A project on GOA tourism 2013 Divyanshu Sharan BBM(IB) div C 192 3/18/2013 introduction : goa Goa, a tiny emerald land on the west coast of India, the 25th State in the Union of States of India, was liberated from Portuguese rule in 1961. It was part of Union territory of Goa, Daman & Diu till 30 May 1987 when it was carved out to form a separate State. Goa covers an area of 3702 square kilometers and comprises two Revenue district viz North Goa and South Goa.
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Boundaries of Goa State are defined in the North Terekhol river which separates it from Maharashtra, in the East and South by Karnataka State and West by Arabian Sea.
Goa lies in Western Coast of India and is 594 Kms (by road) away from Mumbai city. Goa, for the purpose of revenue administration is divided into district viz. North and South Goa with headquarters at Panaji and Margao respectively. The entire State comprises 11 talukas. For the purpose of implementation of development programmes the State is divided into 12 community development blocks. As per 2001 census, the population of the State is 13,42,998. Administratively the State is organised into two districts North Goa comprising six talukas with a total area of 1736 sq. kms. and South Goa comprising five talukas with an area of 1966 sq. ilometers. In all there are 383 villages of which 233 are in North Goa district and 150 in South Goa district. As per the 2001 census, there are 44 towns of which 14 are Municipalities and remaining are census towns. A very striking feature of Goa is the harmonious relationship among various religious communities, who have lived together peacefully for generations. Though a late entrant to the planning process, Goa has emerged as one of the most developed States in India and even achieved the ranking of one of the best states in India with regards to investment environment and infrastructure.
Goa is India’s smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its western coast. Goa is India’s richest state with a GDP per capita two and a half times that of the country as a whole. It was ranked the best placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators.
Panaji is the state’s capital, while Vasco da Gama is the largest city. The historic city of Margao still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter. Goa is a former Portuguese colony, the Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961. Renowned for its beaches, places of worship and world heritage architecture, Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year.
It also has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, which is classified as a biodiversity hotspot. Geography Goa encompasses an area of 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi). It lies between the latitudes 14°53? 54? N and 15°40? 00? N and longitudes 73°40? 33? E and 74°20? 13? E. Most of Goa is a part of the coastal country known as the Konkan, which is an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats range of mountains, which separate it from the Deccan Plateau. The highest point is the Sonsogor, with an altitude of 1,167 meters (3,827 feet).
Goa has a coastline of 101 km (63 mi). Goa’s main rivers are Mandovi, Zuari, Terekhol, Chapora and the Sal. The Mormugao harbour on the mouth of the River Zuari is one of the best natural harbours in South Asia. The Zuari and the Mandovi are the lifelines of Goa, with their tributaries draining 69% of its geographic area. These rivers are some of the busiest rivers in India. Goa has more than forty estuarine, eight marine and about ninety riverine islands. The total navigable length of Goa’s rivers is 253 km (157 mi).
Goa has more than three hundred ancient tanks built during the rule of the Kadamba dynasty and over a hundred medicinal springs. Climate Goa features a tropical monsoon climate under the Koppen climate classification. Goa, being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea, has a hot and humid climate for most of the year. The month of May is the hottest, seeing day temperatures of over 35 °C (95 °F) coupled with high humidity. The monsoon rains arrive by early June and provide a much needed respite from the heat. Most of Goa’s annual rainfall is received through the monsoons which last till late September.
Goa has a short winter season between mid-December and February. These months are marked by nights of around 21 °C (68 °F) and days of around 28 °C (84 °F) with moderate amounts of humidity. Further inland, due to altitudinal gradation, the nights are a few degrees cooler. During March 2008 Goa was lashed with heavy rain and strong winds. This was the first time in 29 years that Goa had seen rain during March. Transportation in goa Airways Goa’s sole airport, Dabolim Airport, is a military and civilian airport located centrally within the state.
The airport caters to domestic and international airlines. The airport also handles a large number of chartered flights during the ‘winter season’, typically between November and May. Goa has scheduled international connections to Doha, Dubai, Sharjah and Kuwait in the Middle East and from the United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands and Russia during the charter flight tourist season. Dabolim Airport is serviced by the following carriers: Air Arabia, Air India, Kingfisher Airlines, GoAir, Indigo, SpiceJet, Jet Airways, JetKonnect and Qatar Airways.
Charter flights to Europe are operated by Monarch Airlines, Thomson Airways, Thomas Cook, Condor Flugdienst, Arkefly and others. Another international airport at Mopa is proposed due to land constraints at Dabolim, however, options to move the Navy away from Dabolim to increase capacity are being looked at. Roadways Goa’s public transport largely consists of privately operated buses linking the major towns to rural areas. Government-run buses, maintained by the Kadamba Transport Corporation, link major routes (like the Panjim–Margao route) and some remote parts of the state.
In large towns such as Panjim and Margao, intra-city buses operate. However, public transport in Goa is less developed, and residents depend heavily on their own transportation, usually motorised two-wheelers and small family cars. Goa has four National Highways passing through it. NH-66 (ex NH-17) runs along India’s west coast and links Goa to Mumbai in the north and Mangalore to the south. NH-4A running across the state connects the capital Panjim to Belgaum in east, linking Goa to cities in the Deccan. The NH-366 (ex NH-17A) connects NH-66 to Mormugao Port from Cortalim.
The new NH-566 (ex NH-17B) is a four-lane highway connecting Mormugao Port to NH-66 at Verna via Dabolim Airport, primarily built to ease pressure on the NH-366 for traffic to Dabolim Airport and Vasco da Gama. NH-768 (ex NH-4A) links Panjim and Ponda to Belgaum and NH-4. Goa has a total of 224 km (139 mi) of national highways, 232 km (144 mi) of state highway and 815 km of district highway. Hired forms of transport include unmetered taxis and, in urban areas, auto rickshaws. Another form of transportation in Goa is the motorcycle taxi, operated by drivers who are locally called “pilots”.
These vehicles transport a single pillion rider, at fares that are usually negotiated. Other than buses, “pilots” tend to be the cheapest mode of transport. River crossings in Goa are serviced by flat-bottomed ferry boats, operated by the river navigation department. Railways Goa has two rail lines — one run by the South Western Railway and the other by the Konkan Railway. The line run by the South Western Railway was built during the colonial era linking the port town of Vasco da Gama, Goa with Belgaum, Hubli, Karnataka via Margao.
The Konkan Railway line, which was built during the 1990s, runs parallel to the coast connecting major cities on the western coast. Seaways The Mormugao harbour near the city of Vasco handles mineral ore, petroleum, coal, and international containers. Much of the shipments consist of minerals and ores from Goa’s hinterland. Panjim, which is on the banks of the Mandovi, has a minor port, which used to handle passenger steamers between Goa and Mumbai till the late 1980s. There was also a short-lived catamaran service linking Mumbai and Panaji operated by Damania Shipping in the 1990s.
Tourism in goa Tourism was adopted as a key sector for Goa’s development, not only for the well-established reasons of increasing income and employment but also for its potential to generate non-manual employment in a state with an increasingly educated work force and limited industrial growth. Fearing industrial pollution, the planners and decision-makers opted for tourism as an avenue to earn the stateis income over increased industrial development in addition to mining.
Except at academic levels, very little awareness and understanding existed back then among planners about the processes of the life support systems of the coastal environment and the interactive roles played by each component. This paper highlights the issues and the implications of tourism on the coastal marine and the socio-economic environment of Goa. Most of the tourism in Goa is concentrated in the coastal stretches of Bardez, Salcete, Tiswadi and Marmagao. Over 90 percent of domestic tourists and over 99 percent of the international tourists frequent these areas.
Consequently, beach tourism is the only type that is avidly encouraged by policymakers and other concerned parties alike. Goa is visited by two types of tourists with distinct needs which this state satisfies. The first is the domestic tourists, who comprise 80 percent of all tourists. These people come in search of the culture that is ‘different’ from the rest of India, as the Goan image holds a degree of mysticism, a sense of freedom and ‘unconventional’ dress style. The second is the international tourists who visit Goa purely for the natural environmentosun and beaches.
Within the category of international tourists are there are two sub-categories: backpackers and charter tourists. Although both visit Goa for the beaches, they stay away from each other. The backpackers are not found in areas of charter tourists; they prefer to mingle and live with the local communities. Whereas, the charter tourists tend to stay in the luxury starred hotels. Domestic and international tourists also differ in terms of the areas they frequent. For the domestic tourist, the beaches hold limited appeal, so domestic tourists remain away from the places frequented by the international tourists.
The timings of visits are clearly different for the domestic and the international tourists. In previous decades, a clear off season for all tourists could be identified, today this is not so for domestic tourists, who come throughout the year albeit in larger numbers in the non-monsoon months. Conversely, international tourists avoid the monsoon months, as for them the use of the beach is the prime attraction to come to Goa Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa, with decreased tourist activity inland. In 2010, there were more than two million tourists reported to have visited Goa, about 1. million of whom were from abroad. The tourism board appointed Prachi Desai, a young Bollywood actress as the face of Goa. Goa has two main tourist seasons: winter and summer. In the winter time, tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come to Goa to enjoy the climate. In the summertime (which, in Goa, is the rainy season), tourists from across India come to spend the holidays. With the rule of the Portuguese for over 450 years and the consequential influence of Portuguese culture, Goa presents a somewhat different picture to the foreign visitor than other parts of the country.
The state of Goa is famous for its excellent beaches, churches, and temples. The Bom Jesus Cathedral, Fort Aguada and a new wax museum on Indian history, culture and heritage in Old Goa are other tourism destinations. In many parts of Goa, mansions constructed in the Indo-Portuguese style architecture still stand, though in some villages, most of them are in a dilapidated condition. Goa also has a few museums, the two important ones being Goa State Museum and the Naval Aviation Museum. The Aviation museum is one among three of its kind in the India, the other two being in Delhi and Bengaluru. Goa Tourism Development Corporation Limited (GTDC)
Goa Tourism Development Corporation Limited (GTDC) was set up on 30th March, 1982 to look after the commercial activities of the Government in the service industry of tourism in the state. The liabilities of the Government in the form of accommodation (hotels), vehicles, tours, boats and other properties were transferred to Goa Tourism Development Corporation Ltd to run and to manage the same with a view to promoting, developing in the state and to carry out business and to manage the welfare of the employees transferred along with the assets of the Government. Goa Tourism Development Corporation.
Ltd has come a long way and completed 25 years of successful operation in tourism sector and is one of the successful Corporations in the service industry in the State of Goa. The company is governed by the Board of Directors appointed by the Government. The Board of Directors consists of 12 members. The shareholders consist of 7 members, all of whom are Government nominees. All the shares are held by the Governor of Goa, except 7 shares which are held by its nominees. The Managing Director is the Executive Head of Goa Tourism Development Corporation Ltd The Organisation : The Administrative head of the Department is Shri.
R. K. Verma, IAS as Principal Secretary (Tourism). The Department has Zonal Offices in North Goa at Mapusa and in South Goa at Margao. The Tourist Information Centres/Counters are located within the State and in Mumbai (temporarily closed). The Zonal Officers are primarily responsible for monitoring the Registration of Tourist Trade under the Tourist Trade Act, 1982. The Director of Tourism: The current Director of Tourism is Shri. Nikhil Desai. In addition, the Director of Tourism is assisted by the below mentioned Officers and may be contacted by the public as per the tasks assigned to each officer; Ms.
Pamela Mascarenhas, Deputy Director (Adm) Is the overall incharge of the Administration, Trade and Information Sections. Shri. Hanumant K. Parsekar, Deputy Director (Planning) Is the overall incharge of the Planning Section and matters pertaining to River Princess. Shri. Arvind B. Khutkar (Revenue) Is the overall incharge of the Revenue Section. Shri. Govind R. Prabhu Gaonkar, Asstt. Accounts Officer is the overall incharge of all the financial and accounting matters pertaining to the Department of Tourism. Shri. Jose Roque Gracias Flor, Asstt. Director (Trade) Shri. Rajesh A.
Kale, Asstt. Director (Information) Shri. Ramesh L. Morajkar, Assistant Tourist Officer (Revenue) Shri. Ganesh R. Teli, Assistant Planning Officer (Planning) Shri. Subhash K. Kavlekar, Assistant Planning Officer Shri. Narendra K. Shirodkar, Assistant Tourist Officer of Mapusa Zonal Branch Office. Smt. Angela Jasmina Fernandes, Assistant Tourist Officer of Margao Zonal Branch Office. Activities of the Department : Policy Formulation. Development of Infrastructure. Goa Tourist Places (Protection and Maintainance) Act, 2001 Goa Land (Prohibition of Construction) Act, 1995
Administration of Goa Registration of Tourist Trade Act. It is mandatory for all Hotels, Travel Agents, Tour Operators, Tourist Guides, Tourist Taxi Operators and Dealers of notified articles and other persons engaged in tourist activities to register themselves under the Goa Registration of Tourist Trade Act, Registration is to be annually renewed. Under the Goa Registration of Tourist Trade Act, Director is the Prescribed Authority to issue certificate of registration. Quality Policy GTDC are committed to following: To provide our service to our customers to their complete satisfaction.
To give value for money spent by our guest. To optimally utilize available infrastructure and human resources. To create & project a customer friendly & professional image. To comply with quality management systems. To periodically review established quality objectives. To continually improves and enhance effectiveness of quality management systems. Mission Statement “At GTDC we strive to provide the finest Tourism related services to our guests. We vow never to sacrifice our professional integrity and to produce the highest quality work possible and pledge to stay true to it.
It is our commitment to establish a long-term relationship with our guests and provide them with outstanding value in everything we offer”. Vision Statement To be a trusted guide to visitors in Goa for all their travel needs, and be a perfect exponent of Goa’s well-known hospitality. Manpower training for the tourism industry Annual training programs are conducted for staff of GTDC at all levels to enhance their professional and personal development. Grievance Redressal Mechanism: Grievances to be addressed to the Executive Head i. e.
Managing Director of Goa Tourism Development Corporation Ltd, who exercises all the powers conferred upon him under the Act. Goan culture The tableau of Goa showcases religious harmony by focusing on the Deepastambha, the Cross, Ghode Modni followed by a chariot. Western royal attire of kings and regional dances being performed depict the unique blend of different religions and cultures of the State. The festival of music and dance, Shigmo Mel or the Holi and Spring celebrations, signify unity in diversity. Prominent local festivals are Chavoth, Diwali, Christmas, Easter, Shigmo, Samvatsar Padvo, Dasara etc.
The Goan Carnival and new year celebration is known to attract a large number of tourists. Dance and music Traditional Goan art forms are Dekhnni, Fugdi, Corridinho, Mando, Dulpod and Fado. Goan Hindus are very fond of Natak, Bhajan and Kirtan. Many famous Indian Classical singers hail from Goa, including Kishori Amonkar, Kesarbai Kerkar, Jitendra Abhisheki and Pandit Prabhakar Karekar. Goa is also known as the origin of Goa trance. While Goa trance has achieved widespread popularity itself, it also heavily influenced later forms of music such as psytrance.
Food Rice with fish curry (Xit kodi in Konkani) is the staple diet in Goa. Goan cuisine is famous for its rich variety of fish dishes cooked with elaborate recipes. Coconut and coconut oil are widely used in Goan cooking along with chili peppers, spices and vinegar giving the food a unique flavour. Goan food can be divided into Goan Catholic and Goan Hindu cuisine with each showing very distinct tastes, characteristics and cooking styles. Pork dishes such as Vindaloo, Xacuti, chorisa and Sorpotel are cooked for major occasions among the Goan Catholics.
An exotic Goan vegetable stew, known as Khatkhate, is a very popular dish during the celebrations of festivals, Hindu and Christian alike. Khatkhate contains at least five vegetables, fresh coconut, and special Goan spices that add to the aroma. Sannas, Hitt are variants of idli and Polle,Amboli,Kailoleo are variants of dosa;are native to Goa. A rich egg-based multi-layered sweet dish known as bebinca is a favourite at Christmas. The most popular alcoholic beverage in Goa is feni; Cashew feni is made from the fermentation of the fruit of the cashew tree, while coconut feni is made from the sap of toddy palms.
The state also has a rich wine culture. One of the impacts of tourism on the Goan community is the ‘creeping expropriation’ felt by the locals. This feeling of being pushed out arises from the fact that starred hotels have effectively gained control over beach resources, which locals have used for generations, and are selling access to them at a price. The area that is available to them as commons is increasingly reduced and overpopulated, causing the locals to avoid the beaches as a whole Consequently, the growth of tourism in Goa has been accompanied by strong anti-tourism activism.
Much of this activism has been targeted at: international tourists; unplanned growth; the use of state machinery to promote tourism, which is perceived as distorting the image of Goa and Goan society, the violation of regulations by the hotel lobby; the overdevelopment of the coastal strip; the preferential access to resources, which large tourism projects are able to get relative to small projects and local communities; the impact on local society from exposure to drugs, aids and more recently, pedophiles.
The bottom-line is that there has been little involvement of the public in the policy decision-making process resulting in a strong sense of alienation about decisions that are affecting the lives of the local community. Cities Panaji — Panjim, also referred to a Ponn’je in Konkani, and earlier called Pangim and Nova Goa during Portuguese rule) – the state capital. Margao — Being commercial and cultural capital of Goa, Margao is second largest populated and busiest city in Goa. Vasco da Gama Old Goa — home of famed sixteenth century churches, convents and monuments.
Mapusa Goa also has a number of other smaller, charming and sometimes crowded towns such as those along the beach belt (Calangute, Candolim), and in the interior (Chaudi in Canacona, Sanvordem-Quepem, Bicholim, Pernem town, etc). Some of these are gateways to the nearby touristic areas. In addition, Goa has some nearly 350 villages, often scenic and each having a character of its own. Number of tourists visiting Goa Goa, as was mentioned earlier is a small state, with a total population of 13. 48 lakhs as per the 2001 census.
Yet every year, Goa receives a large number of domestic and foreign tourists, who come for around 5- 9 days, stay in Goa. India received a total of 3915324 tourists in 2005, while during the same time Goa was visited by 336803 tourists (foreign) Goa receives the largest number of tourist from UK followed by Russia. Besides, tourists from Germany, Finland, France, Switzerland, USA and many other countries also visit the state. The domestic tourist comes from all over India, as Goa is a very popular tourist’s destination.
The table shows the number of domestic and foreign tourist who have visited the state from 2000 to 2006. Many of the tourists arrive in Goa directly by the charted flights and the table below shows the number of such tourists who have arrived and the number of chartered flights that have come to Goa from various countries in the world. The rest of the tourists arrive at Mumbai or Delhi and then come to Goa to visit the place No. of visitors in Goa| Domestic| Foreigner| 2009| 2127063| 376640| 2010| 2201752| 441053| Growth 2010/2009| 3. 5%| 17%| Graph showing comparision between foreigner and domestic tourist
Types of tourism Some of the types of tourism are as follows: 1. Beach Tourism: As Goa has a 105 km coast line, the beaches of Goa are a very important tourist attraction. From Keri in the north to Palolem in the south, Goa has many world famous beaches like Arambol, Colva (longest beach in Goa), Anjuna (known for its flea market), Calangute (most popular and crowded), Palolem and many other small lesser known beaches where the tourists can relax, soak up the sun and feast on the local cuisine (photos of various beaches will be shown during the presentation) . Adventure Tourism: It has recently become very popular in India. It involves the exploration of remote areas and exotic locales and engaging in various activities like trekking, white water rafting, camel safaris, paragliding, rock climbing etc. Goa has a very good potential for activities like trekking, paragliding, dolphin sighting boating, and mountain climbing. (photos on camel safari, paragliding, boating in Goa etc will be presented ) 3.
Wildlife Tourism: India has a rich forest cover, where we find some very beautiful and exotic species of wildlife. Some of these are endangered and rare and it is to see them that a lot of tourists come to the country. Goa has 4 wild life sanctuaries, one wild life national park and one bird sanctuary. Almost 60% of the Goan area is protected area. Around 1. 25 lakhs tourist visit these sanctuaries every year. Goa has a variety of flora and fauna which could be used to attract tourists to these places.
Goa also has two beautiful lakes, at Mayem and Carambolim, where migratory birds are sighted in large numbers (photos of crocodiles and of cranes and other birds will be shown during the presentation. Photographs of the wild life sanctuaries in Goa will also be shown) 4. Medical Tourism: Medical tourism is a recent phenomenon in Goa. Many world class medical hospitals like Apollo and Vivus have been started in Goa, which provide world class facilities at a fraction of the corresponding cost abroad.
Foreigners from many developed countries prefer to come to Goa for a variety of treatment ranging from dental surgery, hearing problems, knee replacements to even heart surgery. This is a market where Goa has potential for further development and the government should take steps to see that this market can be sustained and increased medical tourism can be promoted in the future 5. Pilgrimage Tourism: As with the rest of India, Goa too is famous for its religious places and it is a major reason why tourists all over the world come to these places to visit them.
The World Heritage Site at Old Goa is a major tourist attraction with a large number of churches such as St Cajetan, Our Lady of the Mount, St Francis of Assisi Church and Convent, Basilica of Bom Jesus, Se Cathedral, Church of Our Lady of Rosary, the Archaeological Museum, the Christian Art Museum, the ruins of the Church and Monastery of St Augustine, The Chapel of St Catherine, the Viceroy’s Arch, Chapel of St Anthony (opposite the ruins of the Church of St Augustine) Convent of Santa Monica. Besides this there are many other beautiful churches and temples all over Goa.
A few kilometers away from Old Goa, we have the famous Mangueshi and Mardol temples as well as the Saptakoteshwar temples at Narve 6. Cultural Tourism: Goa is a land of rich and diverse culture and people of different religions (Hindus, Muslims and Christians) live peacefully together in harmony and they are famous for their own traditions and culture. Goa is famous for the Carnival and the IFFI. Besides, Bonderam (Divar) , Sangodd (Boat festival) and Taranga are also famous. Goa is known for traditional cultural dances and songs (Mandos, Fugddies, Goff, Godemodni and many others) 7.
Architectural Tourism: India has a rich amalgamation of various architectural styles where the influence of many dynasties and many cultures can be seen. Some of the important places include Dilwara temples at Rajasthan, Taj Mahal at Agra, Victoria terminus and Fort Area in Mumbai, Red Fort at Delhi, etc. Goa too has an architecturally rich heritage which could be projected by the government as tourist places. Goa has many forts like Chapora, Teracol and Alorna which can be used to attract the tourists 8. Yoga Tourism: Goa is a land of peace and tranquility. Susegad” – roughly meaning “laid-back” – that is how the Goans are traditionally known. The hinterlands of Goa, far from the noise of the city, are perfect for yoga and meditations. The peaceful villages, where the occasional lowing of a cow is the only likely disturbance, are a perfect backdrop for such a type of tourism. Goa has not concentrated on this at present, but there is a hugh potential for this type of activity. 9. Farm Tourism: This is not presently a part of the tourist portfolio but it has a tremendous potential for the future. Goa, with its lush green fields, could easily exploit this resource in the future.
Some of the ways in which this could be achieved could be through the techniques of renting trees, animals, farms to tourists where they can come and spend some time on the farm and also learn how the farm operates and how to take care of the animals and the trees. 10. Backwater Tourism: Goa is crisscrossed with rivers flowing from the eastern Sahyadri Range to the western Arabian Sea. From north to south, the following rivers, Tiracol, Chapora, Mandovi, Zuari, Sal and Talpona, flow windingly through villages and give support to the local economy, either for agriculture or for fishing.
Sight seeing can be done from the water instead of the road. The inland cruises could have landing points near the spice gardens, churches and temples so that the tourist can see the important places too along with the scenic river trip. The Alorna fort too can be an attractive attraction for backwater tourism Rise in domestic tourism The various factors that have contributed to this rise in domestic tourism are: • increased disposable income of the middle class, • increased urbanization and stress of living in cities and towns, increased ownership of cars, which is making domestic tourism more attractive, especially among the upper-middle and middle classes • improved employment benefits, such as the leave travel concession, • development of inexpensive mass transport and improved connections to various places of tourist interest • increased number of cheap accommodations and resorts, • greater advertising targeted at domestic tourists both by the central and the state governments, as well as the tourist industry, and • development of time sharing of holiday accommodations, that is being targeted at the middle class.
Tourism’s impact on Goa Tourism development among policy-makers tends to be discussed in terms of the factors that are of concern to the national and the state governments. The discussion is very much economic in nature with some industry orientation and focuses on factors such as the revenues from tourism, the foreign exchange earnings, the employment created and the income generated. The focus has always been on the implications of tourism development on the economy of Goa and on the relations among the various components of its tourism industry.
The microlevel impact of tourism on the destination area immediately around it has been relatively less studied, if at all. The impacts of such a large-scale, diversely interactive activity as tourism should be more inclusive of all components. Tourists travel to and from their destinations, are accommodated, fed and entertained. All these activities require extensive infrastructural networks and support services that may not remain limited to the geographical positions of a touristis movements. Moreover, the effects result very much from the interactions among the tourists and the agents in the destination area.
Environmental impact of tourism Positive impact 1. Financial contributions. (one of the largest contributor to the exchequer) 2. Improving environmental management and planning. 3. Increasing the environmental awareness. 4. Alternate employment. Negative impact Negative impact of tourism occurs when the level of visitors’ use is greater than the environmental ability to cope with the situation within the acceptable limits of change. Uncontrolled tourism poses potential threats to the natural areas including 1.
Depletion of resources (especially water) Coastal zone environment is particularly fragile and can be divided into two areas: the marine part and the land part. For the purpose of this discussion, coastal waters, bays, backwaters, creeks, tidal inlets, and estuaries are considered as components of the marine part of the coastal zone. The sandy beaches along with two dunes (one which runs along the seashore, and another that runs parallel but about 100 to 500 meters away from the seashore) and their vegetation are considered components of the land part.
In between these dunes there lies a sandy plain, which acts as a buffer zone between the main land and the sea. The following impacts on the marine part of the coastal zone have been observed while surveying the ecosensitive coastal areas of Goa. They have been represented in a flowchart in the Annex. The work was carried out by National Institute of Oceanography on request from the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, in August/September, 1996 . Loss of mangroves: Thick mangroves on the outskirts of Panaji, at Sao Pedro near Old Goa, around Talpona backwaters and at innumerable other locations are being reclaimed. In addition to the biological impacts of the loss of mangroves, the tidal waters could flood the surrounding coastal areas causing erosion and thus opening the estuarine banks to storm surges .• Reduced fish catch and species: A steady decrease in the total annual fish catch has been observed in Goa. The catch has declined from 105. 44 thousand tones in 1993-94 to 101. 90 in 1994-95 and in 1995-96, to 87. 2 thousand tones. More specifically, at Sancoale-Chicalim Bay, the decrease in production of certain varieties of shellfish and crabs, both local delicacies, is believed to be due to the land reclamation of mangrove swamps and to the construction of roads to the Sao Jacinto Island and at Talpona. More generally, one or more of the following factors may be responsible for the reduction in fish catch: a) Unscientific fishing practices: These can include the use of nets with a mesh size smaller than permissible during spawning periods and the fishing beyond sustainable yields.
These practices are pursued due to high demand for fresh seafood in the market. b) Loss of spawning grounds: Reasons for this could be mangrove deforestation, land reclamations and siltation. Short-term economic gains from the development of these areas is obviously preferred over the long-term benefits of the conservation of ecology. c) Introduction of anthropogenic material: Any disturbance at any step in the marine food web may inadvertently affect other species. The introduction of untreated sewage and waste to the environment would give rise to toxic algal blooms wiping out many species22.
Increased turbidity and sedimentation can also affect the benthic communities. • Erosion: Dispersion of sediment load at any given point depends upon a number of parameters related to marine currents. Any activity which causes disturbances in these parameters, could alter the sites of deposition and result in erosion, accretion or siltation and changes in the ecology of that area, such as land reclamations, the extraction of sand or the construction of jetties . Consequently, there are a large number of cases where coastal stretches have been subjected to the forces of erosion.
Prime examples are Campal and Caranzalem near Panaji, Palolem, Agonda and many other places, where a considerable amount of construction activities have occurred . 2. Pressure on land and resources (to set up hotels and other facilities) Loss of sand dunes: Sand dunes have borne the brunt of construction activities along the coastal stretches of Goa26. Anjuna and Baga-Calangute-Candolim stretches in North Goa, and Salcete beaches comprising Betalbatim, Colva, Varca, Cavelossim and Mobor in central Goa, were the first beaches to lose their dunes.
Our survey showed South Goa to be the next in line as in Galgibaga, two dunes, 10 meters high, have already been flattened into plateaus at half the heights to make way for construction. 3. Land degradation (due to nature trails and other facilities to the tourists) • Accretion/siltation: Accretion and siltation is occurring. An island is in the process of formation upstream of the mouth of River Talpona. Due to sand bar formation at the mouth itself, which has been more pronounced in the last few years, the river is navigable only during high tides. In addition, local fishermen have noted siltation in the river bed.
All these observations suggest disturbances in the natural sediment load dispersion patterns in the River Talpona. 4. Pollution ( air, water, noise) • Sanitation: Goa lacks modern treatment and disposal systems for both sewage and garbage. Even the internationally famous beach stretch of Baga-CalanguteSinquerim, does not have rudimentary toilet facilities. Tourists, locals, shopowners and the hordes of migrant laborers, who are employed by construction companies along the beaches, have no other option than to use the beaches to answer the call of the nature. Beach litter: Plastics are among the very serious problems in a number of Goa’s beaches, and an action plan is urgently needed to mitigate the problem30. Both the last mentioned problems could be solved through improved enforcement of regulations and infrastructual improvements. Goa’s unbridled tourism is having an adverse impact on the state’s environment and society, says a study sponsored by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). Undertaken by the Goa Institute of Management here, the study says the large-scale growth of tourism is leading to increased pressure ‘on both society and the environment’. Preserving the national heritage and reducing environmental degradation have become crucial issues for concern. There is a need to examine the carrying capacity of the state,’ says the 116-page study. The research analyses Goa’s agriculture, mining, growing pharma sector, small and medium enterprise (SME) sector and controversial plans for promoting special economic zones (SEZs). It notes that Goa’s economy is ‘confronted’ by a solid waste management problem and that it desperately needs an efficient public transport system. ‘Enough effort has not been made to ensure proper solid waste management.
Again, absence of efficient public transport has increased the growth of motorbikes and cars substantially. This in turn has aggravated environmental pollution. ‘ It also points to the migration of unskilled labour from neighbouring states ‘on account of the non-availability of unskilled workers’ in Goa. Other issues it emphasizes include disputes over land use between small entrepreneurs and large corporates, dependence on other states for agricultural produce consumed in Goa, failure to ensure uninterrupted power and the need for improving the quality and quantity of water supply.
The research says that a ‘strong positive co-relation’ does not seem to exist between tourism growth and employment of locals, especially in the hotel industry. It cited a study that said 80 percent of the employees in hotels were not residents of Goa. ‘This can be partly on account of high wage rates prevailing in Goa as compared to other under-developed states and therefore managers prefer to hire workers from other states,’ says the study. It highlights that private transport in Goa is highly expensive ‘in the absence of adequate public transport’ and taxi operators were working in ‘monopoly power’. Growth of tourism might have also adversely affected the poor and downtrodden, especially during peak season when prices usually go up. A proper assessment needs to be done,’ the study states. It blames the tourism sector for becoming a ‘breeding ground of touts and commission agents’, which hikes up hotel tariffs and transport costs. There is also an absence of a proper regulatory mechanism to check the price rise. ‘Wide disparity in prices charged during the peak and off-peak season for various services and between the private and public authority needs to be examined.
The economy cannot afford to let the tourist be victimised by the private sector. ‘ Economic aspects The foreign exchange earning potential of the tourism industry is one of the main attractions for its support by national governments, while state governments are more concerned with its contribution to local income, taxes and employment. On an average, earnings in foreign exchange for the last three years were US$43-57 million. It is estimated that tourism contributes to around 13. 7 percent of Net State Domestic Product; 7 percent of employment and 7 percent to state tax revenues.
The money spent by domestic and international tourists is received by different segments of the industry which provide the supporting goods and services. Tourist receipts can be classified into five categories: accommodation and food, shopping, internal travel, entertainment and miscellaneous items. Moreover, in 1992, about 90 percent of the domestic tourists who came to Goa spent less than US$35 per capita per day. Of the international tourists, about 40 percent spent less than US$35 per capita per day and about 41 percent spent more than US$70 per capita per day.
As mentioned earlier, however, this trend is changing today . In the last few years indications are that the domestic tourist coming to Goa is increasingly from the more affluent segments of society, and the international tourist have increasingly been more of the inexpensive charter packages. Category| International tourist (%)| Domestic tourist (%)| Accommodation and food| 53. 95| 58. 20| Shopping| 24. 84| 26. 70| Internal Transport| 13. 63| 10. 40| Entertainment| 2. 61| 1. 80| Miscellaneous expenses| 4. 97| 2. 90| Average length of stay| 9 days| 5 days| Total amount spent per visit| US$590| US$110|
From the statistics available and through observation, local participation in the tourism industry is high in terms of the number of small hotels and paying guest accommodations, yet the bulk of economic investment is concentrated in just a few hotels. Thus, using just the accommodation sector as a proxy for the tourism industry as a whole in 1996, almost half of all investment in the sector was in the hands of just four large hotels; the largest hotels together controlled 69 percent of all investment, and the balance was made up by smaller hotels. Economic forces are driving social forces here.
On the one hand, expectations of higher returns, from the sale of land to builders and/or from hiring out houses to tourists rather than from actively engaging in agriculture or fishing are creating incentives for shifting occupations. On the other hand, social forces are at work in the sense that tourism provides locals with an opportunity to keep their women at home rather than have them till the soil or sell fish in the market. This is perceived as a movement upwards for the locals, and a factor that cannot be ignored in the dynamics of the intersectoral movement of land and labor.
Often large tourism development projects require the displacement of some of the original inhabitants of the area. Some of those displaced by present projects, chose to invest their compensations in capital assets, e. g. , taxis, and have become to a degree upwardly mobile in an economic sense. However, there are others who due to their initial circumstances are unable to move along the same path, and instead become marginalized, having to replace self-employment for menial jobs in the very resorts that have displaced them. The issue of income distribution needs to be examined.
The industry peaks and troughs: October-February being the good months and June-August being the lean months due to the monsoon. This seasonality requires the tourism industry to respond by adjusting the output in terms of the services it provides which affects hotels, restaurants and their employees. Because of the search and initial training costs that the employer faces, and because of the need to cater to sudden spurts of demand, a hiring and firing policy is not cost-effective to an employer. The first reaction of employers is to keep labor, but reduce the work hours, a situation akin to holding inventories of labor in excess of demand.
This strategy is supported by employing unskilled labor during the peak season, who are then laid off during the off season as the costs of hiring and firing unskilled labor are not high. A sample survey indicates that the highest seasonality of income (in terms of lower off season earnings) and the highest seasonality of employment (in terms of hours worked per week) are experienced by the smaller hotels. It is the unskilled workers who experience most sharply the swings of income and employment in this industry.
This is a social cost of the industry to which hitherto scant attention has been paid. Impact of falling value of Rupee on tourism. Though the rupee falling against the dollar is causing great concern to the country’s economists, it is being seen as a silver lining by tourism experts in Goa who expect more influx of European tourists during the forthcoming season. The tourist season in Goa this time, beginning from October, is expected to be better as “the value of rupee is falling,” Travel and Tourism Association of Goa (TTAG) president Fracisco de Braganca said. Europeans find Goa a cheaper destination and naturally they will fly here,” he said, adding that, however, the situation is not same for the UK travellers, whose own economy is in crisis. The state expects rise in the tourists from Russia, CIS countries, Poland, Scandinavia and Finland though “there will be further drop from UK,” Braganca said here yesterday. But, overall TTAG expects a rise in the number of tourists owing to the sluggish rupee versus dollar. Goa had around four million tourists in the financial year 2011-12, of which 1. 69 lakh arrived in 910 chartered flights.
In 2010-11, 1. 71 lakh had arrived through 900 chartered flights, which was a tremendous increase compared to 1. 37 lakh tourists arriving in the state through 626 chartered flights in 2009-10. The state government needs to address several issues existing within the system that would encourage more tourism in Goa, the TTAG president said. “There should be consistency in policies of the state government; they change as per the government,” Braganca said. Consistency can be achieved by formation of Tourism Board, which is long overdue in the state, he stated. Eco-tourism
Ecotourism (also known as ecological tourism) is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strives to be low impact and (often) small scale. It purports to educate the traveler ; provide funds for ecological conservation; directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and foster respect for different cultures and for human rights. Ecotourism is held as important by those who participate in it so that future generations may experience aspects of the environment relatively untouched by human intervention.
Most serious studies of ecotourism including several university programs now use this as the working definition. Although increase in tourism and related activities have enhanced employment related opportunities, coastal developmental activities have induced notable environmental and social problems. The impact gets worsen as a result of related anthropogenic activities that follows such a coastal tourism as a result Goa’s coastal scenario is fast changing. Construction of resorts, residential dwellings, commercial establishments, beach side entertainment centres / eat outs have changed the coastal strip drastically.
Prior to 1970’s, before tourism became a source of revenue, the only identifiable structures along the shore were few cabins and thatched huts made up of coconut leaves that home sea going canoes, some of which can still be seen today. The large plain areas behind the dune belts were used for farming and paddy cultivation, activities which are common at certain places even at present. Recreation was restricted to Calangute, Miramar and Colva beaches, being the only beaches which were most frequent (Mascarhenas, 1998).
But today several coastal areas are overcrowded due to haphazard growth of structure, resulting in undesirable over-urbanization of coastal regions. Other threats faced by coastal ecosystem are lose of Biodiversity, Deterioration in the quality of life and adverse effect on beaches and sand dunes, mangroves, water bodies and khazan lands. Lately, In recent years and after realizing the environmental consequences, such developmental activities along the open sea front is now shifting towards hinterlands, along rivers and backwaters as well as forest land in the form of eco-tourism. -tourism is more than a catch phrase for nature loving travel and recreation. Eco-tourism is consecrated for preserving and sustaining the diversity of the world’s natural and cultural environments. It accommodates and entertains visitors in a way that is minimally intrusive or destructive to the environment and sustains ; supports the native cultures in the locations it is operating in. Responsibility of both travellers and service providers is the genuine meaning for eco-tourism.
Eco-tourism also endeavours to encourage and support the diversity of local economies for which the tourism-related income is important. With support from tourists, local services and producers can compete with larger, foreign companies and local families can support themselves. Besides all these, the revenue produced from tourism helps and encourages governments to fund conservation projects and training programs. Saving the environment around you and preserving the natural luxuries and forest life, that’s what eco-tourism is all about.
Whether it’s about a nature camp or organizing trekking trips towards the unspoilt and inaccessible regions, one should always keep in mind not to create any mishap or disturbance in the life cycle of nature. Eco-tourism focuses on local cultures, wilderness adventures, volunteering, personal growth and learning new ways to live on our vulnerable planet. It is typically defined as travel to destinations where the flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions.
Responsible Eco-tourism includes programs that minimize the adverse effects of traditional tourism on the natural environment, and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, initiatives by hospitality providers to promote recycling, energy efficiency, water reuse, and the creation of economic opportunities for local communities are an integral part of Eco-tourism. Historical, biological and cultural conservation, preservation, sustainable development etc. are some of the fields closely related to Eco-Tourism.
Many professionals have been involved in formulating and developing eco-tourism policies. They come from the fields of Geographic Information Systems, Wildlife Management, Wildlife Photography, Marine Biology and Oceanography, National and State Park Management, Environmental Sciences, Women in Development, Historians and Archaeologists, etc. Eco-tourism is considered the fastest growing market in the tourism industry, according to the World Tourism Organization with an annual growth rate of 5% worldwide and representing 6% of the world gross domestic product, 11. % of all consumer spending – not a market to be taken lightly. The endless scope of adventure tourism in India is largely because of its diverse topography and climate. On land and water, under water and in the air, you can enjoy whatsoever form of adventure in India you want. It is one opportunity for you to leave all inhibitions behind and just let yourself go. The mountainous regions offer umpteen scope for mountaineering, rock climbing, trekking, skiing, skating, mount biking and safaris while the rushing river from these mountains are just perfect for river rafting, canoeing and kayaking.
The oceans are not behind in any manner as well. The vast and deep expanse of water provide tremendous opportunity for adventure sports in form of diving and snorkelling. The forest and the desert region have their own distinct place in providing scope for adventure tourism in India. You can enjoy animal safari, jeep safari, bird watching, wild camp, wildlife safari and jungle trail in the forest region while jeep safari and camel safari are the most favoured adventure sports in the desert region. After all this, if you think the list of adventure sports in India has ended, think again.
There is still much left in form of paragliding, hand gliding, hot air ballooning, etc. Sustainable tourism Sustainability is a characteristic of a process or state that can be maintained at a certain level indefinitely. Thus it is a process that takes care of “tomorrow” as well as “today”, conserving resources where necessary to ensure continuity. Sustainable tourism thus attempts to make minimal impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate income and employment for locals, as well as to promote the conservation of local ecosystems. It is responsible tourism which is both ecologically and culturally sensitive.
As tourism grows at a high rate, it tends to place a great stress on the diverse habitats and these will be destroyed. Indiscriminate tourism could very easily destroy, or at least irretrievably damage, the flora and the fauna of the state. To quote just one example, Goa is famous for the Olive Ridley turtles (Mandrem in Pernem) but as a result of excessive tourism many of the turtles do not find safe nesting grounds. The very promotion of “eco holiday ” in the area by the hoteliers are defeating the purpose as littering the beach and overcrowding do not allow the turtles to hatch safely.
Sustainable tourism is especially important for a small state like Goa since the influx of both Indian and foreign tourists is increasing very year. Goa being a tiny state, the carrying capacity of the state in terms of the size, facilities available and the ecological fragility should be thoroughly studied and taken into consideration while allowing tourism; only then would such tourism be beneficial, in the long run, for the state and the people. The stake holders in sustainable tourism i. e.
Community-based management, nongovernmental organizations, tourists and locals all should be trained to see that the fragile Goan ecosystem does not suffer as a result of excessive tourism. Tourists, who promote sustainable tourism are aware of these dangers and seek to protect tourist destinations, and to protect tourism as an industry. Some of the suggestions that I would like to give to improve the tourism industry and make it more sustainable include: 1. Diversifying the areas of tourism: the tourism industry in Goa has mainly concentrated on beach tourism and neglected other forms of tourism to a large extent.
My suggestion is that Goa should diversify into other areas , like farm and yoga tourism which have the potential for future growth and development 2. Training the guides and the local people : The local people should be trained in hospitality services and the guides should be trained to provide the necessary and the correct information to the tourist 3. Maintain the control on the prices of goods and the quality of services: the prices of the goods and services in Goa are very high, and hence many tourists are discouraged from shopping and buying local items.
The local people too, find the cost of living very high and very often the local people cannot afford to purchase their daily requirements. The government should keep a control on the prices of the products so that the local people and the tourist do not suffer 4. Improving the infrastructure especially the transport: for tourism, transport is very important and in Goa we have variety of transport facilities . Motorcycle pilots are a unique feature of Goa where a person can travel any distance on a hired bike.
Besides we also have many tourist taxis and other buses, but the rates charged for a small distance are exorbitant. Most of the rickshaws and taxies do not charge by meter. The public transport facility should be strengthened so that the tourists can visit the place of their choice at a very cheap rate. 5. Improving the safety especially of women. Today many tourist women are facing many problems from the local people, especially as they do not maintain the hours and come back to the hotel or guest houses late at night. Many of the foreign women have faced molestation and other problems in Goa . Maintaining a control on the beaches. The beaches in Goa are very dangerous for swimming due to the changes in tides. Even after the posting of lifeguards and many warning signs, foreign and other tourists go swimming, especially when they are drunk and the number of the dead by drowning has increased tremendously. The government and the local people should undertake steps to educate the tourists about the dangers of swimming in the seas. Trained lifeguards should be placed at all the major beaches, with life boats and life belts.