Gen Psych Chpt 14

medical model
That psychologists use the concepts diagnosis, etiology, and prognosis when describing psychological disorders reflects the usefulness of the ____ of abnormal behavior.

a. statistical model
b. medical model
c. scientific model
d. illness model

what is to why
Diagnosis is to etiology as
a. where is to when.
b. when is to where.
c. why is to what.
d. what is to why.
improvements in the treatment of individuals who exhibited abnormal behavior
The rise of the medical model in the study of psychopathology brought about

a. improvements in the treatment of individuals who exhibited abnormal behavior.
b. an increase in the number of asylums for the treatment of the mentally ill.
c. an increase in misconceptions about mental disorders.
d. decreases in the expression of sympathy toward the mentally ill.

diagnosis
Dr. Underhill is reviewing the records from a patient who has just been referred for treatment. He is carefully considering the symptoms that have been documented and is attempting to identify the type of psychological disorder the individual is most likely to have. Dr. Underhill is currently focusing on
a. etiology.
b. prognosis.
c. diagnosis.
d. histology.
a prognosis
Mario has just entered treatment for a major depressive episode. He is told that most patients respond to treatment within a month and many never experience a second depressive episode. This information represents
a. an etiology.
b. a prognosis.
c. a diagnosis.
d. a histology.
deviant
Behavior that does NOT coincide with cultural norms may be considered to be
a. deviant.
b. maladaptive.
c. personally distressing.
d. insane.
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maladaptive behavior
Roger enjoys gambling so much that he does it every day, totally neglecting his family and job. Roger’s behavior satisfies which criterion of abnormality MOST clearly?
a. personal distress
b. deviance
c. persistence
d. maladaptive behavior
maladaptive behavior and personal distress
Frequently, people call a psychologist for assistance after “deciding for themselves” that they need help. People would be MOST likely to use which two of the commonly used criteria for psychological disorders when deciding to seek treatment?
a. personal distress and deviance
b. maladaptive behavior and personal distress
c. cognitive confusion and maladaptive behavior
d. deviance and cognitive confusion
a generalized anxiety disorder
The cartoon character Charlie Brown, with his extreme dread, pessimism, worrying, and brooding, could be diagnosed as having
a. a generalized anxiety disorder.
b. a phobic disorder.
c. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
d. panic disorder.
panic disorder
The anxiety disorder in which an individual experiences numerous emotional attacks characterized by overwhelming terror that occur suddenly and unexpectedly is known as

a. a generalized anxiety disorder.
b. a phobic disorder.
c. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
d. panic disorder.

agoraphobia
Maria is afraid to leave her home to go shopping or even go to work; she avoids all public places. Maria suffers from a disorder known as
a. agoraphobia.
b. brontophobia.
c. simple phobia.
d. claustrophobia.
phobic disorder
Ann is so terrified of fire that she cannot light a match or even enjoy dinner by candlelight. Ann is MOST likely suffering from
a. generalized anxiety disorder.
b. panic disorder.
c. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
d. phobic disorder.
a compulsion
Dave washes his hands at least 50 times per day, even though his hands are rarely dirty. Dave’s behavior is an example of
a. an obsession.
b. a phobia.
c. a compulsion.
d. a delusion.
an obsession
An unwanted thought that repeatedly intrudes upon an individual’s consciousness is called
a. a delusion.
b. an obsession.
c. a compulsion.
d. a hallucination.
posttraumatic stress disorder
An anxiety disorder that typically follows a very painful event and is characterized by a reliving of that event, avoidance of stimuli associated with the event, or numbing of general responsiveness is
a. generalized anxiety disorder.
b. conversion disorder.
c. panic disorder.
d. posttraumatic stress disorder.
an increase in psychosomatic diseases
Which of the following is NOT among the common symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder?
a. an increase in psychosomatic diseases
b. the presence of nightmares and flashbacks
c. an increased sense of vulnerability
d. increased problems with social relations
phobic disorder; generalized anxiety disorder
While a person with ____ experiences anxiety only in certain specific situations, a person with ____ experiences anxiety in a wide variety of situations.

a. phobic disorder; generalized anxiety disorder
b. generalized anxiety disorder; phobic disorder
c. generalized anxiety disorder; panic disorder
d. panic disorder; phobic disorder

the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder
A concordance rate indicates
a. the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder.
b. agreement rates between physicians in diagnosing psychological disorders.
c. the degree to which psychological factors affect physical health.
d. the degree to which biological factors affect psychological adjustment.
there is a moderate genetic predisposition to anxiety disorders
The results of both twin and family studies suggest that for anxiety disorders,
a. there is no evidence for heritability of anxiety.
b. there is a moderate genetic predisposition to anxiety disorders.
c. there is a strong genetic predisposition to anxiety disorder.
d. anxiety disorders do not run in families.
disturbances in the neural circuits using GABA
Recent research into the possibility of a neurochemical basis for anxiety disorders has generated evidence that suggests anxiety disorders may result from

a. disturbances in the neural circuits using norepinephrine.
b. disturbances in the neural circuits using GABA.
c. too much activity in the neural circuits using serotonin.
d. too little activity in the neural circuits using serotonin.

classical; operant
According to Mowrer, phobic responses are acquired through ____ conditioning and maintained through ____ conditioning.
a. classical; operant
b. classical; classical
c. operant; classical
d. operant; operant
dissociative disorders
The class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity, is known as

a. somatoform disorders.
b. psychosomatic disorders.
c. anxiety disorders.
d. dissociative disorders.

dissociative amnesia
A type of dissociative disorder characterized by sudden loss of memory for important personal information that sometimes occurs after a person has endured a traumatic event is
a. dissociative amnesia.
b. dissociative fugue.
c. dissociative identity disorder.
d. dissociative depressive disorder.
dissociative identity disorder
Alexia started a new job on Monday morning. For the first three days, she showed up in bright colors and was outgoing and extroverted. However, on Thursday, she showed up in a dark suit and appeared shy and introverted. She insisted that her name was Clara, and she couldn’t understand why her coworkers kept calling her Alexia. In this example, Alexia is showing symptoms that are consistent with
a. bipolar disorder.
b. dissociative identity disorder.
c. disorganized schizophrenia.
d. antisocial personality disorder.
psychogenic fugue
A woman subjected to horrible abuse from her husband suddenly loses her memory for herself, husband, and place of employment and begins a new life, with a new identity in another state. This is MOST likely a case of

a. hypermnesia.
b. psychogenic fugue.
c. psychogenic amnesia.
d. conversion disorder

a traumatic childhood characterized by physical, emotional, or sexual abuse
MOST cases of dissociative identity disorder have in common a background of

a. extremely overprotective parents.
b. a traumatic childhood characterized by physical, emotional, or sexual abuse.
c. extremely distorted communication patterns in the family.
d. having been reinforced for “crazy” behavior.

a mood disorder
Carol finds she is no longer interested in things she used to do, is sad most of the time, and thinks she is a terrible person. Additionally, she has recently lost a lot of weight and doesn’t sleep very much. Carol’s behavior would be diagnosed as

a. an anxiety disorder.
b. a dissociative disorder.
c. a mood disorder.
d. a personality disorder.

depression; both depression and mania
It is MOST accurate to state that while an individual with a unipolar disorder experiences episodes of ____, a person with a bipolar disorder experiences episodes of ____.
a. mania; depression
b. depression; mania
c. both depression and mania; depression
d. depression; both depression and mania
a manic episode
Cliff has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Currently, he is very optimistic about his life. Even though he is only sleeping three hours a night, he is very energetic. He has turned his basement into a workshop where he plans to mass produce his new “banana computer” that will revolutionize the computer market. Cliff is experiencing

a. an unipolar episode.
b. a bipolar episode.
c. a manic episode.
d. a depressive episode.

has difficulty experiencing pleasure
Kim suffers from anhedonia, which means that she
a. has difficulty experiencing pleasure.
b. has two different psychological disorders.
c. experiences mild manic states.
d. has trouble getting along with people.
impulsive behavior
Which of the following symptoms is NOT associated with a depressive disorder?
a. impulsive behavior
b. altered appetite
c. insomnia
d. feelings of worthlessness
nearly twice as frequently in women as in men
Researchers have found that depression occurs
a. nearly twice as frequently in women as in men.
b. nearly four times as frequently in women as in men.
c. with equal frequency in women and in men.
d. nearly twice as frequently in men as in women.
hallucinations
Which of the following symptoms is NOT associated with someone who has a bipolar disorder?
a. sexually reckless behavior
b. inflated self-esteem
c. decreased need for sleep
d. hallucinations
bipolar disorder
Suicide rates are HIGHEST among people with which of the following specific disorders?
a. depression
b. bipolar disorder
c. generalized anxiety
d. schizophrenia
hippocampus
Correlations between mood disorders and a variety of structural abnormalities in the brain suggest that reduced volume in the ____ is related to depression.
a. amygdala
b. hypothalamus
c. hippocampus
d. thalamus
pessimistic
According to Seligman, people who exhibit a ____ explanatory style are especially vulnerable to depression.
a. pessimistic
b. narcissistic
c. histrionic
d. ruminative
remain depressed longer
According to Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, depressed people who tend to ruminate about their depression
a. remain depressed longer.
b. recover from their depression quicker.
c. attribute their setbacks to their personal flaws instead of situational factors.
d. attribute their setbacks to situational factors and not to their personal flaws.
is stronger for bipolar disorder than for major depressive disorder
Research concerning the etiology of mood disorders suggests that the influence of genetic factors
a. is stronger for bipolar disorder than for major depressive disorder.
b. is stronger for major depressive disorder than for bipolar disorder.
c. is equally strong for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.
d. is not associated with bipolar disorder.
depressive disorders
Inadequate social skills, and therefore a decrease in sources of social support, have been suggested as factors that contribute to the development of
a. anxiety disorders.
b. dissociative disorders.
c. schizophrenic disorders.
d. depressive disorders.
schizophrenic disorders
The class of disorders that are marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior is known as
a. anxiety disorder.
b. personality disorders.
c. schizophrenic disorders.
d. dissociative disorders
hallucinations
A person who perceives stimuli that aren’t there is said to have
a. hallucinations.
b. delusions.
c. obsessions.
d. illusions.
adolescence or early adulthood
Schizophrenic disorders usually emerge during
a. childhood.
b. adolescence or early adulthood.
c. between the ages of 40 and 50.
d. in the age group over 60.
a delusion
Rick believes that his dog is really his sister who was given up for adoption by his mother 30 years ago. Rick’s belief is
a. an illusion.
b. a hallucination.
c. a delusion.
d. a faulty perception.
catatonic
The subtype of schizophrenia marked by a striking impairment of psychomotor activity ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity is known as
a. hebephrenic.
b. disorganized.
c. catatonic.
d. paranoid.
paranoid schizophrenia
Tony believes that he is Thomas Edison and that his neighbors are spies who are trying to steal his inventions. He thinks the neighbors break into his house and search for plans for new inventions when he is not home. Tony’s symptoms are MOST consistent with those seen in
a. paranoid schizophrenia.
b. undifferentiated schizophrenia.
c. catatonic schizophrenia.
d. disorganized schizophrenia.
disorganized schizophrenia
The subtype or category of schizophrenia that is characterized by a severe deterioration of adaptive behavior with symptoms of irrational thought, emotional indifference, and social withdrawal is
a. disorganized schizophrenia.
b. paranoid schizophrenia.
c. catatonic schizophrenia.
d. undifferentiated schizophrenia.
dopamine
Research concerning the etiology of schizophrenic disorders has implicated excessive activity of the neurotransmitter(s)
a. dopamine.
b. GABA.
c. norepinephrine.
d. serotonin and epinephrine.
marijuana
Use of which drug may help precipitate schizophrenia in young people with a genetic vulnerability to the disorder?
a. heroin
b. cocaine
c. barbiturates
d. marijuana
increased myelinization
Brain-imaging studies of people with schizophrenia show all of the following EXCEPT
a. reduced gray matter.
b. reduced white matter.
c. enlarged vertricles.
d. increased myelinization.
excessive speech
All of the following symptoms characterize autistic disorder EXCEPT
a. excessive speech.
b. repetitive body movements.
c. rages and tantrums.
d. self-injurious behavior.
50%
About what proportion of autistic children have subnormal IQ scores?
a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 50%
d. 75%
the data are too ambiguous to draw firm conclusions on the causes of autism
The MOST valid conclusion that can currently be drawn about the etiology of autism is
a. autism is most frequently caused by childhood vaccinations.
b. autism is likely caused by cold, aloof parenting styles.
c. autism is likely caused by early childhood abuse.
d. the data are too ambiguous to draw firm conclusions on the causes of autism.