General Psychology Chapters 9-14

-an approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment and prior experience as determinants of behavior
Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning
-studied the saliva glands in dogs and eventually discovered that he could condition dogs to salivate at the ring of a bell
-the bell ringing can be the conditioned stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus
-a stimulus that already elicits a certain response without additional learning
Unconditioned Response
-a response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus
-an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Response
-a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; occurs after the conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditional stimulus
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Spontaneous Recovery
-the reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction
-the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus
Higher-Order Conditioning
-a procedure which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus
Stimulus Generalization
-after conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning
Stimulus Discrimination
-the tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli
John B. Watson’s contribution to Classical Conditioning
-teaching to fear
-Watson paired a loud noise with the presence of a white rat for an 11-month-old boy named little Albert
-eventually just the presence of the white rat caused Albert to cry even if there was no noise
-also used counterconditioning to reverse a fear of rabbits in a young boy
B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning
-operant conditioning: a response becomes more likely or less likely to occur based on the consequences
-reinforcement strengthens the likelihood of a response occurring again
-punishment weakens the chances of a response occurring again
-positive reinforcement: increase of intensity of a response
-negative reinforcement: removal or delay of an unpleasant stimulus
Stanley Milgram and the Obedience Study
-the shock study in which the participants were told to shock the learners every time they got a question wrong
Milligram’s survey of Psychiatrists and their opinions compared to actual experiences
-psychiatrists said they expected participants to not go above 150 volts
-however, the participants did and would administer shock if promoted to
Results of Replication Studies of Milgram’s Experiment
-many different people have gone through replications of this study and have all inflicted shock in which they thought it was quite powerful
Stanford Prison Study-methodolgy/design and findings/conclusions
-set up a prison and used college students as guards and prisoners
-within a short time the prisoners and guards were living their roles and prisoners were displaying physical symptoms
-the experiment showed that social situation affects behavior causing some people to behave in ways that seem out of character
Criticisms of the Stanford Prison Study
-guards were encouraged to treat prisoners harshly
-the data reported was said to have been focused on the more dramatic events
-selective sampling was used
Why People Obey
-some follow because of consequences
-others follow because of entrapment
-a process in which individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action in order to justify their investment in it
Social Cognition
-an area in social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory, perception and beliefs
Attribution Theory
-the theory that people are motivated to explain their own and other people’s behavior by attributing causes of that behavior to a situation or disposition
Situational Attribution
-identifying the cause of an action as something in the situation or environment
Dispositional Attribution
-the cause of an action as something in the person such ad a trait or motive
Fundamental Attribution Error
-the tendency in explaining other people’s behavior to overestimate personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation
Cognitive Dissonance
-a state of tension that occurs when a person holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent or when a person’s belief is incongruent with his or her behavior
Familiarity Effect
-the tendency of people to feel more positive toward a person, item, product or other stimulus the more familiar they are with it
Validity Effect
-the tendency of people to believe that a statement is true or valid simply because it has been repeated many times
Solomon Asch and Conformity/Groupthink
-Asch conducted the line experiment
-students were presented with different lengths of lines
-when tested alone people almost always were right, when tested in a group, only 20% got it right and would apologize for not agreeing
-groupthink: the tendency for all members of a group to think alike for the sake of harmony and to suppress disagreement
Mental Disorder
-any behavior or emotional state that causes an individual great suffering, does not go away after a reasonable length of time, is self-destructive, seriously impairs the person’s ability to work or get along with others or causes the person to endanger others or the community
Purpose of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
-provides clear diagnostic categories, so that clinicians and researchers can agree on which disorders they are talking about and then can study and treat those disorders
Four Limitations of the DSM
-over-diagnosis, power of diagnostic labels, confusion of mental disorders with everyday problems & illusion of objectivity
-a mental disorder that is defined as “the urge to escape from slavery”
Projective Tests
-psychological tests used to infer a person’s motives, conflicts, and unconscious dynamics on the basis of the person’s interpretations of ambiguous stimuli
Rorschach Inkblot Test
-cards with symmetrical abstract patterns of ink blots
-the patient is asked to report what they see in the inkblots
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
-a continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry and dread, apprehension, difficulties in concentration and signs of motor tension
Panic Disorder
-an anxiety disorder in which a person experiences reoccurring panic attacks, periods of intense fear and feelings of impending doom or death, accompanies by physiological symptoms such as rapid heart rate and dizziness
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
-an anxiety disorder in which a person who has experiences a traumatic or life-threatening event has long-lasting symptoms such as recurrent intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, nightmares and increased physiological arousal
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
-a disorder in which a person feels trapped in repetitive, persistent thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions)
Major Depression
-a disorder marked by excessive sadness, loss of interest in usual activities, feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness, thoughts of suicide and physical symptoms (such as fatigue and loss of appetite)
Biology and the Development of Mood Disorders
-major depression occurs about twice as often among women as among men
-because women are more likely to discuss this, diagnosing depression in men is probably underreported
Factors Contributing to Depression
-genetic predisposition/neurotransmitter imbalances, childhood violence or neglect, losses of important relationships, cognitive habits
Borderline Personality Disorder
-a disorder characterized by extreme negative emotionality and an inability to regulate emotions; often results in unstable relationships and feelings of emptiness and abandonment
Anti-social Personality Disorder
-a personality disorder characterized by a lifelong pattern of irresponsible antisocial behavior such as lawbreaking, violence and other impulsive, reckless acts and lack of remorse for harms inflicted
Purpose, benefits, drawbacks: Antipsychotic Drugs (neuroleptics)
-purpose: block or reduce the sensitivity of the brain receptors that respond to dopamine
-benefits: reduce agitation, delusions and hallucinations and shorten schizophrenic episodes
-drawbacks: can cause muscle rigidity, hand tremors and other involuntary muscle movements
Purpose, benefits, drawbacks: Antidepressant Drugs
-purpose: treatment of depression
-benefits: boost norepinephrine and serotonin levels
-drawbacks: produce dry mouth, headaches, nausea, etc.
Purpose, benefits, drawbacks: Anti-anxiety Drugs (tranquilizers)
-purpose: to reduce anxiety
-benefits: helps individuals who are temporarily having an anxiety attack
-drawbacks: not considered treatment and only works temporarily
Purpose, benefits, drawbacks: Lithium Carbonate
-purpose: bipolar disorder
-benefits: it is unknown why it helps but the levels must be monitored
-drawbacks: tremors or kidney damage
Cautions about/Limitations of Drug Treatments
-the placebo effect
-high relapse and drop out rates
-disregard for effective non-medical treatments
-unknown risks of prolonged drug use
-untested off label uses
Universal Facial Expressions
-anger, happiness, fear, surprise, disgust, sadness and contempt
Paul Ekman- regarding coding system for facial expressions
-when people try and hide their feelings they typically use different groups of muscles than they do for authentic ones
Facial Feedback
-the process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed
Genetic Influences on Weight and Body Shape
-genes set the set point for body weight
-also influence how much brown fat people have
Set-Point Theory
-the genetically influenced weight range for an individual; it is maintained by biological mechanisms that regulate food intake, fat reserves and metabolism
Bulimia Nervosa
-an eating disorder characterized by episodes of excessive eating followed by forced vomiting or purging
Anorexia Nervosa
-an eating disorder characterized by fear of being fat, a distorted body image, radically reduced consumption of food and emaciation
Body Image Distortions
-not seeing yourself accurately
Self-fulfilling Prophecy
-an expectation that becomes reality because of the tendency of the person holding it to act in ways that bring it about
-a person’s belief that he or she is capable of producing desired results, such as mastering new skills and reaching goals
Work Conditions and Job Satisfaction
-companies that foster good conditions tend to have more satisfied and productive employees