Geology ch 1-4

The surface of Earth is notable for many geologic features including ____.
dramatic mountain, beautiful valleys, underwater trenches, and intricate coastlines
_____ is the study of the origin and arrangement of the broad structural features of Earth’s surface
the ____ of earth is notable for many geologic features such as beautiful valleys, intricate coastlines, and deep ocean trenches
tectonics is the study of ____
origin and arrangement of the broad structural features of Earth’s surface
two plates move apart relative to one another
divergent boundary
two plates move toward one another. as a result, one plate slides under the other
convergent boundary
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two plates move horizontally past one another
transform boundary
___ covers 71% of Earths surface
which tools can be use to directly measure plate motion?
satellites, lasers
when divergent boundaries occur on continents, the process is called ______ rifting
Earthquakes or volcanoes locations on a map is a better guide to plate boundaries on Earth?
Name the 5 oceans of Earth
arctic, pacific, Atlantic, indian, southern
a mountain beneath the ocean that does not reach the surface is called a ____. It may be a worn-down island or may never have been tall enough to break the water surface
which of the following statements are accurate about volcano distributions on Earth?
a large belt along the west coasts of North and South america, many along the edge of the pacific ocean are associated with earthquakes, volcanism occurs along mid-ocean ridges
when two plates come together, a ____ is formed
convergent boundary
the type of plate movement that occurs at transform faults is _____
what specific type of plate boundary is commonly found in conjunction with mid-ocean ridges, as it works to offset spreading and plate divergence?
transform boundary
broad symmetrical ridges that cross ocean basins are called _____
mid ocean ridges
earthquakes are more common along the edges of continents and ___ ridges
mid ocean
oceanic fracture zones are cracks and steps that cross the seafloor and run at right angles to ____ ridges
correct order of atlantic ocean
1) north america, south america, europe, and africa, were all part of the same supercontinent
2) the crust underneath the supercontinent was uplifted by underlying magma moving toward the surface
3) the continental crust began to stretch and a contiental rift was formed
4) the rift split the supercontinent to form a narrow ocean basin
5) the ocean basin continued to widen through seafloor spreading
intense geologic activity is concentrated at plate ____
the place where three plate boundaries meet is referred to as a ____ junction
triple junction
areas on earth the represent convergent boundaries
(two oceanic plates, an oceanic plate and a continental plate, or two continental plates)
EX: ocean trenches, island arcs, earth’s largest mountain belts
-volcanoes of the cascade range in the U.S. pacific northwest
-volcanoes of southern british columbia
-volcanoes in the Andes mountains of South America
characteristics of slab pull
subducting plates move faster than nonsubducting plates, gravity is a major force in slab pull, subducting oceanic lithospthere is denser than asthenosphere
the convergence of two continental masses is known as a ____
continental collision
which of the following are criteria that must be fulfilled for a substance to be considered a mineral?
naturally occuring, inorganic, crystalline solid
atoms arranged in a random way
rock composed of various pebbles and sand
does not have a chemically consistent composition throughout
human made diamond
not naturally occuring
human tooth
produced by organic/life processes
pharmaceutical mineral
always composed of a single chemical element, potassium
geologic mineral
usually composed of two or more chemical elements, hatite
rocks are composed of _____ and mineral are composed of _____
minerals, elements
mineral in vitamins are composed of individual chemical _____, whereas geologic minerals usually consist of two or more
geologists and other scientists who study mineral are called ________
smallest to largest:
electron, single atom of an element, mineral, atomic nucleus
electron, atomic nucleus, single atom of an element, mineral
may be used for chemical components; the element sillicon is used to create computer chips and is mostly derived from this mineral
may be used for chemical components; iron is the main ingredient in steel and is mostly mined from minerals like this
may be used for its physical properties; this mineral is used to produce brick, cement, and ceramics
may be used for its physical properties; sheetrock and plaster products are made from this mineral
cations have loaned out electrons and so have a ___ charge, whereas anions have gained electrons and so have a ___ chargre
positive, negative
what factors contribute to a water molecule having polarity?
hydrogen atoms are grouped on one side of the oxygen atom, electrons spend more time around the oxygen atom and give the molecule a negative side and two positive ends on the other side, oxygen more strongly attracts electrons than hydrogen does
silicate minerals
contain silicon-oxygen tetrahedra, include quartz feldspar mica olivine and pyroxene, and account for over 90% of the minerals in earth’s crust
nonsilicate minerals
do not contain silicon, includes the carbonates oxides sulfides sulfates and halides, and include calcite hematite pyrite gypsum and halite
which of the following is not a characteristic of rocks with classic textures?
composed of crystals with interlocking minerals
two main ways that geologic minerals are used in society
for some of their special properties, like color density and resistance to heat or abrasion and as a source of elements and compounds that we use to manufacture other products
the most common minerals in the upper part of the continental crust are _____ colored silicates. They are felsic in composition and their color is a direct result of their elemental composition