HD 202 Chapter 13 Study Guide

According to Erikson, what two factors set the stage for the psychological conflict of middle childhood, industry versus inferiority?
adult expectations and children’s drive toward mastery.
List three ways in which self-concept changes during middle childhood?
self unsterstanding, self concept, cognitive/social/cultural influences on self consent
True or False: The content of children’s self-concept is a product of both cognitive capacities and feedback from others.
List and briefly explain four self-esteems that children form by the age of 6 or 7. [4 total]
academic competence, social competence, physical/athletic competence, physical competence, and physical appearance.
During childhood and adolescence, perceived (academic competence/physical appearance) correlates more strong with overall self-worth than does any other self-esteem factor.
physical appearance
Self-esteem (rises/drops) during the first few years of early elementary school.
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What are the benefits of parents who use an authoritative child-rearing style?
they have more favorable and coherent self concepts, feel good about selves.
what is mastery-oreintated attributes?
crediting their success 2 ability- a characteristics they can improve by trying hard and presenting new challenges.
what is learned helplessness?
attributes theirs failures, not successes, 2 ability, when they succeed they’re likely to conclude that external factors, such as lack responsible.
Discuss changes in how children experience the self-conscious emotions of pride during middle childhood.
experience it when they accomplish new things
Discuss changes in how children experience the self-conscious emotions of guilt during middle childhood.
exp guilt our transgression even when adults not present.
List three advances in school-age children’s understanding of emotions.
empathy, awareness of self-conscious emotions, reconcile contradictory facial and situational cues in fig. out anothers feelings
By age 10, children shift adaptively between two general strategies for managing emotion. Briefly explain each.
1. problem-centered coping-trey appraise the situation as changeable, the identity and decided what to do about it.
2. emotion-centered coping-internal private and aimed as controlling distress when little can be done about an outcome.
Define perspective taking
the capacity 2 imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling.
Explain the changes in moral development for school children
preschoolers pick up many morally relevant behaviors then modeling-by MC they had time to internalize rules for good conduct. this changes leads to children becoming considerably more independent and trustworthy.
True or False: Children in Western and non-Western cultures use the same criteria to distinguish moral and social-conventional concerns
Studies in diverse Western nations confirm that by age _____ to ____, White children generally evaluate their own racial group favorably and other racial groups less favorable or negatively.
5, 7
Children’s understanding of God (is/is not) limited to an anthropomorphic, “big person” image.
Describe two ways to reduce prejudice in school-age children.
1. intergroup contact-racially and ethnicity difference children work toward common goals and become acquainted.
2. long term contact and collaboration in neighborhood, schools and communities.
Describe the characteristics of peer groups
collects that generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers.
Describe the characteristics of friendships
contributes to the development of trust and sensitivity. during the school year friendship becomes more complex and psychologically based.
High-quality friendships (do/do not) tend to remain stable over middle childhood.
Children’s self-reports yield 4 general categories of peer acceptance. Name and briefly describe each.
1. popular children- get many + votes.
2. rejected children- get many – votes.
3. controversial children- both + and – votes.
4. neglected children- either + or – votes.
How does boy peer victimization differ from that of girls?
buys usually use both physical and verbal attacks while girls are verbal and correlational hostility.
In middle childhood, the amount of time spentww with parents (increases/decreases) dramatically.
During the school years, child rearing becomes easier for parents who established a(n) ____ style during the early years.
During middle childhood, sibling rivalry tends to (increase/decrease). Explain your answer.
increase. as children participate in a wider range of activities, parents tend to compare siblings traits and accomplish [?], child who gets less parental affection is likely to be respectful.
True or False: Children from gay and lesbian families do not differ from other children in sexual orientation – the large majority are heterosexual.
True or False: The United States has the highest divorce rate in the world.
Discuss how children’s ages affects their reactions to divorce, noting differences between younger and older children.
What do children in Western nations mention as the most common source of their fears?
exposure to negative information in the media
Why is it difficult to treat victims of child sexual abuse?
the reactions of family members anxiety about harm to child. anger toward abusers.
Describe the characteristics of children who are especially vulnerable to abuse?
kids who live in homes with a constantly changing cast of characters-repeared marriages, separations and new partners are especially vulnerable.
Name some resources that help children foster resilience in middle childhood