Geology 1302 Exam #1

Alfred Wegener inferred the existence of a supercontinent at an earlier time, which he named
A. Pandora
B. Pangaea
C. Panama
D. Panthalassa
Pangaea
Which of the following was not evidence for the hypothesis of continental drift?
A. Glacial Deposits of Gondwana continents
B. Fit of African and South American shorelines
C. Paleomagnetic striping of the oceanic crust
D. Fossil plant and animal distributions
Paleomagnetic striping of the oceanic crust
Most of the minerals present in Earth’s crust belong to this mineral group:
A. Carbonates
B. Halides
C. Native Elements
D. Silicates
Silicates
Mars is an example of a ____________ planet
A. Terrestrial
B. Jovian
C. Dwarf
D. Doppler
Terrestrial
The inner core is
A. Solid
B. Liquid
C. Gaseous
D. Plasmatic
Solid
Astronomers can measure the movement of galaxies by observing the shift in the wave frequency from the source to the observer. This is known as the:
A. Doppler Effect
B. Planetesimal Effect
C. Solar Nebula Effect
D. Terrestrial Shift
Doppler Effect
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Plate tectonic theory is based on the model that the Earth’s ______________ is broken in a set of plates
A. Asthenosphere
B. Crust
C. Lithosphere
D. Mantle
Lithosphere
Scientists have determined the Earth’s age to be about
A. 65 million years
B. 248 million years
C. 543 million years
D. 4.6 billion years
4.6 billion years
At a mid-ocean ridge spreading center
A. the plates are moving past each other
B. The plates are moving away from each other
C. The plates are moving toward each other
D. One plate is being subducted beneath another
The plates are moving away from each other
Ionic bonds occur when electrons
A. Are transferred between atoms
B. Are shared by atoms
C. Have a neutral charge
D. Move freely between several nuclei
Are transferred between atoms
During this process, sediments are bound together through the precipitation of minerals, such as calcium carbonate or silica:
A. Cementation
B. Compaction
C. Evaporation
D. Melting
Cementation
What type of minerals are calcite and dolomite:
A. Carbonates
B. Oxides
C. Silicates
D. Sulfates
Carbonates
For a neutrally-charged atom to become a positively-charged ion of the same element it must,
A. Lose a proton
B. Lose an electron
C. Gain a proton
D. Gain an electron
Lose an electron
The typical/average composition of continental crust is
A. Granitic
B. Peridotitic
C. Basaltic
D. Andesitic
Granitic
Among the evidence for the Big Bang origin of the universe is
A. the brightness of our Sun
B. expansion of the universe
C. Cosmic background radiation
D. B and C
B and C
What drives plate tectonics?
A. Magnetic Reversals
B. Mantle Convection
C. Solar energy
D. Volcanism
Mantle convection
The concept that identifies that the three basic groups of rocks can change into one another is called _________
A. The rock cycle
B. The igneous Cycle
C. The lithification cycle
D. The geodynamo
The rock cycle
Rocks that have been changed from previously existing rocks through heat and pressure while in the solid state are
A. Intrusive rocks
B. Metamorphic Rocks
C. Sedimentary Rocks
D. Punk Rocks
Metamorphic Rocks
The oceans are part of the Earth’s
A. Biosphere
B. Hydrosphere
C. Lithosphere
D. Atmosphere
Hydrosphere
The densest layer of the Earth is the
A. Lithosphere
B. Mantle
C. Core
D. Crust
Core
Clastic (detrital) sedimentary rocks are formed by the processes of
A. Partial melting and solidification
B. Deposition, Compaction, and Cementation
C. Mineral inflation
D. Deposition, melting, and subsequent recrystallization
Deposition, Compaction, and Cementation
The study of paleomagnetism is possible because:
A. the magnetic minerals in rocks create Earth’s magnetic field
B. Most rocks contain no magnetic minerals
C. The magnetic minerals in rocks disrupt Earth’s magnetic field
D. The magnetic minerals align with the Earth’s magnetic field during rock solidification
The magnetic minerals align with the Earth’s magnetic field during rock solidification
Isotopes of a given element have ____________
A. The same number of protons and the same atomic mass
B. The same number of protons but different atomic masses
C. Different number of protons but the same atomic mass
D. Different numbers of protons and different atomic masses
Different numbers of protons but the same atomic mass
Which of the following statements about the asthenosphere is not true?
A. It lies beneath the lithosphere
B. It is mostly composed of iron
C. It deforms in a plastic manner
D. It acts like a lubricating layer allowing plates to move
It is mostly composed of iron
Which of the following rocks belongs to the group of clastic (or detrital) sedimentary rocks?
A. Rock Salt
B. Conglomerate
C. Coal
D. Rock gypsum
Conglomerate
Continental Crust is _______________ kilometers thick whereas oceanic crust is ____________ kilometers thick.
A. 20 to 90, 5 to 10
B. 50 to 100, 200 to 400
C. 5 to 10, 20 to 90
D. 200 to 400, 50 to 100
20 to 90, 5 to 10
Which of the following concepts was developed earliest?
A. Continental Drift
B. Plate tectonics
C. Seafloor Spreading
D. All three concepts were developed at about the same time
Continental Drift
Quartz is composed of ___________.
A. Silicon and Oxygen
B. Silicon and Iron
C. Iron and Oxygen
D. Silicon and Aluminum
Silicon and Oxygen
The parallel alignment of elongated minerals in a metamorphic rock is an example of ________.
A. Bedding
B. Foliation
C. Cementation
D. Deposition
Foliation
In which of the following subsystems is the Earth’s magnetic field generated?
A. Atmosphere
B. Biosphere
C. Hydrosphere
D. Geosphere
Geosphere
Studies involving paleomagnetism documented
A. Changes in Earth’s gravitational field
B. How the inner core has evolved
C. How the mineral magnetite has varied through time
D. How Earth’s magnetic poles have varied through time
How Earth’s magnetic poles have varied through time
Which of the following igneous rocks crystallizes at the Earth’s surface?
A. Basalt
B. Gabbro
C. Granite
D. All of them
Basalt
New oceanic crust is created at ____________.
A. subduction zones
B. Deep-Sea Trenches
C. Mid-ocean ridges
D. Transform Boundaries
Mid-ocean ridges
One of the most general conclusions to be drawn from plate tectonic theory is that:
A. Earth is gradually gaining heat
B. Earth’s geography has continually changed
C. Earth is slowly expanding
D. Earth’s rotation is speeding up
Earth’s geography has continually changed
Aphanitic rocks are
A. Fine-Grained
B. Medium-Grained
C. Coarse-grained
D. Fragmental
Fine-Grained
Magnetic stripes on the seafloor are roughly ___________ the ridge axis along which they were created.
A. Parallel to and Symmetric About
B. Perpendicular to and symmetric about
C. Parallel to, but not symmetric about
D. Perpendicular to, but not symmetric about
Parallel to and symmetric about
Which of the following igneous rocks has the same chemical composition as granite?
A. Andesite
B. Basalt
C. Gabbro
D. Rhyolite
Rhyolite
Weathering and erosion near the Earth’s surface create the materials for
A. Magma
B. Metamorphic Rocks
C. Igneous Rocks
D. Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks
Which is not part of the definition of a mineral?
A. Inorganic
B. Shiny
C. Naturally Occurring
D. Solid
Shiny
Ocean crust is youngest at
A. Subduction zones
B. The edges of continents
C. The crests of mid-ocean ridges
D. Ocean trenches
The crests of mid-ocean ridges
The process by which loose sand from a beach or desert is converted into a solid rock called sandstone is an example of
A. Lava
B. Evaporite
C. Lithification
D. Metamorphism
Lithification
The East African Rift is an example of a ____________ plate boundary
A. Convergent
B. Divergent
C. Transform
D. Hotspot
Divergent
The Red Sea is an example of
A. A volcanic crater lake
B. An ocean basin between converging plates
C. An early stage of ocean basin formation
D. A lake formed in a graben
An early stage of ocean basin formation
You are hiking in a desert and you notice an area covered with white sedimentary deposits. You taste the deposits and they taste salty. This is most likely an example of
A. An evaporite
B. A metamorphic rock
C. A pyroclastic rock
D. A volcanic rock
An Evaporite
A scientific hypothesis that stands repeated testing can be elevated to a scientific _________.
A. Truth
B. Invention
C. Theory
D. Idea
Theory
Metamorphism taking place adjacent to a body of magma (a pluton) or beneath a lava flow from heat and chemically active fluids:
A. Regional Metamorphism
B. Shock Metamorphism
C. Contact Metamorphism
D. Burial Metamorphism
Contact Metamorphism
The Earth’s major layers are (from outermost to innermost) __________.
A. Inner core, Outer Core, mantle, Crust
B. Outer core, inner core, mantle, crust
C. Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
D. Crust, outer core, inner core, mantle
Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core
Our solar system, like all solar systems, evolved from:
A. A Black Hole
B. A solar nebula
C. A redshift
D. Planetesimal Collision
A solar nebula
Which of the following igneous rock categories has the highest silica content?
A. Felsic
B. Intermediate
C. Mafic
D. Ultramafic
Felsic
Intrusive igneous rocks form when magma solidifies
A. on the Earth’s surface
B. within the Earth’s crust
C. on the sea floor
D. outside of volcanoes
Within the Earth’s crust
The division of the Earth that exists below the crust, and above the core, is the
A. Innersphere
B. Lithosphere
C. Mantle
D. Convection Center
Mantle
A strong chemical bond in which electrons are shared rather than transferred or exchanged (HINT: An example is the bond in diamond):
A. Covalent Bond
B. Metallic Bond
C. Orogenic Bond
D. Ionic Bond
Covalent Bond
Saturn is an example of a _________________ planet.
A. Terrestrial
B. Jovian
C. Dwarf
D. Doppler
Jovian
Our solar system is part of the _______________ galaxy.
A. Pluto
B. Black Hole
C. Asteroid
D. Milky Way
Milky Way
The Earth’s core is probably
A. Composed of rock with high silica content
B. Hollow
C. Molten Throughout
D. Composed mostly of iron and nickel
Composed mostly of iron and nickel
Which of the following is not true of minerals? They are/have
A. crystalline
B. organic
C. naturally occurring
D. definite chemical composition
organic
Sedimentary rock formed by inorganic precipitation from evaporating water (for example, rock salt and rock gypsum):
A. Evaporite
B. Lava
C. Coal
D. Extrusive Rock
Evaporite
An explanation for some natural phenomenon that is testable and is supported by a large body of evidence (e.g., plate tectonics) is called a/an
A. Invention
B. Transgression
C. Principle
D. Theory
Theory
Which of the following igneous rock categories has the lowest silica content?
A. Felsic
B. Intermediate
C. Mafic
D. Ultramafic
Ultramafic