Policy of Appeasment
a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an enemy power in order to avoid conflict.
A secret pact between two enemies. (Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union) Both Nazi Germany and Soviet Union would invade Poland together but not simultaneously.
Battle of Dunkirk
Battle of Dunkirk was the defence and evacuation of British and allied forces in Europe from 26 May-4 June 1940.
Battle of Britain
Hitler called an aerial bombings on Britain. Hitler believed this would demoralized his enemies, however he was wrong. British RAF invented a radar technology. So they were able to pinpoint where the German bombers were. At the end German lost hundreds of men. This was the first setback for Germany.
Scorched Earth Policy
Germany would destroy anything they came across when they invaded Soviet Union. With this invade Germany failed, which set them back even farther.
Cash and Carry Policy
Great Britain and other nations at war Have military rights to buy military weapons from the US but they have to pay in cash and use their own ships.
States that the US would loan military goods to Great Britain. (Tanks fighter planes, etc.) After the war the British can return goods back to the US.
A proposal between Winston Churchill and Roosevelt in a secret meeting where they agreed that this was about saving Democracy. If we win the war, we would rebuild Germany after the war instead of punishing them.
Rape of Nanking
was an episode during the Second Sino-Japanese War of mass murder and mass rape by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (then spelled Nanking), the capital of the Republic of China.
Japan dropped bombs on Hawaii. Japan didn’t destroy the oil fuels at Hawaii. The US aircrafts and oils were safe. Instead of demoralizing the US, the US declared war against Japan. In response in WW2 Germany allied with Japan.
Rosie the Riveter
a mascot to motivate women to take up a factory job.
Executive Order 9066
a roundup of Japanese American where they placed them in internment camps.
Zoot Suit Riots
Lations/Mexican American. Zoot suiters would be attacked for discrimination in LA. They were attacked because they were consider useless in the US. They didn’t attend the war and they didn’t work.
The experience of the African Americans Latinos and Japanese would participate in the war in hopes of winning the war. If they won the war, they would “win” at home as well because it would get rid of segregation.
On June 6, 1944, more than 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline, to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France.
The killing of some six million Jews by the Nazis during World War II.
Battle of the Bulge
Caught the allied forces being push back, but they did not break. Battle of the Bulge was a major war.
Battle of Midway
US landed a successful counter attack that sinked 4 japanese carriers and japanese aircrafts. Many believed this was the turning point of the war. The Japanese are now on the defensive. The Japanese could not replace what they had lost.
Battle of Iwo Jima
Lasted over 2.5 months. Long bloody battles.
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman was the 33rd President of the United States. As president he was given news in a project of the atomic bomb. He was shocked.
Code name for US scientist to work on the first Atomic Bomb.
Aug. 6, 1945 – Drop of the first atomic bomb.
The US would provide 17 billion dollars of economic aid to Europe. There were 3 motives. One was humanitarian motive, economic motive, and the political motive.
We need to support anti-communism around the world, such as Greece and Turkey were given large amount of money.
Policy of Containment
1.U.S. contains communism, communism will collapse
2.U.S. shows any weaknesses, communism will expand
National Security Council
1.Communism as monolithic force – believed all communist was alike, but in reality that doesn’t mean both communist nations will get along.
2.Communism as a real threat – was considered a real military threat
3.Military Keynesianism- must maintain military build-up or economy falls
must maintain military build-up or economy falls
US dropped off tons and tons of basic necessity to west Berlin.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. NATO’s essential purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of its members through political and military means.
a collective defense treaty among eight communist states of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War. (Soviet Union)
was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People’s Republic of China.
was originally called Formosa. Chiang Kei-Skek and Nationalists moved to Formosa and called it Taiwan.
a Theory where if one country fell to communist in Asia, other countries around it would also fall to communist.
South Korea was losing so they retreated from the advancements of North Korea. China supported the North while the US supported the South.
Gen. Douglas MacArther
Lead the UN forces into Korea
he Battle of Inchon was an amphibious invasion and battle of the Korean War that resulted in a decisive victory and strategic reversal in favor of the United Nations.
Second Red Scare
The Second Red Scare was focused on national and foreign communists influencing society, infiltrating the federal government, or both.
Calling out political enemies as Communist.
a civil rights advocate. He was so outspoken he talked badly about the FBI. The FBI then did all they could to destroy his career. He was harassed by the FBI.
House of Un-American Activities Committee. It was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives.
He was an American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. He became the most visible public face of a period in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion. He was noted for making claims that there were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the United States federal government and elsewhere.
Will provide education, medical care, affordable housing loans, and job opportunities for WW2 Veterans.
Large plan community. A suburb. “everybody looked the same.”
Jack Kerouac, On the Road, 1957
Beatniks, “The Beat Generation”; The book was about a road trip with family and friends where they meet new people.
Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, 1963
The book was about girls where they don’t go to college and pursue a marriage instead.
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
embrace the concept of democracy and creating the idea of democracy for the masses for the elite and the government and the people. Encouraging college students and others to be open and welcome.
Enormous music festival that showed the Hippie Generation and people embracing drugs and rock and roll.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
a young African American who visited Mississippi and got killed because he wasn’t aware of the rules in the south. (He was dared to talk to a white person.)
refused to sit in the back of the bus.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Black Civil rights activist
Montgomery Bus Boycott
boycott lasted over a year. Montgomery Bus company were starting to lose money. They start to desegregate the bus
Little Rock Nine
They were a group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas.
Greensboro Sit-in Protests, 1960
A series of nonviolent protests in Greensboro, North Carolina in 1960 which led to the Woolworth department store chain removing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States.
bus rides carrying SNCC.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, (SNCC) – formed by college students to advocate civil rights. They were willing to risk their lives.
police chief of Birmingham, Alabama. Ordered his men to attack Martin Luther King and his activists. This backlashed on Bull because this was a huge public issue .
Civil Rights Act of 1964
made it illegal to discriminate anyone on race, creed, national origin, or sex in regards to racial segregation.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
made it illegal to hold bias literally exams and poll taxes when it comes to voter registration.