HF FINAL: Nutrition Tips for College Students

Macronutrients
Essential nutrients required in large amounts
-Necessary for proper functioning, growth & human development
3 Types of Macronutrients
-Carbohydrates
-Proteins
-Fats
3 Types of Carbohydrates
-Starches
-Sugars
-Fibers
Carbohydrate Recommendations
Strive for high quality carbs (complex carbohydrates)
-Whole grains, fruits, & vegetables
Avoid low quality carbs (simple carbohydrates)
-Candy, soda & chips
RDA for Carbohydrates
At least 130mg/day
ACSM Carbohydrate Recommendation
45 – 65% caloric intake
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Why do low-carb diets NOT work?
-You need CHO in order to metabolize fat “fat burns in the flame of carbohydrate”
-Low carb diets lead to body producing ketone bodies
-Ketosis caused by a build up of ketone bodies in the blood
-Ketosis can become very dangerous, blood becomes acidic
What are adverse effects of ketosis?
-Acetone breath
-Impairs nervous system (drowsiness to coma)
-Bone effects (negative calcium balance)
-Kidney (negative nitrogen balance)
-Shortness of breath, dizziness, nausea, etc.
2 Types of Proteins
-Complete proteins
-Incomplete proteins
Complete Proteins
Includes all 9 essential amino acids
-Animal products (meat, dairy, fish), soy & quinoa
Incomplete Proteins
Contain some but NOT all 9 essential amino acids
-Rice, peanut butter, beans, whole grains, nuts
-Vegetarians recommended to pair 2 incomplete proteins to create a complete protein i.e. peanut butter on crackers
ACSM Protein Recommendation
10 – 35% caloric intake
2 Types of Fats
-Saturated Fats
-Unsaturated Fats
Saturated Fats
Solid at room temperature, found in animal sources
-High intake may increase CVD risk
-Butter, beef, bacon, pizza, & hot dogs
Unsaturated Fats
Liquid at room temperature, found in plant-sources
-May reduce CVD risk when replaced with saturated fats
-Canola & olive oil, avocado, nuts & fish
ACSM Fat Recommendation
20 – 30% caloric intake
Micronutrients
Essential nutrients required in small amounts
-Necessary to maintain & repair the body & support reproduction
2 Types of Micronutrients
-Vitamins
-Minerals
Vitamins
Organic molecules that help bodily processes & functions
-40-90% of vitamins are absorbed into small intestine
-Act as coenzymes & antioxidants
2 Types of Vitamins
-Water-Soluble Vitamins
-Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
All B vitamins & vitamin C
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins A, D, E & K
-Vitamin D deficiency associated with cognitive impairment
Minerals
Elements that build up & repair body tissues & control functions
Name 7 Main Minerals
-Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Potassium, Sodium & Zinc
2 Types of Minerals
-Major Minerals
-Trace minerals
Major Minerals
Required greater than 100mg/day
Trace Minerals
Required less than 100mg/day
Mineral Bioavailability
How much a particular mineral is absorbed into the body
Electrolytes (3 types)
Fluid balance, nerve/muscle function
-Sodium, Potassium & Chloride
Mineral Dangers (3 examples)
Diets with high sodium, high potassium lead to Hypertension
-Elevated BP (140/90 or +)
-Lead to Diabetes
-DASH Eating Plan- reduce BP
Diets with low calcium lead to Osteoporosis
-Depleted bone mass levels, high risk of bone fractures
•Diets with low iron lead to Iron Deficiency Anemia
-Can cause Angina or Heart Attack
College Factors
-“Freshman 15”
-Dining Halls
-Sleep
-Less home-cooked meals
-Parties
-Stress
-Schedule
-Physical Activity
Healthy Eating Changes
-Research
-Change meals often
-Enjoy your time, but monitor alcohol consumption
-Eat fruits & vegetables
-Eat healthy snacks
-Eat breakfast
-Regular portions
-Drink water
Recovery Post Exercise
Eat carbohydrates with proteins post exercise to replenish calories lost
-Could eat low-fat cheese, protein shake, egg, chocolate milk is a great option (reduces soreness & muscle fatigue)