Health Semester Exam Study Guide

What are the 3 elements of health?
1. Physical health
2. Mental/emotional health
3. Social health
_____ is the overall state of well-being
Health
What are personal habits or behaviors related to the way a person lives?
Lifestyle factors
List five lifestyle factors
1. Getting eight hours of sleep each night
2. Starting a day with a healthy breakfast
3. Eating a variety of nutritious foods each day
4. Being physically active for 30 to 60 minutes most days of the week
5. Maintaining a healthy weight
What are related risks that increase in effect with each added risk?
Cumulative risks
Define risk behaviors
Actions that can potentially threaten your health or the health of others
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Define prevention
Taking steps to keep something from happening or getting worse
What is a nationwide plan for health promotion and disease prevention designed to help improve the health of all people in the United States?
Healthy People
What are all the traits that are biologically passed from parent to child?
Heredity
Describe a person who has good mental health
They enjoy challenges that help them grow, accept responsibility for their actions, have a sense of control over their lives, can express their emotions in appropriate ways, usually can deal with life’s stresses and frustrations, generally have a positive outlook, and make thoughtful and responsible decisions
An achievement to work toward?
Goal
List the six stages of the goal setting process
1. Set a specific, realistic goal and write it down
2. List the steps you will take to reach your goal
3. Identify sources of help and support
4. Set a reasonable time frame for achieving your goal
5. Evaluate your progress by establishing checkpoints
6. Reward yourself for achieving your goal
What is the difference between a short term goal and a long term goal?
A short-term goal is a goal that you can reach in a short period of time and a long-term goal is a goal that you can plan to reach over an extended period of time
Define decision making skills
Steps that enable you to make a healthful decision
List the six steps of the decision making process
1. State the situation
2. List the options
3. Weigh the possible outcomes
4. Consider values
5. Make a decision and act on it
6. Evaluate the decision
Ideas, beliefs, and attitudes about what is important are called _____
Values
If a teen refuses to do drugs, they are using _____
refusal skills
Draw and label Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
5. Reaching potential – need for self-actualization
4. Feeling recognized – need to achieve, need to be recognized
3. Belonging – need to love and be loved, need to belong
2. Safety – need to be secure from danger
1. Physical – need to satisfy basic needs of hunger, thirst, sleep, and shelter
What is the most basic of all needs?
Physical needs
Which term names a complex set of characteristics that makes you unique?
Personality
_____ _____ is achieved when a person reaches his or her potential
Self actualization
What is self esteem?
How much you value, respect, and feel confident about yourself
Give an example of high self esteem and low self esteem
High self esteem – valuing yourself
Low self esteem – not valuing yourself
Define stress
The reaction of the body and mind to everyday challenges and demands
Why do mental disorders often go untreated?
People feel embarrassed, ashamed, and/or worry about a stigma
What are some signs and symptoms of schizophrenia?
Delusions, hallucinations, and thought disorders
What is the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist?
A psychologist is a professional who diagnoses and treats emotional and behavioral disorders with counseling and a psychiatrist is a physician who diagnoses and treats mental disorders and can prescribe medications
Define cluster suicides
Series of suicides occurring within a short period of time and involving several people in the same school or community
List four warning signs of someone who may be suicidal
1. Direct statements such as “I wish I were dead”
2. Indirect statements such as “I can’t take it anymore”
3. Writing poems, song lyrics, or diary entries that deal with death
4. Direct or indirect suicide threats
Define the defense mechanism regression
Returning to behaviors characteristic of a younger age, rather than dealing with problems in a mature manner
Define the defense mechanism rationalization
Making excuses to explain a situation or behavior, rather than taking a responsibility for it
Define the defense mechanism suppression
Consciously and intentionally pushing unpleasant feelings out of one’s mind
Define the defense mechanism compensation
Making up for weakness and mistakes through gift giving, hard work, or extreme efforts
List three examples of emotions
1. Happiness
2. Sadness
3. Love
Which disorder is characterized by persistent thoughts, fears, or urgings leading to uncontrollable repetitive behavior?
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
What are three examples of an anxiety disorder?
1. Phobia
2. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
3. Panic Disorder
Which type of disorder is characterized by patterns of behavior in which the rights of others or basic social rules are violated?
Conduct disorder
Define schizophrenia
Mental disorder in which a person loses contact with reality
List some symptoms of depression
Changes in thinking, changes in feelings, changes in behavior
List three possible ways to treat depression
1. Taking medication
2. Making changes in the home or school environment
3. Counseling
What is the difference between a mood disorder and a personality disorder
A mood disorder is an illness that involves mood extremes that interfere with everyday living and someone with a personality disorder is unable to regulate their emotions
Define stigma
Mark of shame or disapproval that results in an individual being shunned or rejected by others
Define Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Set of recommendations about smart eating and physical activity for all Americans
In MyPyramid each colored band represents a _____
different food group
What disease is associated with unhealthful weight gain?
Type 2 diabetes
Define calories
Units of heat used to measure the energy your body uses and the energy it receives from food
Any substance in food that the body needs is _____
a nutrient
List the six basic nutrients
1. Proteins
2. Fats
3. Vitamins
4. Minerals
5. Water
6. Carbohydrates
Which nutrients are sometimes water-soluble and sometimes fat soluble?
Vitamins
What percentage of your daily calories should come from fat?
Less than 25%-35%
List three types of carbohydrates
1. Simple
2. Complex
3. Fiber
List three foods that are high in fiber
1. Vegetables
2. Whole grains
3. Nuts
What does your body break calories down into?
Their simplest forms, usually glucose
What percentage of your daily calories should come from protein?
10%-15%
What is the process by which the body breaks down substances and gets energy from food?
Metabolism
Define cross-contamination
Spreading of pathogens from one food to another
Define BMI
Measure of body weight relative to height
Skinfold testing can be used to measure _____
BMI
List the fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K
List the water soluble vitamins
B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, folic acid
What is cholesterol?
Waxy, fatlike substance
What is the body’s most essential nutrient?
Water
Describe the eating disorder bulimia
Involves cycles of overeating and purging, or attempts to rid the body of food
Describe the eating disorder anorexia
Irrational fear of weight gain leads people to starve themselves
What is the nutrient found in salt, which is often linked with high blood pressure?
Sodium
If individuals increase their muscle mass, the number of calories they burn while they rest will _____
increase
Define osteoporosis
Condition in which the bones become fragile and break easily
List some physical benefits of exercise
Strengthens your muscles and bones, boosts your energy level, improves your posture
Which principle of fitness involves gradually increasing the demands on your body?
Progression
What is a reasonable rate of weight loss per week?
1-2 pounds a week
Define aerobic exercises
All rhythmic activities that use large muscle groups for an extended period of time
Give three examples of aerobic exercise
1. Jogging
2. Swimming
3. Riding a bike
Define anaerobic exercise
Intense, short bursts of activity in which the muscles work so hard that they produce energy without using oxygen
Give two examples of anaerobic exercise
1. Sprinting
2. Lifting weights
Stretching exercises improve what aspect of fitness?
Flexibility
Define exercise
Purposeful physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, and that improves or maintains physical fitness
When is the best time to stretch during an exercise session?
During a cool-down
List three symptoms of hypothermia
1. Drowsiness
2. Weakness
3. Confusion
Is a sprain a major injury?
No
List three examples of fad diets
1. Miracle foods
2. Magic combinations
3. Liquid diets
What is the addictive drug found in tobacco leaves?
Nicotine
List four long term effects of tobacco
1. Brain chemistry changes
2. Respiration and heart rate increase
3. Taste buds are dulled and appetite is reduced
4. Users have bad breath, yellowed teeth, and smelly hair, skin, and clothes
What effect does smoking have on blood vessels?
It constricts them
What is a carcinogen?
A cancer-causing substance
Leukoplakia can develop into what condition?
Oral cancer
List four long term effects of tobacco use
1. Chronic bronchitis
2. Emphysema
3. Lung cancer
4. Coronary heart disease and stroke
What is ETS?
Air that has been contaminated by tobacco smoke
What are some ways to reduce the effects of ETS?
Establish smoke-free areas, make a rule that smokers go outside, open windows
Which organ oxidizes alcohol?
Liver
What is fermentation?
The chemical amount of yeast on sugars
What is BAC?
The amount of alcohol in a person’s blood, expressed as a percentage
List and describe the three stages of alcoholism
1. Abuse: Alcoholism may begin with social drinking. A physical and psychological dependence develops. The person may experience memory loss and blackouts, and may begin to lie or make excuses to justify his or her drinking.
2. Dependence: The person cannot stop drinking and is physically dependent on alcohol. The drinker tries to hide the problem, but performance on the job, at school, and at home suffers.
3. Addiction: In the final stage of alcoholism, the person is addicted. At this stage, the liver may be already damaged, and so less alcohol may be required to cause drunkenness. If the alcoholic stopped drinking, he or she would experience severe withdrawal symptoms.
Define FAS
A group of alcohol-related birth defects that include physical and mental problems
Children with fetal alcohol syndrome tend to have what characteristics?
Small head and deformities of face, hands, or feet; heart, liver, and kidney defects; vision and hearing problems; central nervous system problems, developmental disabilities, and poor coordination; difficulties in learning and short attention span; hyperactivity, anxiety, and social withdrawal
Alcohol interferes with the liver’s ability to _____
Metabolize
Define intoxication
The state in which the body is poisoned by alcohol or another substance, and the person’s physical and mental control is significantly reduced
In most states, “Driving While Intoxicated” is defined as having a blood concentration of _____
0.08%
List some short term risks of alcohol
Slows reaction time, impairs vision, diminishes judgment
List four long term effects of alcohol use
1. Damage to brain cells and a reduction in brain size
2. Increase in blood pressure, which may lead to a heart attack or stroke
3. Build up of fat cells in the liver, which can lead to cell death
4. Destruction of the pancreas
Define binge drinking
Drinking five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting