History Court Cases

John Marshall and Roger Taney
2 Chief Justices
Federalist
John Marshall was a….
Federalist turned Democrat
Taney was a…
for slavery
More importantly, Taney advocated….
Marbury V. Madison
Midnight appointee of the Adams administration and someone sued for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. Established judicial review: Supreme Court is the ultimate interpreter of constitution
judicial review
Marbury v. Madison established this.
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Fletcher v. Peck
In the Yazoo Land Fraud, Georgia claimed a bunch of land from the Louisiana Purchase that it had no right to claim. Georgia then sold the land to speculators who sold it to farmers. The Federal government stepped in and takes back the land and tells Georgia to give back the money but the money will just end up with the speculators and not the farmers. The Federal government says that the farmers must be paid. This was asserting federal power over state power.
Fletcher v. Peck
Supreme Court case which protected property rights and asserted the right to invalidate state laws in conflict with the Constitution
property
Fletcher v. Peck protected these rights and asserted the right to invalidate state laws in conflict with the Constitution
Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee
The Court’s ruling rejected “compact theory,” the idea that the states were equally sovereign to the federal government. This ruling was significant because it enforced the rights of the Supreme Court, which held appellate jurisdiction over state courts.
rights of the Supreme Court
Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee enforced the rights of this, which held appellate jurisdiction over state ones.
McCulloch v. Maryland
State was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law.
Only federal government has power to tax
McCulloch v. Maryland said that…
Dartmouth v. Woodward
Supreme Court case which protected contracts and businesses from state control and allowed future corporations to escape public control
contracts and businesses
Dartmouth v. Woodward protected these from state control and allowed future corporations to escape public control
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshall’s decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states’ rights
interstate commerce
Gibbons v. Ogden involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshall, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of this. Marshall’s decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states’ rights
Cohens v. Virginia
Man found guilty of selling illegal lottery tickets and convicted, but taken to supreme court, and Marshall asserted right of Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme court decisions.
state supreme court decisions
Cohens v. Virginia asserted right of Supreme Court to review decisions of these.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Marshall ruled that the an indian tribe had “an unquestionable right” to their lands, but they were “not a foreign state, in the sense of the Constitution” but rather a “domestic, dependent nation” and so could not sue in a United States court over Georgia’s voiding their right to self-rule. Was a blow to the the Indian case, it cast doubt on the constitutionality of Indian Removal Act.
Indian Removal Act
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia cast doubt on the constitutionality of this.
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision – Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe’s sovereignty –
ignored it
Jackson did this to Worcester v. Georgia
Barron v. Baltimore
The 1833 Supreme Court Decision holding that the Bill of Rights restrained only the national government, not the states and cities.
Bill of Rights
Barron v. Baltimore held that this restrained only the national government, not the states and cities.
Marbury V. Madison, Fletcher v. Peck, Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee, McCulloch v. Maryland, Dartmouth v. Woodward, Gibbons v. Ogden, Cohens v. Virginia, Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, Worcester v. Georgia, Barron v. Baltimore
10 Marshall Court Cases
Amistad
Spanish slave vessel. Slaves heading to Cuba seized the ship from its crew in 1839 and tried to return to Africa, but the United States seized the ship and, through a supreme court case, freed the slaves.
Strader v. Graham
Case in which supreme court rules that it will defer to state Supreme Court decisions concerning slavery
state Supreme Court decisions
Strader v. Graham said that the Supreme Court will refer to….for slavery
Dred Scott
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn’t sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Ableman v. Booth
Held that state courts cannot issue rulings that contradict the decisions of federal courts, overturning a decision by the Supreme Court of Wisconsin. For example, it is illegal for state officials to interfere with the work of U.S. Marshals acting under federal laws.
federal courts
Ableman v. Booth held that state courts cannot issue rulings that contradict the decisions of these, overturning a decision by the Supreme Court of Wisconsin. For example, it is illegal for state officials to interfere with the work of U.S. Marshals acting under federal laws.
Amistad, Dred Scott, Ableman v. Booth, Strader v. Graham
4 Taney Court Cases