Geog Ch. 1

geography
the study of spatial patterns and of differences and similarities from one place to another in environment and culture
culture
a total way of life held in common by a group of people including such learned features as speech, ideology, behavior, livelihood, technology, and government; or the local, customary way of doing things- a way of life; an ever changing process in which a group is actively engaged; a dynamic mix of symbols, beliefs, speech, and practices
cultural geography
the study of spatial variations among cultural groups and the spatial functioning of society
physical environment
all aspects of the natural physical surroundings, such as climate, terrain, soils, vegetation, and wildlife
culture region
a geographical unit based on characteristics and functions of culture
formal culture region
a cultural region inhabited by people who have one or more cultural traits in common
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border zones
the areas where different regions meet and sometimes overlap
core-periphery
a concept based on the tendency of both formal and functional culture regions to consist of a core or node, in which defining traits are purest or functions are headquartered, and a periphery that is tributary and displays fewer of the defining traits
functional culture region
a cultural area that functions as a unit politically, socially, or economically
nodes
a central point in a functional culture region where functions are coordinated and directed
vernacular culture region
a cultural region perceived to exist by its inhabitants; based in the collective spatial perception of the population at large; bearing a generally accepted name or nickname
cultural diffusion
the spread of elements of culture from the point of origin over an area
independent invention
a cultural innovation that is developed in two or more locations by individuals or groups working independently
relocation diffusion
the spread of an innovation or other element of culture that occurs with bodily relocation (migration) of the individual or group responsible for the innovation
expansion diffusion
the spread of innovations within an area in snowballing process so that the total number of knowers or users becomes greater and the area of occurrence grows
hierarchical diffusion
a type of expansion diffusion in which innovations spread from one important person to another or from one urban center to another, temporarily bypassing other persons or rural areas
contagious diffusion
a type of expansion diffusion in which cultural innovation spreads by person to person contact, moving wavelike through an area and population without regard to social status
stimulus diffusion
a type of expansion in which a specific trait fails to spread but the underlying idea or concept is accepted
time-distance decay
the decrease in acceptance of a cultural innovation with increasing time and distance from its origin
absorbing barrier
a barrier that completely halts diffusion of innovations and blocks the spread of cultural elements
permeable barrier
a barrier that permits some aspects of an innovation to diffuse through it but weakens and retards continued spread; an innovation can be modified in passing through a permeable barrier
neighborhood effect
microscale diffusion in which acceptance of an innovation is acceptance of an innovation is most rapid in small clusters around an initial adopter
migrations
the large-scale movements of people between different regions of the world
globalization
the binding together of all the lands and peoples of the world into an integrated system driven by capitalistic free markets, in which cultural diffusion is rapid, independent states are weakened and cultural homogenization is encouraged
uneven development
the tendency for industry to develop in a core-periphery pattern, enriching the industrialized countries and impoverishing the less industrialized periphery. the term is also used to describe urban patterns in which suburban areas are enriched while the inner city is impoverished
cultural ecology
broadly defined, the study of the relationships between the physical environment and culture; narrowly (and more commonly) defined, the study of culture as an adaptive system that facilitates human adaptation to nature and environmental change
ecosystem
a territorially bounded system consisting of interaction between organic and inorganic components
cultural adaptation
the adaptation of humans and cultures to the challenges posed by the physical environment
adaptive strategy
the unique way in which each culture uses its particular physical environment; those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life- food, clothing, shelter, and defense
environmental determinism
the belief that cultures are directly or indirectly shpaed by the physical environment
possiblism
a school of thought based on the belief that humans, rather than the physical environment, are the primary active force; that any environment offers a number of culture to develop; and that the choices among these possibilities are guided by cultural heritage
environmental perception
the belief that culture depends more on what people perceive the environment to be than on the actual character of the environment; perception, in turn is colored by the teachings of culture
natural hazards
inherent dangers present in a given habitat, such as flooding, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, or earthquakes; often perceived differently by different peoples
cultural interaction
the relationship of various elements within a culture
space
a term used to connote the objective quantitative, theoretical, model-based, economics-oriented type of geography that seeks to understand spatial systems and networks through application of the principles of social science
model
an abstraction, an imaginary situation, proposed by geographers to simulate laboratory conditions so that they may isolate certain causal forces for detailed study
place
a term used to connote the subjective, idiographic, humanistic, culturally oriented type of geography that seeks to understand the unique character of individual regions and places rejecting the principles of science as flawed and unknowingly biased
topophilia
love of place; used to describe people who exhibit a strong sense of place
cultural landscape
the artificial landscape; the visible human imprint on the land
symbolic landscapes
landscapes that express the values, beliefs, and meanings of a particular culture
settlement forms
the spatial arrangement of buildings, roads, towns, and other features that people construct while inhabitin an area
nucleation
a relatively dense settlement form
dispersed
a type of settlement form in which people live relatively distant from one another
land-division patterns
the spatial patterns of different land uses
architectural style
the exterior and interior designs and layouts of the cultural/physical landscape