History 1301 Exam 3

Adams-Onis Treaty
(Transcontinental Treaty)
U.S. gives up claims to Texas and Spain cedes Florida to the U.S. and sets boundary to the Pacific Ocean
Convention of 1818
Between U.S. and Britain
49th Parallel set as northern boundary
Joint control of Oregon for 10 years
Missouri Compromise
1820
Missouri entered as a slave state, Main as a free state
Southern border of Missouri dividing line for future states
Monroe Doctrine
1823
U.S. announced that there would be no more European colonization
European nations were not to interfere in the Western hemisphere
Clay’s American System
Economic program to benefit the country proposed by Henry Clay in hopes of being elected as president
Eli Whitney
Invented the cotton gin
Introduced the concept of standardized/interchangeable parts
John Deere
Invented a steel plow that was much more durable than iron plows
Cyrus McCormick
Invented a grain reaper that increased the rate of planting and harvesting wheat
Erie Canal
364 miles long from Albany on the Hudson River to Buffalo on Lake Erie.
Transformed the economy of upstate NY by cutting transportation costs
Fulton’s Folly
Robert Fulton invented a steamboat call the Clermont
Made 2-way traffic possible on America’s rivers
National Road
Also called Cumberland Road
Stretched from Baltimore to halfway across the state of Illinois
Built with federal money
Samuel Morse
Invented the telegraph and then Morse code as form of communication
Cyrus Field
Laid the first telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean
Pony Express
Series of horseback riders who delivered mail relay style between Missouri and California in 10 days time
Began in 1860 and lasted only a year because of the railroad and telegraph
Samuel Slater
Brought the design for a water frame that was power operated to spin fiber into yarn
Built the first textile mill in American
Frances Cabot Lowell
Imitated British design for a power loom
Built first factory in America where spinning and weaving with power machinery was under one roof
Lowell Mills
Textile community where women were hired to work and live in dormitories
Elias Howe
Invented the sewing machine that became the foundation for the ready-made clothing industry
Robert Hoe
Invented a power driven rotary printing press that lowered the cost of printing and led to mass production of magazines, newspapers, and books
Penny Press
Marketing technique where one copy of a newspaper was sold for one cent instead of a subscription
Gody’s Lady’s Book
Women’s magazine that set the fashion trend and was the first to achieve mass distribution
Micajah Pratt
Introduced the concept of standardized parts to the shoe industry
Began to mass produce shoes in about 1812
Election of 1824
Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William H. Crawford (had a stroke), Henry Clay
Congress chose Adams between Jackson and Adams
Jackson thought there was a corrupt bargain between Adams and Clay
Second Party System
Democrats and Republicans who were later known as Whigs
Jacksonian Democracy
Idea that common people would vote, hold office, and run the government
Petticoat Wars
Some of the wives of cabinet members were gossiping about the wife of the Secretary of War
President Jackson made Peggy Eaton his official White House Hostess and fired some of the cabinet members
Nullification Ordinance
Tariff of Abomination, 1828
Opposition led by John C. Calhoun
Tariff of 1832, lower
South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification
Force Bill-authorized use of the army
Compromise Tariff of 1833-proposed by Clay and accepted by South Carolina thus ending the crisis
Second Bank of the United States
(Biddle’s Bank)
Bank charter to expire in 1836
Biddle moves Congress to recharter early
Jackson vetoes the bill
Jackson destroys the bank by spending from the federal bank and putting deposits in his pet state banks
Panic of 1837:disappearance of the bank leads to depression
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Congress offered land in the west for all tribes that would voluntarily move there
Worcester v Georgia
Cherokee didn’t want to move and claimed that they weren’t subject to white men’s laws
Supreme Court ruled in their favor
State of Georgia forced them to leave anyway
Trail of Tears
1838 removal of the Cherokees to Oklahoma
About 1/4 died along the way
Spoils System
Appointed positions to loyal party supporters
Second Great Awakening
Mass religious revival that inspired much of the reform in the age of Jackson
Charles Grandison Finney
Major evangelist during the Second Great Awakening
Utopian Communities
Held themselves up as models for the rest of society
Shakers
Worked hard and produced products for market and were economically successful
Leader: Mother Anne, preached celibacy
Oneida Community
Leader preached doctrine of complex marriage “free love”
Community farmed and made steel traps and spoons
Oneida Community Ltd. successful flatware company today
New Harmony
Model factory town established by Robert Owen
Built near a factory and selected the workers
Wanted leaders who would promote a cultured society
Formed a government, produced a newspaper, and provided various cultural events
Brook Farm
Supported by a boarding school where wealthy children were taught by well known literary figures including Ralph Waldo Emerson and Nathaniel Hawthorne
Horace Mann
Leader for education reform
Dorothea Dix
Led the movement to reform the insane asylums
Auburn System
Compromise between punishment and rehabilitation
Temperance Movement
Effort to reduce drunkenness
Maine Law
1851 Maine prohibited the sale of alcohol that began a wave of state legislation on this subject
Amelia Bloomer
Introduced pants as a part of women’s wardrobes
Seneca Falls Convention
1848
First women’s rights convention
Drew up Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Listed goals of the women’s rights movements
Patterned after the U.S. Declaration of Independence
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
Leaders of women’s rights movement in the U.S.
Abolitionism
Became the dominant movement by the 1840s
William Lloyd Garrison
Abolitionist that called for immediate emancipation
Published an anti-slavery newspaper called “The Liberator”
Frederick Douglass
Black abolitionist who said he was the “slave that stole himself”
Ran away from his master and went to England
Gave speeches to earn money
Returned to the U.S. and purchased his freedom
Started an abolitionist newspaper for blacks called “The North Star”
Sojourner Truth
Black female abolitionist
Worked in the women’s rights movement
Harriet Tubman
Conductor on the Underground Railroad
Escaped slavery and went to Canada but returned to the South about 19 times to lead about 200 others to freedom
Underground Railroad
Network of whites and blacks that helped slaves escape to Canada from the South
Gag Law
U.S. Congress voted to table any issue that dealt with slavery and not discuss it at all
Lyceum
Lecture circuit that provided free programs on literature, science, music, etc.
Washington Irving
“Rip Van Winkle”
“The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Transcendentalism, Essays and Lectures
Henry David Thorough
Walden
“civil disobedience”
Gabriel’s Rebellion
1800
Gabriel Prosser was a slave blacksmith that led slaves to march on Richmond, Virginia
Betrayed and his plot was discovered
Prosser and about 25 others were captured and executed
Denmark Vessey Conspiracy
Vessey was a free black carpenter that planned to takeover Charleston, SC
Betrayed and about 35 others were tried, convicted, and executed
Another 34 were deported
Nat Turner Rebellion
Turner was a slave preacher in Virginia
Was a model slave and had a kind master
He and 6 others killed the master and his family and went on a killing spree, murdering 57 men, women, and children
Was caught trials resulted in 17 hangings and 200 more slaves were lynched
Missouri Compromise
1820
Missouri-slave state
Maine-free state
36′ 30′ parallel-boundary for future states in the Louisiana Purchase (north of the line free and south of the line slave)
Republic of Texas
Declared independence from Mexico and established Republic in 1836
Stephen F. Austin
Founded a colony of anglos in Texas
Manifest Destiny
Idea that is was God’s will for the U.S. to expand to the Pacific Ocean
Oregon Treaty of 1846
Compromise split Oregon Country between Britain and U.S.
Northern boundary of the U.S. was extended to the pacific along the 49th parallel
U.S. acquired Puget Sound and the Port of Seattle
James K. Polk
Elected in 1844 after promising to get Oregon and Texas for the U.S.
Texas Annexation
December 29, 1845
Texas became a state of the U.S.
Zachary Taylor
Sent by President Polk into TX with troops while TX was becoming a state
Was ordered to move into the disputed area between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande
The Mexican War
Fighting over disputed area of TX
between the U.S. and Mexico
Winfield Scott
Sent by Polk by water and over land to capture Mexico City
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War 1848
Mexico gives up claim to TX
Rio Grande is accepted as the TX border
U.S. pays Mexico $15 million
Mexico cedes territory that will be the future states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California (Mexican Cession)
James Fenimore Cooper
Leatherstocking Tales
The Last of the Mohicans
Walt Whitman
Leaves of Grass
Known as a Civil War poet
Herman Melville
Moby Dick
Nathaniel Hawthorne
The Scarlet Letter
Gadsden Purchase 1853
U.S. paid Mexico $10 million for 30,000 sq. miles on the southern edge of present day Arizona and New Mexico for the purpose of building a railroad along a southern route to California
Gold Rush
Discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill in 1848 led to a wave of gold seekers pouring into CA in 1849 (the 49’ers)
1859, major discovery in Oregon led to the “59’ers”
The Mormon Migration
Joseph Smith founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints – the Mormons
A lynch mob killed Smith for teaching and practicing polygamy in Illinois
Brigham Young led the Mormons to settle Utah Territory beginning in 1846
Joseph Smith
Founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons)
Killed for teaching/practicing polygamy
Brigham Young
Led the Mormons to settle Utah Territory in 1846
Great American Desert
Area between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains
People thought it was a desert so it was the last area of the U.S. to be settled
Seward’s Icebox
Nickname given to Alaska after it was purchased from Russia in 1867 by Secretary of State William Seward
Commodore Matthew Perry
Sent to convince the Japanese that they must trade with the U.S.
Took gifts of a telegraph and a miniature train
Japanese began to cooperate and a treaty for trade was signed in 1858