HIST 111 Chapter 4

Although the history of Greece before the rise of the polis is largely undocumented and therefore difficult to study thoroughly, it seems clear that the:
early Greeks were living in a period of cultural isolation and economic stasis.
Hubris is ______, which was punished by the gods.
excessive pride
By the sixth century BCE, the Greeks founded numerous colonies around the Mediterranean basin. The most historically significant colonies were located in:
Anatolia and Italy.
A Greek aristocrat who seized power and ruled outside the traditional constitutional framework was called a:
tyrant.
Cleisthenes is important in the history of Athenian government because he:
championed the cause of the demos and took steps to limit the power of the aristocrats.
Which sentence best describes the structure of the Spartan government circa 600 BCE?
Sparta was ruled by a citizen assembly, a council of elders, and two kings.
The “Ionian revolution in thought,” epitomized by Xenophanes and other philosophers from Miltetus, can be described as:
relativism
The Greek historian Herodotus believed:
both the Greeks and the Persians were great peoples.
Darius believed that a preemptive strike against Athens and Eritrea was necessary because:
Greek poles in Asia Minor could always revolt against Persia when they could look for support in this endeavor from Athens, Eretria, and other Greek poles.
The growth of Athenian democracy, with its emphasis on equality between citizens, let to:
greater inequality between men and women.
According to the historian Thucydides, the Peloponnesian War began:
because of the growing power of Athens, and the fear and envy this power inspired in Sparta.
Why was the Peloponnesian War deadlocked for an extended period of time?
Athens could not defeat Sparta on land, and Sparta could not defeat Athens at sea.
Socrates agreed to meet his death calmly because he:
believed in the importance of following laws.
Xenophon’s book, the Anabasis, provided Alexander with information about the:
culture of Persia.
During the Corinthian War (395-387 BCE), Sparta fought against:
An alliance comprise of Athens, Argos, Corinth, and Thebes.
Aristotle believed that:
only real phenomena can be investigated in order to understand the world in which we live.
Aristotle argued that good conduct is virtuous conduct and that virtue resides in aiming to:
act moderately in all things.
Whereas Plato conceived of politics as a mean toward living the good life, Aristotle regarded politics as:
an end in itself.
Philip II secured the support of many neighboring kingdoms through:
marriages.
Alexander the Great is a difficult figure for historians to evaluate because:
so many legends grew up around him during his lifetime.
The beginning of the end of Alexander’s conquests was his inability to fully subdue:
Bactria.
The Ptolemies of Egypt promoted themselves as heirs of Alexander by:
ensuring Alexander’s body was buried in Egypt.
To highlight their authority and status in the former Persian empire, Seleucid rulers:
used terms in proclamations reminiscent of earlier Mesopotamian rulers.
Why did autocratic rulers in the Hellenistic world encourage manufacturing industries?
Manufacturing increased international trade revenues and therefore taxation and tariffs.
The ______ taught that the only reason one should be a good is to increase one’s own happiness.
Epicureans
The first individual to predict that one could reach Asia by sailing west was:
Eratosthenes.
Galen supported the Hippocratic belief that health occurred when a ______. His work ensured that this theory influenced medical belief until the nineteenth century CE.
person’s four humors were in balance.
Hellenistic cosmopolitanism differed from Persian and Roman cosmopolitanism because it:
was cultural rather than linked directly to a particular imperial power.
Rome played a crucial role in the development of European civilization because:
Rome connected Europe to the cultural heritage of the Near East.
The Romans were a military society almost from the moment they settled in Italy because they:
were continually forced to defend their own conquests agains invaders.
The “Latin Right” of the early Romans guaranteed that:
contracts, marriages, and citizenship we’re valid across Latium.
After a plebeian rebellion in the earth fifth century BCE:
the patricians accepted the elected tribunes and written laws.
The Twelve Tables of Law, approved in 450 BCE, represented:
the codification of existing laws for all to see and obey.
One important difference between Roman religion and Greek religion was the Roman view of:
the gods as a family gods of Rome.
Once the Romans had effectively gained control of Italy (265 BCE), they:
started a series of wars for control of the western Mediterranean.
During the Second Punic War, the Carthaginian general Hannibal:
brought his entire army, including elephants, over the Alps.
After Rome had twice defeated Carthage, a Third Punic War:
was projected by war hawks who thought Carthage must be destroyed.
Since the Roman employed salves for all forms of manual labor:
little technological innovation took place, and urban underemployment was uncommon.
Changed in the Roman law of marriage in the second century BCE meant that:
wives retained control of their own property, guaranteeing them more independence.
Cicero, on of the most famous Stoics of the later republic, believed in all the tenets of Stoicism EXCEPT:
withdrawal from public life.
Social tensions in the late Roman Republic were made worse by:
the widening gulf between the wealthy and the poor.
Although the Roman Republic had greatly increased the territory ruled by Rome, under the emperors even more territory was added to the empire, with ____ adding more than any other ruler.
Augustus
The cultural dominance of the Roman Empire is attested to by the:
spread of Latin as a literary, legal, and commercial language.
The “Golden Age” in Roman literature refers to the literature produced under the reign of:
Augustus.
The Romans were the first people to use _____ on a massive scale in their buildings.
concrete
(T or F). Aristotle argued that the university could only be understood by exploring the natural world in which people lived.
True
(T or F). Aristotle argued that all members of Greek society ought to participate in democracy.
False
(T or F). Italy was the least slave-based economy known to history.
False
(T or F). Rome’s conquest of the Hellenistic world reinforced its commitment to strict parental authority.
False
(T or F). The Julian Calendar was a lunar calendar with an extra month added in order to keep festival dates at the appropriate time of the year.
False.