GOVT 2305

Today, the federal government is
an enormous institution that enacts a large number of programs touching on nearly every aspect of American life.
The belief that you can influence how your government acts is called
political efficacy
Which of the following is not a reason for the declining levels of trust in the United States in recent years?
an increase in the knowledge of how government operates
According to the text, which of the following is not a necessary part of the knowledge a citizen must possess?
the economic interests of other citizens
If a government led by a dictator was replaced with a government where a large number of citizens exercised influence over decision making, this change would be best characterized as a
shift from an autocracy to a democracy
Government can best be defined as the
institutions and procedures by which a territory and its people are ruled.
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Who said that the best government was the one that “governed least”?
Thomas Jefferson
A government that is formally limited by laws and rules is called
Who described politics as “who gets what, when, and how”?
Harold Lasswell
Politics can be defined as
conflicts over the character, membership, and policies of any organization to which people belong.
Which of the following statements about the United States Census is most accurate?
Who is counted by the census and how they are categorized by race and ethnicity have changed significantly throughout American history.
Which of the following statements best describes naturalization laws in the United States prior to 1870?
Only free whites could become naturalized citizens.
The Bill of Rights is the
first ten amendments to the Constitution
What observation did philosopher Immanuel Kant make in his 1795 essay “Toward Perpetual Peace”?
Democratic regimes seldom make war on each other.
“One person, one vote” reflects the principle of
political equality
Which of the following statements about property restrictions on the right to vote in the United States is true?
Property restrictions on the right to vote were in effect early in the country’s history but were eliminated by 1828.
In ______, the ______ secured the right to vote for African Americans.
1965; Voting Rights Act
Constitutional democracies were often found throughout ancient Greece.
The referendum is a form of direct democracy.
Plessy v. Feguson and Brown v. Board of Education are both Supreme Court cases dealing with the meaning of equality.
Property restrictions on the right to vote were eliminated in 1920.
The Stamp Act was a
a tax on commerce
Who orchestrated the Boston Tea Party?
Samuel Adams
Under the United States’ first constitution
there was no president
As a constitution, the Articles of Confederation were concerned primarily with
limiting the powers of the central govt
How did the colonists’ victory in the Revolutionary War change the balance of political power in the new states?
Royal land, office, and patent holders were significantly weakened, and pre-Revolutionary radicals became the controlling forces in many state legislatures.
Shays’s Rebellion was significant because it
convinced many observers that the government of the Confederation had become dangerously inefficient and indecisive.
During the Philadelphia Convention, the New Jersey Plan was supported by
less populous states
The decision to give the national government control over commerce and finance was motivated primarily by the framers’ desire to
promote economic development and protect property from radical state legislatures.
The three branches of government created by the Constitution are
executive, legislative, and judicial.
Judicial review is the power of
the courts to decide on the constitutionality of actions taken by the other branches of government.
The supremacy clause
announces that the Constitution and all laws made under it are superior to any state laws.
How many proposed amendments to the Constitution have been formally offered to Congress?
over 11,000
In a federal system, governmental responsibilities are
shared by both state and federal authorities.
Which of the following is the best example of a unitary system of government?
The federal government sets education policies for all schools.
The federal system can be best defined as
a system of government in which power is divided between a national government and lower levels of government.
Nations that adopt a federal arrangement tend to have
diverse ethnic or language groups.
Which of the following powers do state governments not have?
to coin their own money
The fact that lawyers must be licensed by the state of California is an example of
reserved power
Which is the best example of a concurrent power under the federal constitution?
the power to regulate commercial activity
Chartering a bank is a ______ power, because both federal and state governments have the authority to do it.
The full faith and credit clause of the Constitution
requires states to normally honor each other’s public acts and legal decisions.
The ______ clause of the Constitution requires that states should normally recognize the laws, acts, and judicial decisions of other states.
Full faith and credit
The source of an implied power under the Constitution is the ______ clause.
Necessary and proper
How has the full faith and credit clause been applied in cases of gay adoption?
The courts have ruled that the full faith and credit clause requires states to accept adoption decisions by other states.
The privileges and immunities clause of Article IV is also referred to as the
comity clause
Which of the following has not been an important contractual topic between states?
State passport requirements
Why did local governments become administratively important in the early years of the Republic?
They became important because states lacked the administrative capability to implement laws and relied, therefore, on local governments.
The Constitution says which of the following things about relationships between states?
No state shall enter into a contract or agreement with another state without the approval of Congress.
Under the traditional system of American federalism, most of the fundamental governing in the United States was done by
state governments.
According to the text, when was the era of dual federalism?
from the ratification of the Constitution until the New Deal
Which level of government writes the majority of criminal laws?
The state governments
Which statement best describes American federalism since the 1930s?
Although the federal government has grown significantly more powerful since the 1930s, the basic framework of American federalism has not been altered and state governments remain important.
What was one effect of dual federalism during the early Republic?
The national government was spared the task of making difficult policy decisions, such as the regulation of slavery, because the states did it themselves.
Which clause of the Constitution has been critical in allowing the growth of national power?
The commerce clause
Which of the following economic policies was the national government allowed to implement during the nineteenth century?
Establishing a series of national banks
The constitutional idea of states’ rights was strongest during which historical period?
the years immediately preceding the Civil War
What has been the main problem posed for U.S. states by international trade agreements?
These agreements often limit the regulatory authority of states.Why was the Supreme Court case United States v. Lopez important? It was the first time since the New Deal that the Supreme Court limited the power of Congress outlined under the commerce clause.
During the Great Depression, a camp of unemployed individuals who had lost their homes was referred to as a
A federal grant for states to afford increasing health care facilities would be an example of a(n)
categorical grant.
A ______ grant requires state and local governments to submit proposals to the federal government and compete for funding.
If the federal government forced the state of New York to implement tougher water pollution regulations than the state legislature has passed, it would be referred to as
Federal officials seeking to give state government more authority are most likely to support
block grants
The form of federal assistance called ______ provides money to state governments with no strings attached.
general revenue sharing
Why do many political scientists and economists believe that states and localities should not be in charge of redistributive programs?
States and local governments have to compete with each other and do not have, therefore, an incentive to spend their money on the needy people in their area.
The Articles of Confederation created a weak central government and a loose alliance of nearly independent states.
The doctrine of expressed powers means that Congress does not have any powers not listed in the Constitution.
The Antifederalists wanted a stronger central government than that proposed in the Constitution.
It is important for Americans to have political knowledge so that they
will be better able to assess their own interests when making political choices.
The demand that there be no taxation without representation is a good example of what political reform of the eighteenth century?
more popular influence on government
The “sophomore surge” refers to
the tendency for candidates to win a higher percentage of the vote when seeking future terms in office.
Which of the following is the best definition of a constituent?
It is a person who lives in the district represented by a member of the legislature.
The State of the Union address is mandated by the
Constituency service is so important that
party leaders will not ask any member to vote in a way that conflicts with the interests or opinions of the member’s district.
Under the original Constitution, senators were appointed by
state legislatures.
The idea of ______ identifies the best representative as the one who shares a similar racial, ethnic, religious, or occupational background with those he or she represents.
sociological representation
Which of the following is a key assumption of the sociological model of representation?
Because similarity helps promote good representation, the composition of legislative bodies should mirror the composition of society.
In 2006, ______ became the Speaker of the House.
Nancy Pelosi
The Office of Management and Budget is important because
its personnel are an integral part of virtually every conceivable presidential responsibility, such as overseeing regulatory proposals, reporting on agency activities, and preparing the national budget.
The rise of the national convention was important because it gave the presidency
a mass popular base that would eventually support and demand increased presidential power.
The office of the presidency was established by ___________ of the Constitution.
Article II
In each House district there are approximately ______ people.
The president’s expressed powers include all of the following except
In undertaking the campaign against the Taliban in 2001, George W. Bush
sought and received congressional authorization for the bombing but not a declaration of war.
Federal executive agencies do each of the following in implementing legislation except
seek advisory opinions from the federal courts as to the constitutionality of the rules.
The National Security Council is composed of all of the following except
the Speaker of the House
Which statement about the Cabinet is incorrect?
The Cabinet does not meet as a group, except during the State of the Union address.
Executive agreements differ from formal treaties in that
they do not have to be approved by the Senate.
When the president infers powers from the “rights, duties, and obligations” of the presidency, these are called
inherent powers
The role the House of Representatives plays in impeachments can best be compared with that of a
grand jury
A bill’s supporters in the House of Representatives generally prefer ______ while opponents generally prefer ______.
A closed rule; an open rule
The Congressional Research Service and the Government Accountability Office are examples of
staff agencies
Members of Congress can represent the people in two ways
as a ______, a member of Congress acts on the express preferences of his or her constituency; as a ______, a member is more loosely tied to constituents and makes the decisions he or she thinks are best: Delegate; trustee
The House Ways and Means Committee is one of the most important committees in Congress because
it has jurisdiction over taxes, trade, and entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare.
Who decides which committee assignments members of the House of Representatives receive?
each party’s own “steering and policy” committee
Most members of the House attempt to stay on good terms with the Speaker of the House because
the Speaker possesses the power of recognition.
A vote on which 50 percent or more of the members of one party take one position while at least 50 percent of the members of the other party take the opposing position is called a
party unity veto
Contemporary presidents frequently use popular mobilization and executive administration to achieve their goals
because America’s system of separated powers makes party support an unreliable presidential tool.
The expansion of the Executive Office of the President, the development of regulatory review, and the use of executive orders have been important because
they have given presidents substantial capacity to achieve significant policy results despite congressional opposition to their legislative agendas.
The Constitution’s framers believed that Congress’s greatest prerogative would be its
power of the purse.
A bicameral legislature is one that has
two chambers or houses.
The larger, more heterogeneous constituencies and longer terms of Senators means that they are
more likely to consider “new ideas” and are better able to act as the agents for groups and interests organized on a statewide or national basis.
As of 2012, how many women serve in the U.S. Senate?
The most common occupation among members of Congress before coming to Congress is
Constituency service is so important that
party leaders will not ask any member to vote in a way that conflicts with the interests or opinions of the member’s district.
The process of allocating congressional seats among the fifty states is called
One reason why redistricting is controversial is that
computer technologies allow legislatures to know statistically what kinds of people live where and this can be used to give one party an advantage over the other.
Pork-barrel legislation
deals with specific projects and their location within a particular congressional district.
Who is the Speaker of the House?
The elected leader of the majority party in the House is the Speaker.
Who has the most real power in the Senate?
the majority and minority leaders
The jurisdiction of standing committees
is defined by the subject matter of legislation, which often parallels the major cabinet departments or agencies.
Congressional leaders form ______ committees when they want to take up an issue that falls between the jurisdiction of existing committees, to highlight an issue, or to investigate a particular problem.
A proposed piece of legislation is called a
Approximately what percentage of proposed bills die in committee?
95 percent
A filibuster allows members of the Senate to
prevent a vote on a bill by speaking continuously on the floor.
How can a president’s veto be overridden by Congress?
by a two-thirds vote in both houses
In addition to pressuring members of Congress to vote a certain way on a bill, interest groups also have substantial influence in
setting the legislative agenda.
In general, members of the House seek committee assignments that will
allow them to influence decisions that are of special importance to voters in their districts.
A(n) ______ has the same status as a treaty but does not require Senate approval.
executive agreement
Organizational reforms instituted by Congress in the 1970s
fragmented power by reducing the power of committee chairs.
What are the greatest dangers associated with a trustee model of representation?
Representatives may become inattentive to the wishes and opinions of their constituents.
The office of the presidency was established by ___________ of the Constitution.
Article II
The turning point in American politics toward a president-centered government came about during the administration of
Franklin Roosevelt
When Congress delegates power to the executive branch, it
substantially enhances the importance of the presidency.
The power to declare war is given to ______ under the Constitution.
both houses in Congress
Which of the following statements about the military sources of domestic power is most accurate?
Military emergencies, such as World War I, World War II, and September 11, have typically led to an expansion of the domestic powers of the executive branch.
In order to get around the need for Senate approval of treaties, many contemporary presidents have made use of ______ in foreign affairs.
executive agreements
Why is the president’s State of the Union address important?
It is an opportunity for the president to set the legislative agenda by initiating proposals and directing public attention to the executive’s goals.
Which executive agency has the least discretion, as a result of very detailed congressional legislation?
the Internal Revenue Service
Which of the following statements about Congress and the executive branch is most accurate?
Starting around the time of the New Deal, Congress has tended to give executive agencies broad mandates and to draft legislation that offers few clear guidelines for implementation by the executive.
The president has the power to appoint which of the following positions?
cabinet secretaries
The formal group of presidential foreign policy advisers, established in 1947, is called the
National Security Council
The Office of Management and Budget and the Council of Economic Advisers are both parts of
the Executive Office of the President
After the president and vice president, which office is next in the line of succession?
Speaker of the House
A significant initiative set forth by Lyndon Johnson was
the Great Society
Contemporary presidents frequently use popular mobilization and executive administration to achieve their goals because
America’s system of separated powers makes party support an unreliable presidential tool.
Which statement concerning the White House Communications Office is incorrect?
It allows the president to avoid giving information to the public.
When the White House directs administrative agencies to promulgate specific rules and regulations, this is called
regulatory review
What is the origin of most federal bureaus?
Congress passes laws creating and funding most federal bureaus.
The Civil Service Act of 1883 attempted to pattern government hiring after practices found in
The first regulatory agencies established by Congress were
independent regulatory commissions.
Which of the following is not part of the Justice Department?
the Internal Revenue Service
What has been one of the greatest difficulties in establishing the new Department of Homeland Security?
adjusting to the many different bureaucratic cultures now part of a single operation
The creation of the U.S. Northern Command was important because
it breached the long-standing line between domestic law enforcement and foreign military operations for the first time.
What did the framers call the “least dangerous branch”?
The Supreme Court
The party that brings a complaint in court is called the ______, and the one against whom the complaint is brought is called the ______.
plaintiff; defendant
If a private individual brought a suit against a corporation for breaking a contract, what kind of law would this involve?
The phrase stare decisis means
“let the decision stand”
In most circumstances, a supreme court is best described as a(n) ______ court.
What is the Uniform Commercial Code?
a set of codes states may voluntarily adopt in order to reduce interstate differences in judicial opinions in contract law cases
All of the following are part of the official jurisdiction of the federal courts except
cases involving citizens from the same state.
Which of the following statements concerning legislative courts is false?
Legislative court judges cannot have their salary reduced by Congress.
If an individual is arrested because his home was searched by police without a legal warrant, he could argue in court that he had been denied
the due process of law.
Approximately what percentage of all court cases in the United States are heard in federal courts?
1 percent
Trial courts in the federal judicial system are called
district courts
Which of the following statements best describes the Supreme Court?
The Court has broad latitude to decide which cases it will hear and generally hears only those cases it deems to raise the most important issues.
What is the main function of the chief justice of the Supreme Court?
The chief justice presides over the Court’s public sessions and private conferences.
The size of the U.S. Supreme Court is set by
Why has partisan conflict surrounded federal judicial appointments in recent years?
The federal courts play an important role in shaping American law and politics.
A political ideology is best defined as
a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the government.
The fact that Americans strongly support the idea that governmental interference with individuals’ lives and property should be kept to a minimum illustrates their commitment to
Which of the following statements about agencies of socialization is incorrect?
An individual’s religion has no impact on their political views.
Which of the following statements about the political opinions of Democrats and Republicans in the public is most accurate?
Differences between the political opinions of Democrats and Republicans on a wide variety of policy questions are greater today than during any other period in the last forty years
A socialist is someone who believes that
government should be very active in many spheres in order to reduce economic and social inequality.
If a person does not know anything about a proposed piece of legislation but supports it because Barack Obama endorsed it, we would say the person
reached his or her decision through the use of an informational shortcut.
Which of the following was not part of the Bush administration’s effort to maintain support for its war on terror?
donations to academic institutions
Despite its high reach, ______ typically provides the least depth of news coverage.
Which of the following statements about newspapers is not accurate?
The newspaper industry has been more profitable in recent years than ever before.
Which of the following is not a reason that Americans prefer online news?
the accuracy and objectivity of the information found online
What percentage of radio stations in the United States are devoted to talk, news, or public affairs?
20 percent
The media can set the political agenda in the United States by
identifying an issue as a problem that must be solved.
Which of the following statements about leaks is false?
Leaks never occurred before the George W. Bush administration.
In 2008, volunteering for a political campaign was
a less common activity than contributing money.
Social capital refers to
community networks that motivate political participation.
Which of the following is not a traditional form of political activity?
visiting a candidate’s website
How many Americans claimed to be completely offline in 2012?
20 percent
Throughout American history, which of the following was not a common restriction the government placed on voting rights?
occupational requirements
What percentage of eligible voters participated in the 2008 presidential election?
62 percent
The Constitution was amended in ______ to give eighteen-year-olds the right to vote.
Nonelectoral forms of participation usually require more ______ than voting.
time, money, and effort
Election Day registration is opposed in some states because some believe that
it may lead to election day fraud and noncitizens voting.
What is one reason that political parties and politicians view Latinos as a critically important group?
The Latino population in the United States is large and rapidly growing.
Internal mobilization occurs when
conflicts within the government create divided factions that try to mobilize popular support.
During the late 1840s and early 1850s, both the Democratic and Whig parties were divided by
conflicts over slavery.
Issues such as the environment, health care, retirement benefits, and taxation are on the political agenda in the United States because
contemporary political parties mainly compete for the support of middle-class Americans and these issues are important to the middle class.
As a third-party candidate, Ross Perot captured approximately ______ percent of the popular vote in the 1992 presidential election.
When a congressional election is held that does not coincide with a presidential election, it is called a(n)
midterm election
A majority system, which is used on a limited basis in the United States, requires that a candidate must win ______ to win an election.
50 percent plus one of all votes cast
Before the 1890s, who was responsible for printing election ballots?
political parties
In what case did the Supreme Court say that purposefully drawing districts where the majority of voters were members of a single minority group, in order to ensure minority representation, was unlawful?
Shaw v. Reno
“King Caucus” refers to
the use of each party’s congressional caucus to nominate presidential candidates during the early nineteenth century.
Which of the following political officers are subject to recall elections?
the governor of the state of California
Which of the following statements about campaign spending in Senate elections is true?
Incumbents generally spend more money than challengers in Senate campaigns.
Three types of factors, ______, influence the decisions of voters at the polls.
artisan loyalty, issues, and the characteristics of candidates
Interest groups are concerned with the ______ of government, while political parties are concerned with the ______ of government.
policies; personnel
When a group is called a membership association, it means that
members play an important role in the daily activities of the group.
When membership in an organization allows for a reduction in the price of museum tickets, it is called a
material benefit
Which of the following issues is not part of the agenda of the New Politics movement?
industrial deregulation
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between lobbyists and Congress in recent years?
The relationship between lobbyists and Congress has become so close that many have argued that lobbyists have become like staff members to the Republican leadership
Which of the following has Congress not done in recent years in order to limit the influence of interest groups?
outlawed all contact between lobbyists and members of Congress during legislative sessions
A PAC can contribute ______ to any candidate for federal office, provided it contributes to at least five different federal candidates each year.
Which of the following is not a goal of American social policy?
closing the gap between rich and poor
If a new tax on luxury goods, such as sports cars, boats, and helicopters, were passed in order to reduce the disparities between the highest and lowest income brackets, we would refer to this as a(n)
policy of redistribution
The United States has ______ percent of the world’s population and is responsible for ______ percent of its greenhouse gas emissions.
Which of the following was not included in the congressional plans for health care reform?
a “public option” allowing individuals to acquire medical coverage directly from the government
Who among the following advocated for laissez-faire capitalism?
Adam Smith
Upton Sinclair’s 1906 exposé The Jungle revealed the
unsanitary practices at meatpacking plants.
Which of the following statements best describes the federal government’s role in higher education?
The federal government supports higher education through educational grants, tax breaks, and loans.
Why do many businesses prefer Congress to regulate the economy?
One national regulation is better than the inconsistencies and disparities of different state laws.
Which of the following least explains why the elderly receive a large share of social benefits?
Most members of Congress are themselves elderly or soon will be.
According to many analysts, the spurt of economic growth in 2003 illustrates that
some kinds of public investment, such as military spending on wars, can produce economic growth as a byproduct of pursuing other, more central objectives.
The federal government’s role in providing electricity to rural areas is an example of the fact that
government often supplies public goods that are too big or risky for private actors to tackle.
Which of the following was not a major form of economic promotion by the federal government in the nineteenth century?
public works projects
Which of the following statements about the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) is false?
The FRB is part of the Department of the Treasury.
What was the main fear concerning the consequences of outdoor relief?
It perpetuated poverty.
Which of the following statements about United States trade deficit is most accurate?
The federal government provides only some of the funding for these programs and, as a result, citizens receive very different levels of benefits in different states.
Social case work, in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, was largely concerned with
personal counseling and “mental hygiene.”
he old adage “politics stops at the water’s edge” means that
all Americans will suffer if we fail to work together to protect our nation’s political, economic, and security interests in the wider world.
Which of the following is not a problem with the current health care system in the United States?
Local governments are forced to pay the health care costs of all unemployed Americans.
Which war was officially declared by Congress?
The War of 1812
What important noncontributory program was abolished by Congress in 1996?
Aid to Families with Dependent Children
What do public opinion polls reveal about welfare policies?
Americans view welfare beneficiaries as “undeserving.”
What is the most significant force determining the distribution of opportunities in the United States?
Deterrence assumes the ______ of the U.S. response and the ______ of an adversary.
certainty; rationality
Which interest group in the United States is more likely to depend on demonstrations and other nontraditional strategies of influence?
environmental groups
A ______ nation is one with unstable leadership, whose policies are driven by ideology rather than by economic or human costs and benefits.
Why has Congress become a major foreign policy maker since World War II?
Congress is regularly called upon to approve financing of foreign policies.
The policy of deterrence and containment pursued by the United States during the Cold War can be seen as
midway between preventive war and appeasement.
In 1998, the foreign trade term most favored nation was changed to what?
normal trade relations
The difference between a political value and a political attitude is that
values are basic principles while attitudes are specific preferences
The controversial nature of affirmative action reveals that
different policy preferences can be based on different practical interpretations of the same people
Which of the following phenomena is not an illustration of the gender gap?
Men are more likely to join political parties and other social organizations
What is one of the main differences between those who have gone to college and those who have not?
There is a higher level of political participation among those with a college education
Which of the following statements about the ideological preferences of Americans is false?
Prior to 2000, there was almost no Americans who identified themselves as liberal
Why does the marketplace of ideas often have a moderating effect on people’s opinions?
Given constant exposure to other people’s ideas, it is almost impossible for one not to modify one’s own viewpoints
The increased importance that politicians have placed on public opinion polls over the last 50 years is due partly to
the fact that is has become very difficult for political leaders to experience public opinions directly
Which group has the highest popularity on radio talk shows?
In order to be an online citizen. An individual must have
the basic skills necessary to read a simple newspaper article
“Filter bubbles” appear when
search engines automatically screen out information that might challenge or broaden our worldview
Which of the following statements about noncontributory programs, such as TANF and Medicaid, is most accurate?
The federal government provides only some of the funding for these programs and, as a result, citizens receive very different levels of benefits in different states.
The three main goals of American foreign policy are
security, prosperity, and the creation of a better world
Why has Congress become a major foreign policy maker since World War II?
Congress is regularly called upon to approve financing of foreign policies.
The policy of deterrence and containment pursued by the United States during the Cold War can be seen as
midway between preventive war and appeasement.
During World War II, ______ forced the federal government to address discriminatory hiring practices by threatening massive labor marches on Washington, D.C.
A. Philip Randolph
The Supreme Court case Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992) is important because it
asserted that violations of Title IX of the 1972 Education Act could be remedied with monetary damages
Freedom of speech and of the press have a special place in American democracy because
free and open debate is an essential mechanism for determining the quality and validity of competing ideas.
The Bill of Rights was written because
the Antifederalists demanded it as the price of ratification of the Constitution.
What was the Supreme Court case that declared the exclusionary rule?
Mapp v. Ohio
The requirement that persons under arrest be informed of their right to remain silent is known as the ______ rule.
According to the text, what is the constitutional problem relating to the nationalization of the Bill of Rights?
Does the Bill of Rights put limits only on the national government, or does it limit state governments as well?
Why was the Supreme Court case New York Times v. Sullivan significant?
The Court ruled that a newspaper had to print false and malicious material deliberately in order to be guilty of libel.
The Bill of Rights
is the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
One step taken toward the desegregation of public schools wa
busing children from poor urban school districts to wealthier suburban ones.
Which of the following statements best summarizes the Supreme Court’s decisions regarding the establishment clause?
The Court has been strict in striking down school prayer but permissive in allowing the public display of religious symbols.
When did civil rights become part of the U.S. Constitution?
Civil rights were incorporated with the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment.
The Reconstruction era in the South came to an end because
Northern Republicans agreed to remove federal troops from the South and give up on their support for civil liberties if Southern Democrats allowed Rutherford B. Hayes to become president.
Which of the following are names of Latino civil rights organizations?
Which area of discrimination was touched by the legal principles of Brown v. Board of Education?
public schools
What is the key question behind civil rights protection?
What is the proper meaning of equal rights?
The words “under God” were added to the Pledge of Allegiance
in the midst of the Cold War, as a response to the “godless communism” of the Soviet Union
Which figure is most closely associated with the idea that the First Amendment protects the “marketplace of ideas”?
Oliver Wendell Holmes
The Supreme Court’s 2010 ruling in McDonald v. Chicago was significant because
it applied the Second Amendment to state governments for the first time
Members of Congress have frequently proposed a constitutional amendment to make flag burning a crime because
the only way to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling that flag burning is protected speech is through a constitutional amendment
After World War II, which government institution first began drawing attention to the problem of racism in America?
The White House
Ten years after Brown v. Board of Education, ______ percent of black children in the Deep South attended school with white children.
Which of the following is not a liberty protected by the Bill of Rights?
equal protection of the laws