Geology 105 Test 3 Ole Miss

What is the trend in the U.S. of energy consumption between the mid-70s and the mid-90s?
We kept using more and more, even after the peak of the discovery
What is the ultimate source of energy in fossil fuel?
How do we classify coal types?
Based on carbon content and caloric value
Why is it likely that coal use is going to increase in the future?
Because we have such a large reserve of coal
What is the geology associated with oil and gas deposits?
What ages are connected with what type of resources?
in the early 1800’s, we used wood
in the mid 1800’s we used coal
in the 1900’s we used oil
in the mid 1900’s we used natural gas and alternative energy
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Why are methane hydrates a viable energy source?
Because they have twice the carbon of any other known natural gas, oil, and coal deposits on earth.
Is peak oil important to future oil sources?
Why do we get acid rain when we burn fossil fuels?
Because it releases nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide into the atmosphere, which then is transformed into sulfate or nitrate that combines with water vapor and then forms these acids which will form acid rain
What is nuclear fission?
The splitting of atomic nuclei by neutron bombardment
What is nuclear fusion?
The combination of nuclei of lighter elements to produce heavier ones
What is the ultimate source of geothermal activity?
The sun
Is future use of photovoltaics going to go up or down?
What is the main difference between hard and soft energy policy?
Hard: Continuing business as usual
Soft: Emphasis on energy alternatives
How is the sulfur content of coal used in its classification?
Low is less than 1 percent sulfur content
Medium is 1-3 percent sulfur content
High is more than 3 percent sulfur content
Which type of coal has the highest heat content?
What is a cap rock?
A layer of hard, impervious rock overlying and often sealing in a deposit of oil, gas, or coal
What are hydrothermal convection systems?
a geothermal basin in which a variable amount of hot water circulates
What is the difference in passive solar and active solar energy?
Passive: involve architectural design that enhances absorption of solar energy and takes advantage of the natural changes in solar energy that occur throughout the year without mechanical power
Active: Require mechanical power, like pumps, to circulate
What is biomass electrical generation?
using organic matters to produce electricity
What is cogeneration?
capture and use some of the waste heat, rather than direct release to the atmosphere
What is peak oil?
The time when half of Earth’s oil is extracted and used
What does a photovoltaic cell do?
It is a device that converts energy from light into electricity
How do engineers define soil?
solid Earth material that can be removed without blasting
What is residual soil?
Residual soils are soils that develop from their underlying parent rocks and have the same general chemistry as those rocks.
What is the zone of accumulation?
The B horizon of the soil profile
How do soils become fertile?
Applying fertilizers or mixing materials to improve soil texture
What is soil taxonomy?
Soil classification based on physical and chemical properties of the soil profile
What will make soil stick together better?
tree roots or water
What is hydraulic conductivity?
The ease of soil to allow water to move through
What will determine the shrink swell potential of soil?
The tendency to gain or lose water
Topography and drainage important as well as changes in moisture
How does urbanization influence soil erosion?
Soil may be scraped off and lost, materials may be brought in to fill a depression before construction which will effect the other soil, draining soils to remove water may cause drying out, and soils in urban areas are more susceptible to soil pollution
How do off-road vehicles cause problems for soil?
They cause soil erosion, changes in hydrology, and damage to plants and animals. It causes direct mechanical erosion and facilitate wind and water erosion of materials.
How are soil surveys useful for land-use planning?
Because the best use of land is greatly determined by its soils
Are expansive soils a problem?
They are a huge, major problem
What is weathering?
The physical and chemical breakdown of minerals and rocks and the first step in soil development
What is soil strength?
The ability of a soil to resist deformation
How does contour plowing help when we are working with natural topography?
Furrows are plowed perpendicular to the slope of the land rather than in the downslope direction, it is one of the most effective ways to reduce erosion by running water and is widely used
What is cohesion?
A measure of the ability of very small silt and clay soil particles to stick together
What is soil erodibility?
The ease with which soil materials can be removed by wind or water
Why was Eric the Red able to explore Greenland when he did?
Because it was during the medieval warming period
How has glacial ice helped us study climate change?
it contains trapped air bubbles that may be analyzed to provide information
Why are mathematical models important in studies of climate change?
because they can predict the flow of surface water and groundwater, erosion and deposition of sediment in river systems, ocean circulation, and atmospheric circulation
What is an interglacial?
a geological interval of warmer global average temperature lasting thousands of years that separates consecutive glacial periods within an ice age
How much is planet covered by glacial ice?
10 percent
What is Loess?
windblown silt
What is the greenhouse effect?
The earth is warmer than it would be if its radiation escaped into space without absorption and warming and is analogous to the trapping of heat by a greenhouse
What do the air bubbles in glacial ice tell us?
information concerning atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane concentrations when the ice formed
What was the ocean coveyor belt responsible for?
Moderating the northern Europe climate
What does the effect does a large volcanic eruption have on the atmosphere?
volcanoes hurl vast amounts of particulate matter high into the atmosphere which are then transported around Earth by strong winds. They then produce a cooling that may offset global warming.
What is the difference between climate and weather?
climate: the atmospheric conditions at a particular place or region over time periods
weather: the conditions at the certain time
How do glaciers form?
as snow accumulates over a period of years and is compressed from he weight of overlying snow, and recrystallizes as a granular ice
Did a continental ice sheet cover most of Canada once?
What are climate models?
computer programs that simulate how the climate has changed in the past and how it will change in the future
What is ocean conveyor belt?
a global-scale circulation of ocean waters characterized by strong northward movement
Did the Medieval Warming period occur during an increase of solar radiation?
What followed the Medieval Warm Period?
The Little Ice Age
What is the dominant form of anthropogenic climate forcing?
The emission of CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels