Sir Henry Bessemer
Patented a new process for making high-quality steel efficiently and cheaply known as the Bessemer Process
New Products of Industrial Prosperity
1) lighter, stronger steel contributed to new buildings and machines and engines
2) Electricity as a new form of energy – heat, light and motion
4) Radio Waves that could cross the Atlantic
5) Streetcars and subways 1880s
6) Steam and hydro power
7) combustion engine
United States – created the light bulb. Formed the Edison Electric Company in NYC.
Great Britain – created a light bulb
Alexander Graham bell
Invented the first Telephone in 1876
Sent first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901
Orville and Wilbur Wright
Made the first fixed wing plane at Kitty Hawk, NC in 1903.
Wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848 with Friedrich Engels because they were appalled at the horrible conditions in the factories and they blamed industrial capitalism.
that all of world history was a series of class struggles. The oppressor (those in control of land, raw materials, money etc.) were in constant opposition to the oppressed (those who had nothing)
the middle class – the oppressers
the working class = the oppressed
a government in which a person or small group has absolute power
Marx wanted to create
A classless society that abolished economic differences and social classes
Social Democratic Party (SPD)
Emerged in Germany in 1875 – a socialist party formed by working class leaders based upon Marx’s ideas. Wanted to improve conditions and and pass laws to help the working class. Advocated revolution. Not very successful
A merging of socialist parties across Europe. 1889
Wanted violent revolution
rejected revolution and wanted mass political parties to work together to seek reforms.
Worked for evolutionary (not revolutionary) change. got workers to unify so that wages and hours could be negotiated for the whole group.
an important tool of the union movement. A union call for workers to stop work in order to pressure employers to meet demands for higher wages or improved factory conditions.
Growing Urban Populations
1) no jobs in the country meant more and more people moved to urban areas to get jobs in factories
2) City populations increase quickly and by large numbers
Between 1800 and 1900, London grew from 960,000 to 6,500,000
Health and Sanitation
City growth required improved health and sanitation toward the second half of the 19th century so more people could live close together and survive.
1) created boards of health to improve housing quality
2) City medical officers and building inspectors were authorized to inspect dwellings for publich safety hazards
3) Building regulations required running water and internal drainage systems for new buildings
4) Need for fresh water led to sewage systems, dams and reservoirs, aqueducts and tunnels to keep water fresh and move soiled water away.
A deadly desease caused by filthy living conditions and dirty water
the Wealthy Elite
Only 5% of the population were wealthy and controlled 30 to 40% of the wealth. Industrialists, banker, merchants, joined the landed aristocracy.
Diverse Middle Classes
Upper middle class included lawyers, doctors, architects, engineers, accountants, chemists.
Comfortable middle class/lower middle class – shopkeepers, traders and prosperous farmers
White Collar Workers
sales people, bookkeepers, operators, secretaries
Middle Classes Believed in Hard Work
Especially evident in Victorian Britain
Women in the early 19th Century
remained inferior and were dependent on men. Married women had no legal identity apart from their husbands. They could not own property or write a will.
Changes for Women
Women began to change their status during the Second Industrial Revolution creating new jobs for women
1) There were not enough men to fill, low-paid, white collar jobs so women were hired – clerks, sales clerks, secretaries, typists
2) Expanstion of government created more jobs for telephone operators, secretaries, education and social services.
The Marriage Ideal – Middle Class
In the 19th Century as earning potential grew, the man was viewed as the wage earner outside the home. Women would care for the family. However, as eocnomic conditions improved women gave birth to fewer children aided by increase in education and the introduction of birth control.
The Family Ideal – Middle Class
Family was the center of middle class life. With fewer children and better living conditions there was more time for child care and domestic leisure.
Working women were able to contribute to the economic survival of the family.
Working Class Childhood in the 1900’s
Child care was provided by older siblings and relatives for working parents.
Daughters worked until they got married.
Childhood in a working class was over between 9 and 10 as children began to get odd jobs to help the family income.
Working Class Early 20th Century
As wages improved, more and more working class families could afford to live with only one wage earner.
Wives could stay home and care for children.
Children could stay in school.
Working class families could afford consumer products such as sewing machines, stoves etc,
the movement for women’s rights.
Beginnings of Feminism
Began with the fight for women to own property.
German nursing pioneer who founded the Female Association for the Care of the Poor and Sick
British nurse famous for her work in the Crimean War (1853 – 1856)
Nurse in the US Civil War. Helped transform nursing into a profession of trained, middle class, “women in white.”
1840’s and 1850’s – The women’s fight for the right to vote – since voting could improve women’s overall position in society. This right was not granted until after the upheaval of WWI
Founded the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903.
Western nations made a commitment to public education because:
1) Industrialization required more skilled workers (who could read, add etc) to fill factory jobs
2) Political – voters needed to be educated to understand national issues
3) Nationlism – a way to instill patriotism
The ability to read
Signs of Political Democracy in Western Europe
1) Universal male sufferage laws were passed (all males could vote)
2) Prime Minister was responsible to a legislative body and not a king
3) Mass political parties formed
Prime Minister was responsible to a legislative body and not a king