Government Final Exam Review

Articles of Confederation
Approved by the Second Continental Congress and all 13 states ratify, each state maintained its sovereignty and independence (established the early government of the US)
Federalist Papers
Published in newspapers to convince people to support ratification of the Constitution
Bill of Rights
set out guarantees of freedom of equal belief and expression, of freedom and security of the person and of fair and equal treatment before the government
Three-Fifths Compromise
3/5 of the slave population in a state would count towards representation in the House of Representatives
Great Compromise
Congress has two houses, House of Representatives (proportional representation) and Senate (equal representation)
democracy
Political power is exercised by all citizens
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principles of the Constitution
popular sovereignty, federalism, and judicial review
separation of powers
concept that government’s power is distributed among branches of government
federalism
a system of government in which governmental power is divided between a central government and smaller, regional governments
benefits of amending the constitution
as new challenges come along, amendments can be created to fix those problems
1st Amendment freedoms
press, speech, assembly, petition, religion
powers of the legislative branch
introduce laws, coins money, declares war, overrides a presidential veto, borrows money on behalf of the united states, impeaches/removes the president
necessary and proper clause (elastic clause)
serves as the Constitutional basis for Congress’s implied powers
Election of Representatives and Senators
Direct Election

Representatives: Each member of the House represents a certain area of his or her state. This area is known as a congressional district. Representatives are elected by the voters in that congressional district for a term of two years.
Senators: Senators are elected for six year terms, however elections for a state’s senators are not held during the same election years. In other words, no two senators are elected in a state at the same time.

Term Length of Representatives and Senators
Representatives: 2 years
Senators: 6 years
Number of Representatives and Senators
Representatives: 432
Senators: 100
gerrymandering
districts defined to the advantage of the political party that controls the state’s legislature
powers of the executive branch
signs bills into law, nominates supreme court justices, vetoes bills, serves as commander-in-chief of army and navy, issues a pardon, makes treaties, delivers the state of the union address
federal bureaucracy
all the agencies, people, and procedures through which the Federal Government operates
Cabinet
a body of advisers to the president, composed of the heads of the executive departments of the government
primary elections
A preliminary election in which voters nominate party candidates for office.
general elections
regularly scheduled elections at which voters make the final selection of officeholders
caucus
Closed meeting of members of a political party who gather to select delegates to the national convention
qualifications for the presidency
– Natural born citizen (born in US or 2 parents both born in US)
– 35 years old
– Been a resident for 14 years
impeachment
to accuse/bring charges
22nd Amendment
Amendment that created a 2 term limit on presidents
presidential succession
Order of who assumes presidency if the president can’t fulfill his duties (1. Vice President 2. Speaker of the House 3. President Pro-Tempore of the Senate 4. Secretary of State 5. Secretary of Treasury…)
Supreme Court jurisdiction
authority of a court to hear (to try and decide) a case
SC has appellate jurisdiction – a court that hears a case on appeal from a lower court has this
Supreme Court caseload
very few cases that are appealed to the court (approx. 100) heard each term – justices decide which cases to hear or not hear
Supreme Court Justice nomination
Justices are appointed by the President of the United States, and must be confirmed by the United States Senate
Supreme Court Justice term length
SC Justices serve for life
judicial review
the power to decide the constitutionality of an act of government & gives the supreme court final authority on the meaning of the constitution
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme Court case that established Judicial Review
trial court
a court of law where cases are tried in the first place
original jurisdiction
a court in which a case is first heard has this
appellate jurisdiction
a court that hears a case on appeal from a lower court has this
brief
detailed written statements that spell out the Supreme Court’s legal position with the court before they give oral arguments
political parties
Group of people who seek to control the government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office
political party platforms
statement of principles and policies, the goals that a party pledges to carry if voters give it control of the government
structure of political parties
local, state, and national levels
open primary
system of conducting primary elections in which citizens vote in whichever party primary they choose
closed primary
system of conducting primary elections in which only citizens registered as members of a political party may participate in that party’s primary
partisan identification
Psychological orientation, or long-term propensity, to think positively of vote regularly for a political party
electoral college
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
voter behavior
straight-ticket voting – voting for only one political party
split-ticket voting – voting for multiple political parties
political action committee (PAC)
committee formed by a special-interest group to raise money for their favorite political candidates
political culture
A political perspective based on core values and political ideology
interest group
a collection of people who share a common interest or attitude and seek to influence government for specific ends
lobbyist
a person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches
political socialization
political attitudes mostly formed as a response to our involvement in groups
horse race
A description of the type of election coverage that focuses more on poll results and speculation about a likely winner than on substantive differences between the candidates
public opinion
distribution of individual preferences for or evaluations of a given issue, candidate, or institution within a specific population
ideology
A consistent set of beliefs by groups/individuals
civil liberties
Constitutional protections of all persons against government actions and restrictions
freedom of speech
all speech is protected except libel (written deformation), obscenity (inappropriate content), fighting words (words that inflict injury), and commercial speech (advertisements and commercials)
freedom of assembly
individual right to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend common interests
establishment clause
states that Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion
Griswald v. Connecticut
Court ruling of the right to privacy; struck down laws making birth control illegal
Roe v. Wade
right to privacy extended to a woman’s decision, in consultation with doctor, to terminate her pregnancy
Gideon v. Wainwright
A person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government
Miranda warning
warning given by police to criminal suspects in police custody before they are interrogated to preserve the admissibility of their statements against them in criminal proceedings
selective incorporation
process by which provisions of the Bill of Rights are brought with the scope of the 14th Amendment and so applied to state and local governments
14th Amendment
declared that all persons born in the US havecitizenship, that all citizens were entilted to equal rights, and their rights were protected by due process
Schenck v. United States
Supreme court decides that any actions taken that present a “clear and present danger” to the public or government isn’t allowed, this can limit free speech
due process
established rules and regulations that restrain government officials
double jepoardy
trial or punishment for the same crime by the same government
civil disobedience
deliberate refusal to obey a law or comply with the order of public officials as a means of expression opposition
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 – The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated
Civil Rights Act of 1964
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment
difference between first and second wave feminism
Whereas first-wave feminism focused mainly on suffrage and overturning legal obstacles to gender equality, second-wave feminism broadened the debate to a wide range of issues: sexuality, family, the workplace, reproductive rights, and official legal inequalities
Phyllis Schlafly
most visible opponent of the ERA, a proposed constitutional amendment that she predicted would undermine the traditional family and actually diminish the rights of U.S. women
Title IX
comprehensive federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any federally funded education program or activity (most known for sports)
white primaries
primary election in which only white individuals can vote
Unwritten Constitution
political parties, judicial review, and the Cabinet are all parts of this
procedural due process
a constitutional requirement that government proceed by proper methods; limits HOW government may exercise power
substantive due process
a constitutional requirement that government act reasonably and that the substance of the laws themselves be fair and reasonable; limits WHAT government may do