Government, Chapter 1: Politics

politics
who gets what, when, and how; a process of determining how power and resources are distributed in a society without recourse to violence
power
the ability to get other people to do what you want
resources
assets and advantages that help us achieve a desired end
social order
the way we organize and live our collective lives
legitimate
accepted as “right” or proper
government
a system or organization for exercising authority over a body of people
rules
directives that specify how resources will be distributed or what procedures govern collective activity
institution
organizations in which governmental power is exercised
economics
production and distribution of a society’s material resources and services
capitalist economy
an economic system in which market determines production, distribution, and price decisions and property is privately owned
laissez-faire capitalism
an economic system in which the market makes all the decisions and the government plays no role
regulated capitalism
a market system in which the government intervenes to protect rights and make procedural guarantees
procedural guarantees
government assurance that the rules will work smoothly and treat everyone fairly, with no promise of particular outcomes
socialist economy
an economic system in which the state determines production, distribution, and price decisions and property is government owned
substantive guarantees
government assurance of particular outcomes or results
social democracy
a hybrid system combining a capitalist economy and a government that supports equality
authoritarian governments
systems in which the state holds all power over the social order
monarchy
an authoritarian government with power vested in a king or queen
theocracy
an authoritarian government that claims to draw its power from divine or religious authority
fascist government
an authoritarian government in which policy is made for the ultimate glory of the state
oligarchy
rule by a small group of elites
totalitarian government
a system in which absolute power is exercised over every aspect of life
authoritarian capitalism
a system in which the state allows people economic freedom, but maintains stringent social regulations to limit noneconomic behavior
anarchy
the absence of government and laws
democracy
government that vests power in the people
popular sovereignty
the concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power
elite democracy
a theory of democracy that limits the citizens’ role to choosing among competing leaders
pluralist democracy
a theory of democracy that holds that citizen membership in groups is the key to political power
participatory democracy
a theory of democracy that holds that citizens should actively and directly control all aspects of their lives
advanced industrial democracy
a system in which a democratic government allows citizens a considerable amount of personal freedom and maintains a free-market(though still usually regulated) economy
communist democracy
a utopian system in which property is communally owned and all decisions are made democratically
subjects
individuals who are obliged to submit to a government authority against which they have no rights
citizens
members of a political community having both rights and responsibilities
divine right of kings
the principle that earthly rulers receive their authority from God
Protestant Reformation
the break from the Roman Catholic Church in the 1500’s by those who believed in direct access to God and salvation by faith
Enlightenment
a philosophical movement(1600-1700s) that emphasized human reason, scientific examination, and industrial progress
social contract
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
republic
a government in which decisions are made through representatives of the people
critical thinking
analysis and evaluation of ideas and arguments based on reason and evidence
analysis
understanding how something works by breaking ti down into its component parts
evaluation
assessing how well something works or performs according to a particular standard or yardstick

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