History 1301 test 4

Underground Railroad
Network of secret routes used by southern slaves to escape to free north, helped hundreds of slaves escape, led by Harriet Tubman, led to establishment of Fugitive slave laws
Great White Society
Blacks substandard, inferior, created for the fields, benevolent masters, minimal physical abuse
Slave life on plantation
Worked 24/7, treated brutishly, forced obedience without questioning authority
Gabriel’s Revolt
Foiled slave rebellion, supposed to lead a charge on Richmond, Gabriel and 25 other slaves hanged, heightened whites fear of slave uprisings
Nat Turner’s Rebellion
Slave rebellion, slaves killed about 60 whites, caused panic amongst southern whites, new laws preventing slave assembly and education were passed
Harriet Tubman
Escaped slave, Underground Railroad, helped hundreds of slaves to escape slavery
Sojourner Truth
Escaped slave, women’s rights, first woman to win a court case against a white man, recruited black troops for union army
Runaway Slaves
Hundreds of slaves escaped, fugitive slave law passed, punished slaves and those who assisted
Frederick Douglass
Escaped slave, abolitionist leader, incredible orator, Union recruiter during the war
The Creole
People of mixed race, descendants of settlers that lived in French Louisiana
Great white society
Racist south society, aristocrats
Southern Pro-slavery arguments
Blacks inferior, made to work in fields, mortgaged slaves when in debt
Expansion of Cotton (King Cotton)
Southern slogan, claimed cotton exports would make CSA economically prosperous, thought France and Britain would give support
George Fitzhugh
Social theorist, pro-slavery, blacks needed slavery, voice of southern plantation folk
Amalgamation
The merging, in a political sense, of two or more political entities like counties or districts
Mongrelization
Mixing of races or ethnicities, interracial marriage or relations
Manifest Destiny (Pro’s)
God wanted us to expand, “sea to shining sea,” more farmland
Manifest Destiny (Cons)
More trouble with indians, slavery expansion, not constitutional
Settlement of Texas
White settlers came after Louisiana purchase, Mexican revolution, independence, annexed as a slave state
Texas Vs Mexico
Texas v Mexico for independence, Texas became its own nation, later annexed into the union as slave state
The Alamo
Mexican siege on Texan fort, Texas lost, Mexico suffered heavy casualties, inspired Texan cause
Battle of Goliad
Texans captured a Mexican post, attained much needed supplies, isolated Mexicans from getting more supplies
Battle of San Jacinto
Texan army defeated Mexican army, Santa anna was captured, Mexico surrendered, Texas gained independence
Davie Crockett
Soldier and politician from Tennessee, fought and died at the Alamo, American folk hero
Jim Bowie
Texas militia man, leader of the Alamo, American folk hero
William Barrett Travis
Chief recruiting officer in the Texas Army, commander at the Alamo, wrote “victory or death” letter
Sam Houston
Major General of Texas’ army, defeated Santa Anna, first president of the Republic of Texas, brought Texas into the Union
Santa Anna
General of the Mexican army, came to recapture land for mexico, lost every battle, cost Mexico Texas
Texas Annexation
slave state, negated all of Texas’ debt, US provided protection against an angry Mexico
Joseph Smith
Father of Mormonism, led religious revolution, church of Latter Day Saints is still very active
Brigham Young
President church of Latter Day Saints, Salt Lake City, first governor of Utah territory, BYU, university of Utah
Election of 1844
James K. Polk defeated Henry Clay
James Polk (accomplishments)
Manifest destiny, reestablished independent treasury system, pro-slavery, started Mexican-American war to get Mexican lands
Oregon Boundary Dispute
Britain and America held claims to land (Oregon), almost caused third war, agreed to compromise at 49th parallel
Mexican War (causes)
Land dispute, Americans occupied the area, 16 Americans killed in Mexican skirmish, Polk declared American blood had been spilt on American soil, fueled congress to agree to war
Mexican War (Theaters of War)
Texas, northern Mexico, Mexico City
Mexican War (Generals)
Winfield Scott, Zachary Taylor, Stephen watts Kearny, John D Sloat, William J. Worth
Mexican War (Polk’s greatest fear)
Thought Scott and Taylor would take his job
Mexican War (Whig positions)
Spot resolutions
Resolutions requested by Lincoln for Polk to provide evidence of where blood was spilt, challenged validity of Polk’s claims, Whig party seem unpatriotic
Taylor’s “Northern Mexico”
Won first few battles even though he was outnumbered, took over Monterrey, war hero
Scott’s “Central Mexico”
Followed Cortés’ route into Mexico City, defeated Santa Anna, took command of Mexico City, one of the most successful war campaigns
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
treaty between US and Mexico, ended the war, US paid Mexico $15 million, US received California, (most of) New Mexico, and all other Mexican territories north of the rio grande
Mexican War (California)
Expansionists wanted California for manifest destiny, prosperous ports on coast would open up trade with Asia
“All of Mexico” movement
Advocates wanted America to take over all of Mexico, radical side of Manifest Destiny, ended by the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
The Gadsden Purchase
US purchased 30,000 square miles of modern day New Mexico and Arizona from Mexico, finalized Mexican border, land to be used for transcontinental railroad
The Donner Party
American pioneers headed to California, got stuck in Nevadan mountains during winter, became cannibals to survive
California Gold Rush
Gold discovered in California, population boom, emanate statehood, controversy over expansion of slavery exploded, a “free” California would cause south to lose the senate/congressional power
Railroads
Huge growth starting in 1850, future of transportation, dream of Transcontinental RR pushed Stephen Douglas to fight for Kansas and Nebraska statehood
Whig party (1850’s)
Nominated General Zachary Taylor for president, Fillmore pushed the compromise of 1850 through congress but ended up causing the fracture of the party
Free Land, Free Labor, Free Men
1856 slogan from Republican Party, anti-slavery, opposed plantation system that put small farmers out of business
Popular Sovereignty
Proposed by Stephen Douglas, said local residents of a territory would be the ones to decide on slavery, led to the Bleeding Kansas conflict
The South’s Spokesperson
John C. Calhoun, denied that congress had any powers to prohibit slavery
William Lloyd Garrison
Abolitionist, editor of The Liberator, wanted immediate emancipation of slaves, heavily influenced many northerners toward slave sentiment
Elijah Lovejoy
Minister, abolitionist, murdered by a pro-slavery mob, was hailed as a martyr by abolitionists
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote ‘Uncle Tom’s Cabin,’ extremely popular book about slavery, infuriated southerners, one of the most successful books in American history
Wendell Phillips
Abolitionist, indicted for protecting a fugitive slave, defended the Confederate’s right to secede
Fugitive Slave Law
Part of the compromise of 1850, required escaped slaves to be returned to their masters, all citizens of free states had to cooperate, turned northerners further away from slavery
Grimke Sisters
Southern-American Quakers, lectured in the north about their experiences with slavery on their family plantation, helped shed light on cruelty of slavery
Margaret Garner
Black slave, killed her own daughter so that she did not have to return to slavery, huge news throughout country, played on by abolitionists
Women’s Rights
Movement began during and after civil war, women protested that if blacks could vote then so should women
Seneca Falls Convention
First women’s rights convention, organized by Elizabeth Stanton, discussed the social and civil rights of women
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Abolitionist, social activist, declaration of sentiments, organized the forts women’s rights movement
Lucretia Mott
First president of the American equal rights association, feminist, mentor of elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B. Anthony
women’s rights movement leader, founded the national women’s suffrage association, pushed for what would later be known as the 19th admendment
Solutions to Slavery (North)
No expansion of slavery in any territory, extend Missouri compromise line to the pacific
Solutions to Slavery (South)
Popular sovereignty, secession
Mexican Cession
Name of the region ceded to the US by the treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo
The Wilmot Proviso
All Mexican land not open to slavery ever, wasn’t about blacks, just didn’t want the plantations to get all the good land
John C. Calhoun
South’s spokesperson, denied that congress had any powers to prohibit slavery
James Hammond
Senator from South Carolina, “Cotton is King,” said the country couldn’t do without the South’s cotton
Lewis Cass
Presidential nominee, known as the leading spokesman of Popular Sovereignty
Popular Sovereignty
Local residents of a territory would be the ones to decide if slavery would be permitted, led to bloodshed in the Bleeding Kansas conflict
The compromise of 1850
California admitted as free state, slave trade prohibited in Washington DC, Fugitive Slave law enforced, Mexican session divided into territories w/popular sovereignty to decide on slavery issue
Zachary Taylor Plan
Encamped in disputed territory in Texas to provoke Mexican attack, gave Polk a reason to declare war
Clay’s Omnibus Bill
California is a free state, New Mexico and Utah get popular sovereignty, no slave trade in Washington, D.C. Texas boundary adjusted, new fugitive slave laws, seen as a win for both sides
Stephen A Douglas
Took over for Clay, separated the bill, gets all 5 bills passed, hailed as incredible politics, temporarily adverted war
William Henry Seward
Dominant figure in the Republican Party, loyal member of Lincoln’s cabinet, pivotal role in preventing foreign intervention in the civil war
Election of 1852
Franklin pierce defeated Winfield scott, last Whig presidential candidate, Whig party fractured soon after
Franklin Pierce
Democrat, general in Mexican American war, supported the Kansas Nebraska act and the Ostend Manifesto, regarded as one of the worst presidents in history
Winfield Scott
Best General in Mexican-American War, longest active general, thought of the unions ‘anaconda plan’ that helped defeat the confederacy
Whig party fracture
Destroyed over issue of slave expansion, became the Republican Party, 3rd political party system born
Fire Eaters
Extreme southern nationalists, praised the dred Scott case decision, central voice that demanded secession
Ostend Manifesto
Document that declared US should take Cuba, supported by expansionist, would be a slave state, never passed, effected by the Bleeding Kansas conflict/Spain wouldn’t sell
William Walker
Wanted to establish English speaking nations in Central America under his own command, became president of Nicaragua, killed by the Honduras government soon after takin power
Douglas and Railroad
Introduced Kansas-Nebraska act so he could build a railroad, personal gain, caused the Bleeding Kansas conflict
Bleeding Kansas
caused by Kansas-Nebraska act, slave holders from Missouri fought “free soil” forces over upcoming vote on the expansion of slavery for Kansas, popular sovereignty
Border Ruffians
Proslavery activists, came from Missouri, fought for the acceptance of slavery, started bleeding Kansas conflict
Sack of Lawrence
Border Ruffians attacked and pillaged Lawrence, Kansas, sparked Bleeding Kansas
3rd Political Party System
Whig party fractured, Republican Party emerged, still in place today
Democrats vs Republicans
Republicans-northerns who wanted to stop slave expansion, manufacturing
Democrats- pro-slavery, minimal tariffs
Beecher’s Bibles
Name given to the rifles supplied to anti-slavery immigrants in Kansas during the Bleeding Kansas conflicts
John Brown
Abolitionist, killed slaves supporters at Pattawatomie, led an unsuccessful slave rebellion at Harpers fairy, captured and hanged, believed he was a martyr for anti-slavery
Pottawatomie Massacre
John Brown and his sons murdered 5 pro-slavery settlers in the middle of the night, one of many bloody episodes in the Bleeding Kansas conflicts
Emergence of Lincoln
debates with stephen Douglas brought him into limelight with Republican Party, Cooper Union speech, staunchly opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Election of 1856
Democrat James Buchanan won
James Buchanan
Democrat, worked on the Ostend manifesto, did nothing about the secession of South Carolina, one of the worst presidents of all time
John C. Fremont
First republican nominee, first governor of California,
Sumner- Brooks Affair
Charles Sumner gave scathing speech about South Carolina and Andrew Butler, Preston brooks (butlers nephew) beat the shit out of Sumner with his cane until he busted his head open, showed the hatred between northern and southern politicians
Roger Taney
Supreme Court justice, slaveholder, delivered verdict on Dred Scott
Dred Scott decision
Said slaves were not citizens of the US, no constitutional protection, declared Missouri compromise unconstitutional, slavery could exist anywhere, huge victory for the south
The Lemmon Case *
states couldn’t abolish slavery, slavery could be reimposed everywhere in the us
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Senatorial race in Illinois, highly publicized, mostly about the issue of slavery, put Lincoln on the Republican Party’s radar
Raid on Harper’s Fairy
John brown tried to capture US military arsenal to arm a slave revolt, thwarted by Robert E. Lee and his men, Brown was tried and hanged, believed he was a martyr for anti-slavery
Lincoln’s Cooper Union speech/tour
Lincoln’s powerful speech, standing ovation,became the Republican Party’s front runner
Election of 1860
Lincoln defeated Douglas and two others, right as 7 states declared secession, one of the most important elections in history
Election of 1860 (Lincoln)
Republican
Election of 1860 (Douglas)
Northern Democrat
Election of 1860 (John C. Breckinridge)
Southern Democrat
Election of 1860 (John Bell)
Constitutional Unionist
Jefferson Davis
President of CSA, unable to gain recognition for any other countries, weak leader, micro-manager
Causes of Secession
Election of 1860 effectively ended the South’s power in congress, economic disparities, tension at climax, South’s back against the wall
South Wanted:
Southern Independence
North Wanted:
Preserve the Union
Fort Sumter
North refused to abandon fort, south bombarded the fort for hours, north had to surrender, began the civil war
Northern Advantages
Population, Capital, manufacturing, Lincoln and cabinet, railroads, navy
Southern Advantages
King Cotton, defensive war, home field advantage, better Generals
Union Strategy
Anaconda Plan, surround and squeeze south, blockades on ports
Southern Strategy
Start strong, get Britain and France to fight on their side
Battle Theaters
East- Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania. West- Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky
First Bull Run
Union army humiliated, bloodiest day in history at that point, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson a hero, discouraged idea of a short war
Liberty Party
Took votes away from Clay, arguably caused him to lose the election to James K Polk
Northern Generals
McDowell, McClellan, Pope, Burnside, Hooker, Meade, Grant
Southern Generals
Robert. E Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, James Longstreet, Joseph E. Johnston
Battle of Antietam
Bloodiest day in US history, McClellan vs Lee, Finds Lee’s orders #191, does nothing with 25,000 reserved troops, piecemeal attacks fatal, Lee escapes, McClellan fired, had south suceeded, Britain and fance would have recognized the south
George McClellan
Northern General, pro-slavery, insubordinate, didn’t want to fight, gave Lincoln BS excuses for futility, fired after Antietam
Ulysses S Grant
Union general in the west, wins every battle he fights in the war, best union general, Lincoln’s answered prayer
William Tecumseh Sherman
Union general, engaged total war on the confederate states, burned 300 miles of land on his way to victory in Atlanta, devastating for the south
USS Monitor vs CSS Virginia
First battle with ironclads, revolutionized naval warfare, wooden ships from then on rendered useless
Union army twice the size of the south
David Glasgow Farragut
Union naval hero, got passed southern port defenses, took over New Orleans, the South’s largest cotton port
CSS Hunley
Submarine built by the south, didn’t work, sank, those aboard drowned
Robert E. Lee
Lead the Confederate army, one of the best military leaders in US history, numerous victories against the north despite being largely outnumbered, surrendered to Grant to end the war
Bloody Lane
Bunkers built by south, union attacked, almost a total massacre
Clara Barton
Pioneer union nurse, founded the American Red Cross, provided medical service for injured troops throughout the entire war
Battle of Antietam Result
Claimed as northern victory, used by Lincoln to issue the emancipation proclamation, he argued freeing slaves would help union win, military necessity, only freed slaves in confederate states, for union and liberty
Battle of Fredericksburg
Lee vs Burnsides, huge confederate victory, union very heavy casualties, frontal assault failure, Lee goes north to get recognition from Fr. And Br.
Battle of Chancellorsville
Lee and Jackson vs Hooker, confederate victory, gave south the confidence to move into the north, stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded in battle, huge loss for the south
Stonewall Jackson’s Death
Shot by his own men at the battle of Chancellorsville, had to amputate his arm, died of pneumonia a week later, terrible for southern morale
Battle of Gettysburg
Meade vs Lee, union win, josh chamberlain saves the day, turning point in war, ended southern attempt to invade
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Volunteer in union army, promoted all the way to brigadier general, was awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroism at the battle of Gettysburg, held off confederate flank
Gettysburg Address
Lincoln’s speech following at Gettysburg about human equality and freedom for all people, “government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from this earth”
Battle of Vicksburg
Grant vs Pemberton, decisive union victory, gave union control of the Mississippi, allowed north to “squeeze” the south
Ft. Pillow Massacre
confederates surrounded union fort, Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest ordered the massacre of 300 black soldiers, outraged the north
Grant rolls, brought to Lincoln’s attention, brings him to eastern front
Overland Campaign
Lee vs Grant, decided the war, several battles ending in draws, huge casualties, lee eventually forced into Petersburg
Battle of Petersburg
General Lee’s last stand, last 10 months, trench warfare, union cut off supplies, lee forced to surrender
Sherman’s March to the Sea
Total war, union army raped, pillaged, and murdered civilians as they burned 300 miles of land on the way to Atlanta, news traveled north, Lincoln praised
South Surrenders
Lee surrendered to Grant, effectively ended the war, south left in ruins
13th Amendment
Abolished slavery, barely passed, had it not, slavery might have been reinforced in the south
Tariff of Abominations
protected industry in the north, named by south because of the negative effects it had on southern economy
John Tyler
Inherited Presidency, annexed Texas as a state by simple resolution
Emancipation Proclamation
Freed slaves in confederate states, military necessity, Liberty and union
Death Toll- 633,000
Northern weakness
Generals were shitty, insubordinate, incompetent
Compact Thoery
Nation was formed through compact agreed on by all states
Right of Secession
Southern claimed they weren’t being represented, no bloodshed if allowed to leave, should be voted on by states
War aims
South- secure independence, end political oppression from north, establish credibility as a nation with Britain and France
North- Preserve the union, keep war as short as possible, end expansion of slavery
King Corn v King Cotton
North- have corn industry grow and compete with cotton industry
South- use cotton to draw in foreign allies
Union Blockade
Closed down southern ports, halted trade, prevented transportation of southern supplies, part of anaconda plan
Manpower
Union army roughly double the size of the South’s, north had constant reinforcement, 179000 blacks enlisted for the north
Gen. Ervin McDowell
Northern general, humiliated at first bull run, fired soon after
1861-1862 Army of Potomac does nothing
Albert Sydney Johnston
Top southern general at the start of war, killed at Shiloh, Robert E. Lee emerged as leader of south
Peninsula Campaign
McClellan Vs Lee, union disaster
Second Battle of Bull Run
Southern offensive/victory, stonewall Jackson a hero, heavy union casualties, union retreat
Election of 1864
McClellan Vs Lincoln, Lincoln saved by Sherman’s march to the sea/ burning of Atlanta, wins reelection
54th Massachusetts
First official African American unit, recruited free slaves, led by Robert shaw
The West
Grant takes over, victories at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge
Andersonville Prison
Confederate POW camp, horrific mistreatment, commander Henry Wirz tried and hanged for war crimes
Black Status after the war
No place in society, black codes enforced, hardly better off than before
Lincoln embraced by blacks in Richmond
Post-war Reconstruction
10% of voters loyalty oath, Ratify 13th amendment, pardons, no black vote, no land confiscation, radicals outraged
Lincoln assassinated by john Wilkes booth in fords theatre
Harsh reconstruction of south
Richmond, Atlanta, and Columbia destroyed, economy in ruins, Freeman’s bureau established to help rebuild
Rise of big industry and robber Barron’s, immigration, labor unions, and urban America
Carnegie, Rockefeller, jay Gould, JP Morgan, Phillip armour
War caused-
Destroyed slavery, power shift from south to north, shaped modern America, industrial growth, strengthened gov.