GEOL TEST3 hawkins

In 79 CE, the citizens of Pompeii in the Roman Empire were buried by pyroclastic debris derived from an eruption of
Mt Vesuvius
The smokey cloud that rises from the vent of an actively erupting volcano is composed of
fine volcaniclastic debris (ash) suspended in the air
Basaltic lavas that solidify at their surface (before ceasing to flow) fracture irregularly, producing a sharp-surfaced lava rock named
a’a’
Pahoehoe
All of the above
-forms when basaltic lava flow ceases flowing and solidifies simultaneously
-has a smoother texture than a’a’
-is easier to walk on than a’a’ is
Mafic lavas are distinguished by
low viscosity
Hawaiian-style effusive eruptions are a greater threat to property than to human life
true
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Of the three primary forms of surface volcanoes, ___________ consist of alternating layers of tephra and solidified lava
stratovolcanoes
Of the three primary forms of surface volcanoes, ___________ are sometimes referred to as “composite volcanoes.”
stratovolcanoes
All volcanic eruptions pass through the crater at the volcanic summit
false
Of the three primary forms of surface volcanoes, __________ have the most gently sloping sides, due to the low viscosity of the basaltic lava that form them
shield volcanoe
Mt. Fuji in Japan is an example of a
stratovolcanoe
The Hawaiian island chain is an example of a(n)
hot-spot island chain
Which national park is home to a large volcanic caldera formed through a very large explosive eruption 640,000 years ago?
Yellowstone
Hot-spot volcanoes
all of the above
-can arise from the ocean floor
-can arise on continents
-may arise in the interior of lithospheric plates
Iceland formed where it is today because of the presence of
the mid-Atlantic ridge and a hot spot
The hot-spot track associated with the Hawaiian islands and emperor Seamounts
shows that the pacific plate has been moving northwest for the last 30 million years
Large-scale volcanic eruptions can cause a drop in global temperatures
true
Geologists who specifically study earthquakes are called
seismologists
Earthquakes are a result of
lithospheric-plate movement
A surface along which rock on opposed sides is offset by earthquake-induced slip is called a
fault
If during an earthquake a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed _______________ if the fault is steep (closer to vertical than horizontal)
reverse
If a fault is nearly vertical in orientation and the two walls of rock on opposite sides slide past one another horizontally, the fault is termed
strike slip
If during an earthquake, a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed ____________ if the fault is shallow (much closer to horizontal than vertical)
thrust
If during an earthquake, a footwall slides upward relative to a hanging wall, the fault is termed
normal
Body waves include
both S- and P- waves
A coiled spring would be useful in illustrating a ___________ wave
surface
Which type of seismic wave has the highest velocity
P-wave
Earthquake waves that pass through the interior of Earth are termed
body waves
Surface waves
produce most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes
The key to finding the location of an earthquake’s epicenter is measuring the
difference between the time that the P- wave arrives and the time that the S- wave arrives at the seismometer station
The point within Earth where an earthquake takes place is termed the
focus
The point on Earth’s surface directly above the point where an Earthquake occurs is termed the
epicenter
How many seismic stations are necessary to find the epicenter of an earthquake?
3
Vertical motion seismographs record earthquakes through the production of a squiggly diagram called a
seismogram
Which earthquake intensity scale assesses the effect of an earthquake on humans and human-made structures?
Mercalli scale
Earthquakes are likely to occur along
All of the above
(convergent, divergent, and transform)
A tsunami is
an earthquake-generated sea wave that can sometimes destroy coastal cities thousands of kilometers from its source
Medium- and deep-focus earthquakes occur along
convergent-plate boundaries only
Sandy substrate is susceptible to ___________ during an earthquake
liquifaction
Normal, reverse, and thrust are all examples of __________ faults
dip-slip
Motion along all faults is either strike slip or dip slip; combinations of these two types of displacement are never found together in a single fault
false
A fold shaped like a right side up bowl is a(n)
syncline
A fold shaped like an upside down bowl is a(n)
anticline
On a geologic map, if the contacts between sedimentary rock units form a bull’s eye pattern of concentric circles, with the youngest unit in the center, the underlying structure is a(n)
basin
On a geologic map, if the contacts between sedimentary rock units form a bull’s eye pattern of concentric circles, with the oldest unit in the center, the underlying structure is a(n)
dome
On what date did Mt St. Helens erupt?
May 18, 1980
The statue-like remains from the people of Pompeii are
casts