GLY1102 Topic 27, GLY1102 Topic 28, GLY1102 Topic 29

False
Although some fossilized dinosaur organs have been recovered, none of these is of a heart.
True
Bacterial infection from bites and scratches may have been lethal to dinosaurs.
True
Three-dimensional vision occurs because each eye sees an object at a slightly different angle, therefore, projecting a slightly different image on the retina.
True
In rare cases, internal organs may be represented as fossil molds or casts, even more rarely they are mineralized.
True
Allosaurus and Carcharadontosaurus had binocular fields of vision half as wide and more similar to modern alligators. These dinosaurs may have ben ambush predators.
True
Dinosaurs developed tumors, had arthritis, and suffered from diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
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True
The blood pressure required to pump blood from the heart to the head is a function of the distance and elevation of the head form the heart.
Scipionyx
A hatchling of this dinosaur was found in Italy with fossilized traces of muscles, large intestines, windpipe, and a liver spot.
True
Binocular vision occurs where the two monocular fields of view overlap and it is within the binocular range that an animal experiences depth perception.
True
All animals have different monocular and binocular ranges of vision.
False
Active predators tend to have a narrower range of depth perception than scavengers or ambush predators.
False
Animals with a wide range of depth perception are more often ambush predators, lying in wait until their prey comes close and within their range of depth perception.
True
A mature Brachiosaurus may have held its head 43 feet (13m) above the ground, more than twice the height of a giraffe.
True
An infection of the toe on the right food of “Big Al” the Allosaurus contributed to his death.
True
The crest of a lambeosaurines is hollow with a complex series of tubes inside, connecting to the nose and throats.
True
Psittacosaurus is the basal member of the ceratopsian clade and the only member of the Psittacosauridae.
True
Protoceratops bears the distinction of being one of the first dinosaurs for which specimens were found of a range ages, probably of each sex.
False
Ceratopsians do not display sexual dimorphism.
False
Triceratops was the smallest of all ceratopsians.
True
Pentaceratops has five significant horns—two horns are forward pointing over the orbits, another a nasal horn, and two protruding cheekbone horns.
True
Centrosaurus has two large frill openings (pariental fenestra) with a parietal strut dividing them.
False
The Ceratopsidae are all large, habitually bipedal, with very large skulls, large nostrils, very prominent frills, and a variety of horns.
True
As is the case with the Psittacosauridae, the Protoceratopsidae have no nasal or post-orbital horns, just a thickened bump in front of the orbit.
True
Ceratopsians were very social animals, some traveling in large groups or herds of 1000 or more individuals.
False
The Neoceatopsia were obligate bipedals.
True
Ceratopsians became very abundant in the Late Cretaceous, especially in North America.
False
All ceratopsians had horns on their skull.
True
Ceratopsians are ornithischian dinosaurs and are closely related to ornithopods, both being plant-eating ornithischians.
False
Protoceratops has no horns (nasal or post-orbital) and the nostrils are much larger than the Ceratopsidae.
True
The frill is a shelf of bone projecting from the back of the skull.
True
The Neoceratopsia is comprised of two families, the smaller Protoceratopsidae and the Ceratopsidae.
Marginocephalia
A bony shelf on the back of the skull unites this group called the ______.
Epoccipitals
The margins of some ceratopsian frills had extra bones called ______.
True
The Ceratopsia (“horned faces”) includes a relatively large group of some 20 genera, mostly from upper cretaceous of North America.
True
Pachyrhinosaurus is a memorable ceratopsian of about 6m in length, with a short beak, and a low face with masses of very roughened bone that extend the length of the snout from the nose to eyes.
True
Whereas Psittacosaurus has only a small rudimentary frill, the Protoceratopsidae display a much larger bony frill that extended back over the neck.
False
All ceratopsians had a relatively large frill.
True
Chasmosaurus has two very large openings (parietal fenestra) in the frill.
False
While the Protoceratopsidae were bipedal, the Psittacosaurus were clearly an obligate quadrupedal.
False
Centrosaurus has six long, bony spikes sticking out fanwise from the back of its frill.
Pachycephalosaurus
The thickened skull of ____ has led to speculation that males clashed heads with one another in competition for females during breeding season.
North America and Asia
Most Pachycephalosaurs lived during the Late Cretaceous in ____
False
The Homalocephalidae were the largest pachycephalosaurs
True
Pachycephalosaurs were all bipedal
Quadrapedal
Which of the following pachycephalosaur characteristics is false?
Early Cretaceous
Pachycephalosaurs first evolved during the _____.
Thick-headed
The name “Pachycephalosauria” means ____.
True
All known pachycephalsaurs are from the Northern Hemisphere.
False
Pachycephalosauridae have a flat skull roof.
False
Running, Stegoceras would have had its back almost perpendicular with the ground requiring the tail to act as a counterbalance.
False
The Homalocephalidae family is more diverse than the Pachycephalosauridae.
Skull roof characteristics
The Pachycephalosauria are divided into two families based upon their ____.
True
Pachycephalosaurs were all herbivores.
True
Unlike Stegoceras, Pachycephalosaurus has very prominent bony spikes projecting from the snout.
True
Homalocephale from Mongolia had a relatively flat skull roof.