Occurred circa 12,000 years ago. People first began to realize that they can just settle and build civilizations, and obtain their food from farming.
River Valley Civilization
At the beginning of the Neolithic Revolutions, towns were created near rivers, as a source of water for their crops.
This event occurred from 1845-1852, and happened because of food shortage. Over a million people died in Ireland, and another million people emigrated to different countries because of this event.
The movement of the Bantu peoples southward throughout Africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 B.C. to around A.D 1000.
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
Gold and salt made up trade and wealth in the African kingdoms because the Europeans wanted gold, and the Africans needed salt
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages.
the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
Basic rules of Islam. 1. Profession of faith 2. Pray five times a day 3. Give alms (give money) 4. Ramadan fast 5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person’s occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Four Noble Truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirture. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries that fought for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the ‘protesters’ forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
An era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
Existed from 27 BCE to about 400 CE. Conquered entire Mediterranean coast and most of Europe. Ruled by an emperor. Eventually oversaw the rise and spread of Christianity.
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Golden Age of China
Tang Dynasty; 618-907 CE: Flourished due to invention of printing, trade routes (silk road), acceptance of all beliefs & cultures, & written records of everything
Historians’ name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from ‘Byzantion,’ an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. (250)
Golden Age of Islam
A time during the Abbasid Dynasty (with a capital in Baghdad) when the arts and intellectualism were flourishing. Astronomy, surgery, etc. were all having inventions in their fields, and Baghdad was a center of intellectualism.
Powerful Indian state based, like its Maryann predecessor, in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture.
Ancient civilization (1200-1500AD) that was located in the Andes in Peru
The “feudal” period of Japanese history, dominated by the powerful regional families (daimyo) and the military rule of warlords (shogun), stretched from the 12th through the 19th centuries. The Emperor remained but was mostly kept as a figurehead ruling position.
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
the expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
This was the style of capitalism in which the government had no interference with the economy
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation’s wealth by government regulation of all of the nation’s commercial interests
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
This document, signed by King John of England in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a “social contract” in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon’s overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
1803 – Led a slave rebellion which took control of Haiti, the most important island of France’s Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to feel that New World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the U.S.
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.
Jose de San Martin
Leader of independence movement in Rio de la Plata; led to independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movement in Chile and Peru as well.
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.