Geology Study Guide

What are the 2 types of IGNEOUS rocks?
Intrusive & Extrusive
What forces form METAMORPHIC rocks?
Heat & Pressure
What are the 2 types of Metamorphic rocks?
Foliated & Non-Foliated
What type of metamorphism forms
What type of metamorphism forms “FOLIATED” rocks?
Regional Metamorphism
What type of metamorphism forms
What type of metamorphism forms “NON-FOLIATED” rocks?
Contact Metamorphism
Are the crystals in an INTRUSIVE igneous rock large or small?
Are the crystals in an INTRUSIVE igneous rock large or small?
Intrusive rocks have LARGE crystals
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Are the crystals in an EXTRUSIVE igneous rock large or small?
Are the crystals in an EXTRUSIVE igneous rock large or small?
Extrusive rocks have SMALL crystals
What are the 3 types of SEDIMENTARY rocks?
Clastic, Chemical and Organic
What are Clastic Sedimentary Rocks?
What are Clastic Sedimentary Rocks?
forms from pieces of other rock (EX: Sandstone, Conglomerate)
What are Organic Sedimentary Rocks?
What are Organic Sedimentary Rocks?
forms from fossils of plants/animals (EX: Coquina, Coal)
What are Chemical Sedimentary Rocks?
What are Chemical Sedimentary Rocks?
forms from chemical precipitate (EX: rock salt)
What forces form IGNEOUS rocks?
“melting & cooling” of other rocks
What was the first kind of rock on Earth?
Igneous Rocks
Why do INTRUSIVE igneous rocks have LARGE CRYSTALS?
Why do INTRUSIVE igneous rocks have LARGE CRYSTALS?
Because they cool slowly, so there is time for large crystals to go.
What is an example of an INTRUSIVE igneous rock?
What is an example of an INTRUSIVE igneous rock?
Granite
What is an example of an EXTRUSIVE igneous rock?
What is an example of an EXTRUSIVE igneous rock?
Pumice
What is an example of a FOLIATED metamorphic rock?
What is an example of a FOLIATED metamorphic rock?
Slate
What is an example of a NON-FOLATED metamorphic rock?
What is an example of a NON-FOLATED metamorphic rock?
Quartzite
What is an example of a CLASTIC sedimentary rock?
What is an example of a CLASTIC sedimentary rock?
Sandstone
What is an example of an ORGANIC sedimentary rock?
What is an example of an ORGANIC sedimentary rock?
Coquina
What tool is required for a
What tool is required for a “FRACTURE/CLEAVAGE” test?
Hammer
What tool is required for a
What tool is required for a “STREAK” test?
Streak Plate
What are the characteristics of all minerals?
Naturally-occurring, inorganic, solid, definite crystalline structure, same chemical formula throughout
What are some “properties” of minerals? (ways to tell them apart)
Hardness, Streak, Color, Fracture/Cleavage, Luster
What is “hardness”?
a mineral’s resistance to scratching
What is “streak”?
a mineral’s color in powdered form
What is cleavage/fracture?
the way a mineral breaks (smooth planes=cleavage, jagged edges=fracture)
What is the least reliable mineral property?
color
What does the mineral
What does the mineral “Calcite” look like?
What is
What is “luster”?
the way a mineral reflects light (metallic luster looks like metal, non-metallic luster is broken into “earthy” and “dull”)
What does the mineral
What does the mineral “Galena” look like?
What does the mineral
What does the mineral “Mica” look like?
What does the mineral
What does the mineral “Graphite” look like?
What are the 3 types of plate boundaries?
What are the 3 types of plate boundaries?
Convergent, Divergent, and Transform
What features do continental-continental CONVERGENT plate boundaries form?
What features do continental-continental CONVERGENT plate boundaries form?
mountains & earthquakes (EX: Himalyas)
What features do continental-oceanic CONVERGENT plate boundaries form?
What features do continental-oceanic CONVERGENT plate boundaries form?
trenches & subduction zones, earthquakes & volcanoes (EX: Andes Mountains)
What features do oceanic-oceanic CONVERGENT plate boundaries form?
What features do oceanic-oceanic CONVERGENT plate boundaries form?
deep trenches (EX: Marianas) & island arc systems (EX: Aleutian Islands), has earthquakes and volcanoes
What type of fault is found at CONVERGENT plate boundaries?
What type of fault is found at CONVERGENT plate boundaries?
What force causes a CONVERGENT plate boundary to form?
What force causes a CONVERGENT plate boundary to form?
COMPRESSION
What force causes a DIVERGENT plate boundary to form?
What force causes a DIVERGENT plate boundary to form?
TENSION
What type of fault is found at DIVERGENT plate boundaries?
What type of fault is found at DIVERGENT plate boundaries?
What features are found at a continental-continental DIVERGENT plate boundary?
What features are found at a continental-continental DIVERGENT plate boundary?
rifts, shallow earthquakes
What features are found at a oceanic-oceanic DIVERGENT plate boundary?
What features are found at a oceanic-oceanic DIVERGENT plate boundary?
mid-ocean ridges, shallow earthquakes & volcanoes (EX: Mid-Atlantic Ocean)
What features are found at TRANSFORM plate boundaries?
What features are found at TRANSFORM plate boundaries?
lots of earthquakes—NO volcanoes (EX: San Andreas Fault Boundary, California)
What force causes TRANSFORM plate boundaries?
What force causes TRANSFORM plate boundaries?
Torsion/Twisting
What fault is most likely to form at a TRANSFORM plate boundary?
What fault is most likely to form at a TRANSFORM plate boundary?
Strike-Slip Fault
What scale is used to measure Earthquakes?
What scale is used to measure Earthquakes?
Richter Scale
What instrument is used to measure Earthquakes?
What instrument is used to measure Earthquakes?
Seismograph
What causes Earthquakes?
pressure build-up & release
What are
What are “P-Waves”?
can travel through both solids & liquids, moves by a pushing/pulsing motion, arrives “1st” (primary waves)
What are
What are “S-Waves”?
ONLY travels through solids, moves by a shearing motion (up & down) and causes the most damage, arrives “second”
What is the
What is the “Shadow Zone”?
Area of earth opposite from an earthquake where S-Waves cannot reach
How do scientists know what the interior of Earth looks like?
How do scientists know what the interior of Earth looks like?
Scientists use data from Earthquake waves as clues–like the Mystery Box
What is the
What is the “epicenter”?
the location on the surface of the Earth ABOVE the earthquake’s source
What is the
What is the “focus”?
the location UNDER earth’s surface where the earthquake actually happens
Describe the
Describe the “Inner Core”.
Solid, mostly iron, spinning. Even though it is so hot, it is solid because the pressure at the center of the Earth makes it solid
Describe the
Describe the “Outer Core”.
liquid: S-waves cannot move through them
Describe the
Describe the “Mantle”.
a liquidy-solid (plastic) where convection currents move plates
Describe the
Describe the “Crust”.
solid, thinnest part of earth, broken into oceanic (thin but dense, basalt) and continental (thick but light, granite)
What is a
What is a “trench”?
Found at subduction zones (convergent), one plate dives deep under another plate
What is a volcano?
a vent in Earth’s crust that releases steam and lava
What 3 locations are volcanoes found?
Divergent Plate Boundaries, Convergent Plate Boundaries, Hot Spots
Give an example of a
Give an example of a “Hot Spot” volcano.
Hawaii