * Punishment changes behaviour| Punishment alone is not effective in changing behaviour and is disruptive to community harmony and good relationships| Victims are peripheral to the process| Victims are central to the process of resolving a crime. | The offender is defined by deficits| The offender is defined by capacity to make reparation| Focus on establishing blame or guilt; on the past (did he/she do it? )| Focus on the problem solving, on liabilities/obligations, on the future (what should be done? | Emphasis on adversarial relationship|
Emphasis on dialogue and negotiation| Imposition of pain to punish and deter/prevent| Restitution as a means of restoring both parties; goal of reconciliation/restoration| Community on sideline, represented abstractly by state| Community as facilitator in restorative process| Response focused on offender’s past behaviour| Response focused on harmful consequences of offender’s behaviour; emphasis is on the future| Dependence upon proxy professionals| Direct involvement by participants| Amnesty – This is an official pardon which would be granted in respect to acts, omissions and offences with political objectives committed in the course of conflicts in the past Reparations – Making amends for doing wrong to victims or their families and dependants. This also sometimes (in the case of S. A) included giving monetary compensation to victims or their families. Ubuntu – directly defined means humanness. It means having the quality which separates men from animals – being compassionate and gentle and using ones strength on behalf of the weak in a community
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