HDFS: Chapter 13

What is moral development? Interpersonal vs. intrapersonal moral development
Changes in thoughts, feelings and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong. 1) An intrapersonal dimension: regulates activities. 2) An interpersonal dimension: regulates social interactions and arbitrates conflict. (Outside of self, how do you regulate your behavior with others
Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development: Heteronymous morality
(ages 4 to 7) Justice, rules are seen as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people, NO gray areas, do the right thing otherwise you’ll get punished. Remember teacher’s example
Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development: Autonomous morality
(ages 10 and older) Becomes aware rules and laws created by people, in judging an action, they have intensions and consequences
Kohlberg’s methods of research
Moral reasoning unfolds in universal stages. Tested by story with moral dilemma (how they resolve these dilemmas, remember from lab–Heinz example).
Kohlberg’s Theory: Stage 1: Preconventional Level: Heteronomous Morality
Children obey because adults tell them to obey. People base their moral decisions on fear of punishment. Moral thinking is tied to punishment.
Kohlberg’s Theory: Stage 2: Preconventional Level: Individualism, Instrumental Purpose, and Exchange
Individuals pursue their own interests but let others do the same. What is right involves equal exchange. They reason that if they are nice to others, others will be nice to them in return.
Kohlberg’s Theory: Stage 3: Conventional Level: Mutual Interpersonal Expectations, Relationships, and Interpersonal Conformity
Individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgements. Children often adopt their parents’ moral reasoning at this stage
Preconventional Reasoning
lowest level of moral reasoning, good and bad are interpreted in terms of external rewards and punishments
Conventional Reasoning
second level of moral reasoning; individuals apply certain standards, by they are standards set by others, such as parents or government
Kohlberg’s Theory: Stage 4: Conventional Level: Social systems morality
moral judgments based on understanding the social order, law, justice, and duty. For example, adolescents may reason that in order for a community to work effectively it needs to be protected by laws that that are adhered to by its members.
Postconventional Reasoning
highest level, individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, decide on a personal moral code
Kohlberg’s Theory: Stage 5: Postconventional Level: Social contract or utility and individual rights
Individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergrid or transcend the law. A person evaluates the validity of actual laws in terms of the degree to which they preserve and protect fundamental human rights and values
Kohlberg’s Theory: Stage 6: Postconventional Level: Universal ethical principles
person has developed moral judgements that are based on universal human rights. When faced with a dilemma between law and conscience, person reasons that conscience should be followed, despite possible consequences
Gilligan’s care perspective
view people in terms of connections with others; girls interpret moral dilemmas in terms of human relationships
Kohlberg’s theory has justice perspective
focus on rights of individual, one stands alone and independently
Foundation of moral behavior according to Freud
Foundation of moral behavior is to avoid guilty feelings. Superego–moral branch of personality (two parts)
Ego ideal–rewards for acting ideal standards; sense of pride and personal value. Conscience–punishes for disapproved acts, feeling guilty and worthless. Children internalize parents’ standards; self-control replaces parental control
Social conventional reasoning
Focus on conventional rules created by social consensus to control behavior, maintain society. Arbitrary and subject to individual judgment. EXAMPLE: question about Ruth on exam, dresses a certain way due to social conventions–ANSWER.
Moral reasoning
STRESSES ETHICAL ISSUES. Focuses on ethical issues and rules of morality. Obligatory, widely accepted, somewhat impersonal; Distinction–personal domain (issues are personal)