Geography 1-4

T/F: The Earth’s circumference is close to 40,000 kilometers.
true
The perihelion is during the month of ________.
January
In angular measurement, a minute contains ________ seconds.
60
T/F: Our solar system is known as the Milky Way.
false
The shape of Earth’s orbit around the ______ is an ellipse.
Sun
The ________ is a basic unit of distance in the Système International (metric system).
meter
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Earth’s “life zone” in the atmosphere extends from Earth’s surface to an altitude of approximately ________ kilometers.
5
The main component of the lower atmosphere by total volume is ________.
nitrogen
The source of warming in the upper stratosphere is ________.
energy emitted from the breakdown of ozone
A nebula is ________.
a cloud of gas and dust
The shape of Earth’s orbit around the Sun is a(n) ________.
ellipse
In science, a logical, well-tested explanation is called a
theory
Which of the following is NOT a major topic taught in a course of introductory physical geography?
population
The Earth is one of ________ planets in the solar system.
8
The planets in our solar system formed from a cold, rotating disk of gas and dust surrounding the Sun.
true
_______is being added to the atmosphere by vegetation (photosynthesis).
oxygen (O2)
The graticule of the Earth is also known as ________.
latitude and longitude
The word ________comes from the Greek, meaning earth description
geography
Many scientists believe that higher levels of carbon dioxide will cause the lower atmosphere to warm up enough to cause global climatic changes.
true
The “geosphere” is NOT one of the four environmental spheres.
true
Earth is ________.
one of the inner planets
On June 21, the Sun’s rays are directly over the ________.
Tropic of Cancer
In science, the term “theory” is ________.
the highest order of understanding
A globe is a better model of Earth as a whole than any map
true
The characteristics of projections which portray accurate sizes but distort the shapes of land masses is called
equivalence
A(n) _______ is the generic term for any map line which joins points of equal value
isoline
At a scale of 1:10,000, the distance an inch on a map would represent more than a mile on the ground
false
The most important Earth resources satellite series was started int he 1970s and is known as
Landsat
The explanation of symbols used on a map should be contained in
the legend
Which of the following should contain a brief summary of the map’s content or purpose?
the title
A line connecting points with equal precipitation is known as an ______
isohyet
A(n) _______ scale remains correct even if the map is enlarged or reduced when reproduced.
graphic
To represent elevation on maps, cartographers use _______, which are a form of isoline
contour lines
A disadvantage of globes compared to maps is that globes are not
as portable
In the Mercator projection, which place on the Earth is portrayed ridiculously large in comparison to its actual size
Greenland
Conformal maps greatly distort _______ of continents in higher latitudes.
sizes
A geometrically corrected map consisting of aerial photographs is known as a(n) _______ map
orthophoto
The largest scale among the following representative fractions is _______
1:10,000
The relationship between the map distance and the corresponding distance on the ground is known as the ________.
scale
On a Mercator projection, the North Pole would be represented by a line as long as the Equator
true
Maps are inherently inaccurate because of their attempt to depict the curved Earth on a flat surface
true
The smallest scale among the following representative fractions is ________.
1:1,000,000
A geographic information system allows a link between data tables and a(n) ________.
map
A map made to show the distribution of one or more phenomenon is a(n) ________ map.
thematic
Most of the maps drawn on _________ projections are for an optimal portrayal of worldwide distributions
equivalent
The ozone layer is in that portion of the atmosphere known as the ________.
stratosphere
Oceans heat and cool more slowly and to a lesser degree than do land masses.
true
The exosphere marks the outward limit of the ________.
atmosphere
The approximate boundary of the atmosphere extends outward at least ________ kilometers above the surface
10,000
Ozone is destroyed by CFCs because the ________ in the CFCs combines with oxygen
chlorine
On the average, the tropopause is highest above the surface over the ________.
equator
Ozone is actually _______
three-atomed oxygen
The international treaty banning chlorofluorocarbons has been rejected by most nations of the world.
false
The ________ is the layer of the atmosphere where electrified atoms are plentiful
ionosphere
The segment of the atmosphere in which gases maintain an approximately uniform composition is the ________.
homosphere
The atmosphere’s general circulation is one of the key climatic controls.
true
It is thought that the Earth’s climate at present is being changed rapidly by ________
human-caused releases of impurities
Oxygen (O2)is being added to the atmosphere by ________.
vegetation
The vast majority of the mass of Earth’s atmosphere lies within 20 kilometers of sea level.
true
Some particulates absorb the water vapor around them. They are said to be ________.
hygroscopic
The source of heating in the thermosphere is the absorption of ________.
ultraviolet rays from the Sun
Water vapor is nearly absent ________.
in the upper reaches of the atmosphere
The influence on climate of carbon dioxide is mainly due to its ability to absorb ________.
infrared radiation
Which of the following climatic controls can be considered to be the “most important”?
latitude
The difference between weather and climate is that the latter is an accumulation of the former over an extended time period.
true
With the exception of water vapor, ________ is the most plentiful of the variable gases in the atmosphere
carbon dioxide
The RATE of pressure change diminishes with higher altitudes.
true
The order of the atmospheric layers from the surface up into the atmosphere is ________.
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
Mountains act as major climatic barriers with the sheltered or ________ side receiving less moisture than the exposed side.
Leeward
The part of the atmosphere that contains “weather” and supports life ________.
is very shallow
The Kelvin scale is based on ________.
absolute zero
The general circulation of the oceans is a major mechanism for the transfer of energy from the Tropics to the Poles.
true
visible light makes up most parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
false
Most of the radiation hitting the Earth from the Sun falls within the ________ part of the spectrum.
short wave
At which locations are solar energy most concentrated?
at places where the angle of incidence is 90°
Solar energy is also known as ________.
insolation
The reddish tint of the Sun in the late afternoon results from ________.
scattering
The Tropics are characterized by a wide variations between temperatures of seasons.
false
_______ processes cause cooling by decompression.
adiabatic
Although several factors are involved, the main factor controlling the distribution of annual average temperature for Earth as a whole is ________.
latitude
Advection is a(n) ________ wind movement.
horizontal
Albedo is the percentage of energy ________ from an object compared to the original amount of energy that struck the object.
reflected
The only major country still using the Fahrenheit scale for temperature determination is ________
USA
With respect to absorption of solar radiation, it is understood that ________ are the most efficient absorbers.
dark colors
The process of evaporation of water to gas releases stored energy called ________
latent heat
Conduction comes about through molecular collision.
true
Overall, the Southern Hemisphere has a milder winter than the Northern Hemisphere because ________.
there is more water in the Southern Hemisphere
The energy emitted from the Sun is a product of ________.
fusion
Sea level is currently rising because of global warming
true
The longest of all visible light waves are ________.
red
“Work” is scientifically defined as ________.
force acting over area
Earth’s reradiation to space consists mainly of ________.
long rays
On June 21, the Sun’s rays are directly over the ________.
Tropic of Cancer