Geography 305 Exam Texas A&M University, College Station Midterm 1

three classical categories of geographical description
people, places, and patterns.
Texas is the second largest in area and the most
Most of Texas is accurately called
(Texas is in the transitional zone between sub-tropical and mid-latitude, which contributes to our unique and diverse environments. )
the natural reference point in the middle of the earth is called
prime meridian
Texas is currently __________ behind the Prime Meridian
six hours
Western hemisphere is often called
The “New World” or “Americas”
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“Neo” is used for
Life forms in the Americas or New World
is used for Africa, Europe, Asia
Texas rivers generally drain
eastward or southward towards the Gulf of Mexico and not the Pacific Ocean
Texas can be classified in five ways. Name them.
South, Southwest, Midwest, West, South Central
South Classification of Texas origins:
Part of Confederacy, Plantation economy that entailed slavery and specific race relations.
Southwest Classification of Texas:
Due to college athletic conference that happens in Texas: Southwest Atlantic Conference.Spanish/Mexican history here that caused trilingual components:Anglo, Hispanic, and Indigenous.
Gateway for trade and migration.
Midwest Classification of Texas
It evolved as the western edge or frontier of America.Historically, it was the area between the older settled colonies and the frontier.
South Central Classification of Texas
U.S. Weather Service and Weather Channel put Texas in the South Central category
What is the geographical center of Texas
In Mcculloch County, 3,99,08
The city of Brady is called
“Heart of Texas”
Texas’s eight neighbors
Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas
Area of Texas
691022 square kilometers
Nine border segments
East Panhandle , North Panhandle, West Panhandle, Gulf Coast, Rio Grande, Sabine River, Red River, 32 degrees North Parallel, and 94 degrees 04’W Meridian
Standard method of measuring texas Borders
2482 miles of border
Actual measurement of borders in Texas
3822 miles of border
The Adams Onis treaty defines _____ Of Texas border and its purpose was to solve the ambiguity of borders Lousiana Purchase between ______ and ___________.
4, Spain and the United States
Fort Worth Texas has been called
Texas Most City
In 1990s what happened in Texas
Tourism boomed
Important feature in Fort Worth
Image fort worth tourist
cattle and ranching center
Stockyard has the following things in it:
rodeos, livestock shows, historical exhibits, gift shops, restaurants
Billy bobs neon sign
modern Icon for Texas
Big Texan Motel
Texas Shape pool
72 ounce steak
Texas shaped earrings, texas shaped signs, texas shape on shirts, blah blah blah
earth writing
geographers write about
people, places, and patterns
Geographers describe, explain, and predict about the following
people, places, and patterns
Geography three sub categories
Human or Cultural, Physical, Geo-Spatial Techniques
Human geography sub categories
Specializations in : political, economic, and population
Physical Geography
Geomorphology, hydrology, Climatology, biogeography
Geospatial techniques
Cartography, Remote Sensing,Geographical Information Systems
American Association of Geographers
A collection of places or a sizable area with common characteristics.
Region can be defined by
-single feature
-commonly spoken language
-obvious element of natural landscape
Three types of cultural regions
Formal, functional, and vernacular
Formal region
areas of earth with coherent unifying characteristics
Defined by networks and connections between the parts of region
Perceived by local inhabitants
Perceptual regions based upon peoples attitudes and beliefs of the people in them
All regions have spatial attributes
They can be measured in term of location, area, and borders –
All regions are
Regions have
internal and external components
All regions have a ______ component
dynamic quality, which means all regions change.
What is site?
Site is a local scale that incorporates immediate terrain, natural resources, and human settlement
What is situation?
Situation is the relative location of the place and its position to interact and propser from its connection.
Definition of map
Graphic, representation, and reality
Six components of map
legend, title, scale, date,grid system, direction
Map types:
general purpose, topographic, and thematic
General purpose map
Basic Location and information
Simplified political and physical features
Who uses/creates general purpose maps
commercial and government
Topographic map
Elevation (contour lines)
“earth’s surface”
Thematic map
consist of isopleth, choropleth, and cartogram
Research results
Isopleth branched off from thematic purpose maps:
map continuous data
Utilize lines to to depict some surface value or z value
Examples: temeprature and precipitation
Chloropleth branched form thematic purpose maps
Areal data
Generally use existing boundaries with data collection
A deliberate distortion of data to convey a messahe
How many texans?
25 million
How many counties does Texas have
geographical spread of ideas, innovations, and attitudes through human contact and communication
the spread of ideas, innovation, and attitudes as the actors involved are stationary on the Earth’s surface.
Expansion diffusion
people move on the Earth’s surface.
Relocation diffusion
people will make rationale choices to migrate.
Place Utility theory
Used as a convetional measure of time. It is on the New Mexico side of the Llano Estacado. Found arrowheads called dated 13000 BP.
Clovis, Clovis points
2-way exchange of people, plants/animal, and cultures between Old World and New World since 1492.
Columbian exchange
corn, tomatoes, and chili peppers
Products originated in Americas or New World
Brought cows, pigs, sheep, and pets and wheat, rice, and apples to New World and horses
Thesis for human origins and occupation of the planet states that humans have migrated form Africa in successive waves to Asia and Europe.
” Out of Africa”
Old Worlds diseases much more deadly than New World Counterparts
Old World killed New World because ( Native Americans)
The Old World brought diseases measles and small pox to New World and the indigenous population had no resistance to them. Disease came from domesticating animals in the Old World.
What percent of the indigenous population was wiped out
90 percent
Devasting population decrease of the Native Americans caused social collapse of leadership and knowledge. Led to Native Americans ecological imprint to be drastically reduced.
The consequence of the Population decline of Indians, Africans, and Asians in that time period that led to the blank slate for imposing cultural norms onto the New World
” tableau blanco”
What three communities existed in the Americas when the Native Americans and European settlers made contact:
farming, coastal and plains
Faming communities were present on what side of Texas
What very advanced Indians lived in East Texas
Caddo Indians
What is the origin of the name Texas?
It comes from the Caddo word for ally, Tejas
Coastal Indians occupied from __________ to________ to____
Galveston bay, Corpus Christi Bay and inland Hill Country.
The coastal communities relied on two ways to get food
Coastal fishing and shellfish collecting and hunting/gathering along the fresh water rivers
Indians that farmed, lived in East Texas, and were very advanced
Caddo Indians
Coastal Indian tribes
Coahuiltecan, Tonkawa, and Karankawas
Cohuiltecan resided along
Rio Grande
Tonkawa resided
Karankawas resided
Along coastal bend
Migratory, generally moved southward on the Great Plains, hunted buffalo and other big game
Plains Indians
Plains Indians include
Apache and Jumano
Apache resided
Southern High Plains
Jumano resided
Southwest plains that overlap with current day New Mexico
– Contact and communication between Europeans and Native Americans
-Texas Adjacent to the Federal Indian territory, which later became Oklahoma
-Texas was a migration destination, primarily with tribes that were being relocated from the American Southeast
-The amount of land devoted to Indian reservations is very small when compared to other states.
Native Texas’s 4 important points
A series of civilizations that occupied the sup-tropical land mass of North America, which corresponds to modern-day Mexico and Central America.
Christopher Columbus explored for the
Mexico was the biggest prize for
Spain had a standardized plan for shaping land and the people in Latin America
Central plaza, grid pattern of streets, catholic church sits adjacent to square shaped plaza
Spanish imprint
He explored and claimed the entire Mississippi River Sytem for France
La Salle
On the return voyage to he missed mouth of river and landed in Matagorda Bay and created a colony that died cause it sucked so much. Name of color Fort. St. Louis.
La Salle.
What spurred Spanish to be involved in the coastal areas was the French threat of La Salle. Prior they were not that aggressive.
LED TO SPANISH COLONIZATION of frontier to remove any French borders.
Millitary presence and governance/urban dimensions of cities
Spanish colonization scheme.
Spanish first effort to colonize
Spains dominion over Texas lasted for ___ years.
Three Exceptions to Spanish settlement failure
San Antonio, La Bahia, and Nacogdoches
La Bahia later was turned into
Spanish culture in Texas:
ranching and architecture
Old World animals
plazas and grid patterns
Mexicos independence from Spain
Texas intiaally was conjoined to which state
Mexico dominating texas for 15 years led to
empresarios, settlement/population changes, and governance
began the process of large scale land titles and organized migration
Spanish system for granting an individual or charter to bring settlers
Best known empresario
Stephen F. Austin
Emprearios duty to sucessfully settle a certain number of individuals and families and in exchange they recevive a large amount of land
Empresarios caused _____ cause they controlled who migrated
ethno segregation
By 1830 anglo to mexican ratio was 4:1 and Mexico concerned. Tried to control white migration. But white people still moved illegally.
Mexican municipalities in Texas
Bexar, La Bahia, San Felipe, and Nacodoches
republic of Texas
Declaration of Independence in Washington on the Brazos,March 2
Texas is sovereign from Mexico
official shape of texas
texas joins the union
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
US MEXICO BORDER is the rio grande
COmpromise of 1850
Defined three segments of texas border: North and west panhandle and 32 degrees N border
shared system of meaning that relate to the beliefs, behaviors, and material belonging
A collection of people with shared systems of meaning such as speaking a unique dialect or worshipping together
culture group
manifest Destiny and frontier influence the way we think about resources and foreign policy.
The thirteen colonies are subdivided into three categories
New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern
Anglo Americans primarily came to Texas from these regions of America
Midatlantic and Southern
Texas was a ____________ ________ for European migrants
direct destination
Empresario style migrating allowed some culture of old world immigrants to be preserved
Largest European immigrant group to migrate to Texas was the
Germans migrated to the ____ portion of Texas
Hill Country
______ were the second largest group to migrate to Texas
________ largest place with numnerous missions, a presideio, and a budding commerical town
San Antonio
Soil, water, adn annual termperature were ideal for year round agriculture
English and Spanish are two most spoken languages in Texas
Negotiate our daily needs but construct our identities at various geographical scales
__ first vernacular dialect of English arrives with upper southerners
Hill Southern
Protestant churches are not _____
steeple, double front doors, symmetrical
protestant churches
outwardly SPanish, iconography, crucifix saints
Spanish or Southwest Style
Many geographers associate the study of cultural landscapes with ________ and the Berkeley school of geography.
Carl Sauer
is the study of how people create their own habitats as well as the corresponding patterns and impacts
settlement geography
geographies of the dead and the literal geography of mortality
family burial plot, alignment of body eastward, writing on head side of body, fences curbs, ceremonial main gate,
southern folk cemetary
land goes through sanctification process, family plots, lavishly decorated, fresh flowers, candles, “little angel section”
mexican cemetary
stand out for their ordiliness, efficient use of space, indivudality in terms of tombstone shape, size, and decorations
german cemetary
segregated by ethnicity adnd race, rectangular plots, allow burials from different congregations, mausoleums, no decorations that block lawn mower
modern cemetary
two settlers agree on boundary
metes and bounds
squaer boundaries, different sized lots
irregular rectanges
rectangular shaped but lenght width ratio/10 to 1
long lots,
equal in size and shape
regular rectanlges
log cabins and wooden fences are significant how?
signify cultural origin
generally located in a middle of a city block
county courthouse
shelbyville tennesee
most common type of county courthouse square style