Generalist EC – 6 Domain 3: Social Studies REA Study Guide

Social Studies
Umbrella term used to encompass the disciplines of history, geography, civics and government, economics, and psychology.
SS: Kindergarten
– Child as an individual
– Home and families
– State and nation heritage
– Patriotic holidays and the contribution of historical characters
SS: Garde 1 Child’s Relationship to the Classroom, School, and Community
– Past, Present, Future
– Anthems and mottos for US and TX
SS: Grade 2 Local Community
– Significant Individuals and events in History of the community, state, and nation
– Time and chronology by calendar time but days, weeks, months, and years
– Relationship between physical environment and human activities
– Functions of government & services that it provides
SS: Grade 3 How Individuals Change Their Communities and the World
– Past and present hero and contributions
– People who overcame obstacles
– Economic, cultural and scienctific contributions made by individuals
SS: Grade 4 History of Texas
– TX history from beginning to present
– Events and individual of the 19th and 20th centuries
– Human activity and physical features of regions in TX & the Western Hemisphere.
– Native Americans in TX and the Western Hem
– European exploration and colonization
– Types of Native American government
– Characteristics of Spanish and Mexican colonial Governments
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SS: Grade 5 US History
– US history from beginning to present
– Major events & individuals of the late 19th and 20th centuries including inventors and scientist
– Regions of the US that result from physical features and human activity
– Characteristics & benefits of the free enterprise system
– Roots of representative government
– Important ideas in the Dec of Inp
– Meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance
– Fundamental rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights
– Customs & celebrations of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups in the nation
SS: Grade 6 People and Places of the Contemporary World
– People and places of the contemporary world
– Societies from: Europe, Russia, Eurasian republic, North Am, Middle Am, South Am, Southwest Asia-North Africs, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Realm
– Influence of individuals and groups from various cultures on selected historical & contemporary events
– Different ways of organizing economic and governmental systems
Using maps: K – 4th
– Stress that the globe is a small representation
– Show how water and land are represented
– Identify major land and water bodies
– Show the location of the North Pole and how most of the world’s land is located
– Location of the South Pole and how most of the world’s water is located
– The relationship and location of the earth in the solar system
– Use the globe to find continent, the country, the state, and the city where the children live
– Encourage children to explore the globe to find places by themselves
– Compare the size of the continents represented on a globe with their representation of Mercator projection (flat representation)
Using Maps: 5th & 6th
– Create and interpret maps
– Use the maps and globes to pose and answer questions
– Locate major historical & contemporary societies on maps and globes
– Use maps to solve real life problems (using road maps to plane a route)
Data Retrieval Charts
Used to gather and keep track of data gathered from research, observation, or experimentation.
Narrative Charts
Narrative Charts
Used to show events in a sequence.
Pedigree Chart
Pedigree Chart
Shows the origin and development of something.
Organizational Chart
Organizational Chart
Shows the structure of an organization
Flow Chart
Flow Chart
Shows the process involving changes at certain points.
Scaffolding
Used to describe the way in which adults support children in their efforts to communicate in the native language. The same concept can be used to facilitate language and content development for ELLs.
Graphic Organizers
Visuals used to show relationships.
Semantic Web or Tree Diagram
Shows the relationship between main idea & subordinated components.
SQ4R
Survey, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, and Review
Sheltered English
Instructional approach designed to make content comprehensible of ELLs.
Academic Vocabulary
The vocab needed to understand the concepts of school.
Cooperative Learning
1. Present Goals
2. Present Information
3. Organize Students into Learning Teams
4. Assist Teamwork and Study
5. Provide Recognition
STAD
Student Teams Achievement Division
Group Investigation
1. Students select a topic within a general area
2. Divide class into small groups
3. Plan the specific learning procedures, task, and goals
4. Students carry out plan using various sources
5. Students plan how they are going to summarize their information collected. Plan a presentation.
6. Present to the class
7. Peer eval for groups
Think-Pair-Share
Think- Teacher poses a questions and ask students to spend a minute thinking alone about the answer.
Pair- Students pair off and talk about their possible answer and info.
Share- Students share their answers with the whole class.
Numbered Heads Together
Number- Groups of 3 to 5. Each group has a number
Question- Teacher ask a question
Heads Together – Group Dicussion
Answer – Teacher calls a number and the group provides the answer.
World History
1. Ancient World
2. Middle Ages
3. Age of Discovery
4. Revolution and Industry
5. Modern World
Ancient World
4 Million Years Ago to 500 CE
The history of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Sumer, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, the Indus Valley, megalith Europe, ancient China, Ancient America, ancient Greece, the Celts, the Romans, and empires in Africa and India.
The Middle Ages
500 – 1400 ce
Byzantine civilization, the rise of Islam, civilizations of the Americas, the Vikings, the feudal system, the Crusades, Genghis Khan and China, the African Kingdoms, and the Hundreds Year War.
Age of Discovery
1400 – 1700
Renaissance, the development of the Aztec and Inca Civilizations, voyages of discovery from Spain and Portugal, African empires, the Reformation, the Ottoman Empire, and the Ming Dynasty in the slave trade.
Revolution and Industry
1700 – 1900
Russian Empire, the Manchu dynasty in China, the period of Enlightenment in Europe, the growth of Austria and Prussia, the birth of the US, the French Revolution, the British Empire, the American Civil War, and unification of Italy and Germany.
The Modern World
1900 – Present
The struggle for equal rights for women, WW1, the Russian Revolution, the Great Depression, the risk of fascism, revolution of China, WW2, Israel versus Palestine, the Cold War, the space race, the Korean & Vietnam wars, & globalization.
The Industrial Revolution and Modern Technology
Began in England in the mid-18th century. Inventions that made mining of fossil fuels (Charcoal) easier provided the energy needed to expand and promote industrial development. Improvement on the steam engine and industrial machines let to the mass production of goods & a better distribution system. Economic growth motivated people to leave rural areas and move to cities.
Mayans
Mayans
– One of the earliest mesoamerican
– Regions of present day Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, and Honduras
– Religious and building advancement
– Elaborate calendar, system of writing, mathematical concept of zero.
– Astronomy, engineering, and art
Zapotecs, Olmecs, and Toltecs
– 3 of the most sophisticated civilizations in North Mexico
– Olmecs (1200 BCE)
– Used ceremonial calendar
– Stone pyramids
– Religious observations
Aztecs
– Highest degree of development in Mexico
– Centralized government (King and large army)
– Skilled builders and engineers, accomplished astronomers and mathematicians
– 5 million population at the peak of their existence
Incas – Children of the Sun
– Present day regions of Ecuador, Peru, and central Chile
– Well developed political system
– Road system
Inhabitants of the South and Southwest
– Southwestern US and northern Mexico
– Two Groups: Anasazi & Hohokam
– Anasazi developed an adobe architecture consisting of individual apartments, storage areas, and central plaza
– Land workers, highly developed system for irrigation
– written language
– historians believe that they built the cliff dewellings at Mesa Verde, Colorado, during the 14th and 15thcnturies to protect themselves from attacks.
Mound Builders in North America
– Two groups: Woodlands and The Mississippian People
– Great lakes and the Mississippi Area
– Built burial mounds as early as 500 CE
– Mississippian people built flat top mounds as foundations of wooden temples dating from 500 CE
– Disappeared by the 14th century
Pueblo Indians
– Believed to have emerged from the Anasazi
– Able to produce drought resistant corn & squash which was the foundation of their diet.
– Managed to survive the conquest and colonization of the Spanish
Iroquois
– Inhabited the area of Ontario, Canada and Upstate NY for at least 4,500 years before the arrival of Europeans
– Hunted and fished but farming became the main economic activity
– Matrilineal line of descent
– Women did the farming and supported the community
– Developed the Iroquois Confederation to discourage war and to provide defense
Colonization
– 1565, Spaniards establish the first successful European settlement in North Am. San Agustin (FL)
– The English attempted to establish the colony of Roanoke but it eventually disappeared
– The Dutch settled colonies fourth north of present day NY and New Jersey
– The Plymouth Company, the Massachusetts Bay Company, and the London Company were the first to excise the patent for traveling to the New World
The English Colonies
– 13 Colonies
– 3 types of colonies based on the charters: corporate, royal, and proprietary
– 3 geographic regions: the New England Colonies (farming, small industries, lumber, & crafts), The Middle Colonies (farming, fishing, shipping,& trade), and the Southern Colonies (Crops of tobacco, rice, indigo, and cotton)
The New England Colonies
– Massachusetts (1620)
– Connecticut (1636)
– Rhode Island (1636)
– New Hampshire (1623)
The Middle Colonies
– New York (1624)
– New Jersey (1623)
– Delaware(1638)
– Maryland (1633)
– Pennsylvania (1682)
The Southern Colonies
– Virginia (1607)
– North Carolina (1653)
– South Carolina (1663)
– Georgia (1732)
Representative Government in Colonial America
– The Virginia House of Burgesses was the first colonial assembly of elected representatives from the Virginia settlement.
– The Mayflower Compact was drawn & singed by the Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower.
Indentured Servants
-Brought people to the new world
– He or she would sale them themselves for a spot of aboard to the New World. In return they would work aboard the ship and then be sold to someone in the new world.
– Not applied to Africans
The Enlightenment – The Age of Reason
– During the 17th and 18th century
– people began to question religion and governments
– Development of modern chemistry & biology
– Individual freedoms
– Sparked revolutions
American Revolution
– Main reason was because the economy
– England had established the mercantilism system to exploit the colonies on 3 main systems:
1. wealth of the nation is measured in terms of commodities accused, esp gold and silver
2. economic activities can increase the power and control of the national government
3. the colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country
– Another reason for rebellion was the cost of the French and Indian War (7 years war in the US)
– The taxation system that followed the war causing the colonist to react
– Sending troops to Boston causing the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party
Continental Congress
– After the events in Mass., representatives met in Philadelphia to discuss the political and economic situation in the colonies
– Hostilities started, the 2nd Continental Congress met to discuss war
– George Washington was elected commander of the american forces
– Congress named a committee led by Thomas Jefferson to prepare the Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence
– Pronounced the colonies free and independent states
– Consisted of a Preamble (Introduction), followed by 3 main parts
1. the unalienable rights and liberties that belong to all the people from birth
2. specific grievances and injustices committed by Britain
3. Announces the colonies of the US
Revolution
– Began in Concord & Lexington by Mass
– 1775 Paul Revere warned that British troops marched and the minute men faced the army
– At Concord the British were repelled back to Boston. On the way back American sharpshooters killed hundred of soldiers.
– The British lost many at the Battle of Bunker Hill but managed to beat the colonist
– British had another victory in Long Island
– The French joined the war in support of the colonist
– With the help of the French, the colonist were able to defeat the British in Yorktown, Vir in 1781
– The Treaty of Paris in 1783 ended the war and gave birth to the new nation
Articles of Confederation
– Created after the revolution
– Representatives from 13 independent states with limited power
– Could not declare war or raise an army
– They could ask the states for money or for soldiers but it was up to the states to provide
– Each state printed its own money and imposed taxes on imports from other states
– Provide common citizenship
– Organized a uniform system of weights and measurements and postal service
– Responsible for issues with native americans living within the borders
– Ratified by the Constitution in 1789
US Constitution
– Constitutional convention in Philadelphia in 1787
– Attendees included: George Washington, James Madison, Benjamin Franklin, and Alexander Hamilton
– Ratified in 1788
– 1789 George Washington became the first president
– 3 branches of government created
1. executive
2. judicial
3. legislative
– System of Checks and Balances
Monroe Doctrine
In 1823, President Monroe made clear to European countries that the US was not going to permit the establishment of colonies in the Western Hemisphere. Nor was the US going to become involved with European Affairs.
Manifest Destiny
1844, President Polk declared that the US would become a world power and expand to its natural borders.
Slavery in the US
1619, the Dutch brought the first slaves to work on plantations. From 1798 to 1808, more than 200,000 Africans were slaves in the US.
1774, the North began to regulate and eventually prohibit slavery. The south did not agree. Resulting in the American Civil War